Psychology Ch. 13

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Senescence

begins once body structures reach maximum capacity and efficiency.

Biological aging

can be modified substantially through interventions.

Which of the following statements about the "wear-and-tear" theory of aging is true?

Regular, moderate-to-vigorous exercise predicts a longer life, which is contrary to the theory.

The __________ theory of aging receives some support from kinship studies indicating that longevity is a
family trait.

genetically programmed

Nora’s grandfather lived to be 87, and her father is still alive at the age of 98. Nora concludes that longevity is inherited and anticipates a very long life. Nora should know that

rather than inheriting longevity directly, people probably inherit risk factors that influence their chances of dying earlier or later.

Dr. Rodin is conducting a study on environmental factors that contribute to telomere length. Dr. Rodin can expect to find that telomere shortening

is accelerated by certain health behaviors and psychological states

__________ can cause telomeres to lengthen.

Telomerase

Telomere shortening predicts

earlier death.

When adults make positive lifestyle changes,

telomerase activity increases.

According to the "random events" theory of biological aging,

DNA in body cells is gradually damaged through spontaneous or externally caused mutations.

Which of the following statements about the "random events" theory of biological aging is true?

Animal studies confirm an increase in DNA breaks and deletions and damage to other cellular material with age.

One hypothesized cause of age-related DNA and cellular abnormalities is the

release of free radicals.

In the chemistry of aging, a free radical is a

naturally occurring, highly reactive chemical that forms in the presence of oxygen.

Free radicals are thought to be involved in

more than 60 disorders of aging.

Animal species with __________life expectancies tend to display __________ free-radical damage to DNA.

longer; slower rates of

According to the cross-linkage theory of aging, bonds between protein fibers in connective tissue can lead to

loss of flexibility in the skin and clogging of arteries.

Cross-linking can be reduced by

regular exercise and a healthy diet.

Jay wants to protect the health of his endocrine system. The safest approach for Jay is

a healthy diet and physical activity.

Decreased vigor of the immune response seems to be

genetically programmed, but intensified by other aging processes.

Scientists have found that __________ best explains the complexities of biological aging.

a combination of theories

During the twenties and thirties, changes in physical appearance and declines in body functioning are

so gradual that most are hardly noticeable.

Which of the following individuals will probably have the most rapid changes in hearing as a result of aging?

Randolph, a Caucasian-American male

Which of the following individuals has a higher risk of hypertension and heart disease?

Vivica, an African-American female

Darlene has heavy deposits of plaque containing cholesterol and fats collected on the walls of her main arteries.
Darlene has

atherosclerosis.

When an adult suffers from atherosclerosis, it typically develops

early in life and progresses during middle adulthood.

__________ may heighten the effects of a high-fat diet.

Sex hormones

Yao is 45 years old. How has the maximum vital capacity of his lungs changed from when he was 25?

It has decreased by about 20 percent.

To study the impact of biological aging on motor skills, researchers focus on

competitive athletes.

Which of the following motor skills will probably peak earliest in life?

speed of limb movement

Which of the following athletes’ skills will probably peak latest in life?

Rolf, a long-distance runner

Ryan is a long-distance swimmer. Ryan can expect his speed to drop off at an accelerating pace when he reaches about age

70.

The immune response is the combined work of specialized cells that neutralize or destroy __________ in the body.

antigens

__________ originate in the bone marrow, mature in the thymus, and attack foreign substances directly.

T cells

__________ secrete antibodies into the bloodstream that multiply, capture foreign substances, and permit the blood system to destroy them.

B cells

The most important cause of the age-related drop in female fertility is

a decline in the number and quality of ova.

In males, semen volume, sperm motility, and percentage of normal sperm decrease gradually after age

35.

Which of the following statements about death rates and causes in the United States is true?

Death rates for all causes in the United States exceed those of other industrialized nations.

Which of the following statements about the relationships among SES, education, and health is true?

Economically advantaged individuals sustain better health over most of their adult lives.

Which of the following statements may explain why SES disparities in health and mortality are larger in the United States than in other industrialized nations?

Low-income and poverty-stricken U.S. families are financially less well-off than families classified in these ways in other countries.

Most Americans eat

because they feel like it or it is time to do so.

Carly, age 24, has a 22 percent greater body weight than she should have, based on her age, sex, and physical build.
Carly is

an obese adult.

Which of the following adults in the most likely to be obese?

Veronica, an African-American

In the United States,

many people show large weight gains between the ages of 25 and 40.

_________ leads the globe in overweight and obesity.

American Samoa

Which of the following statements about the obesity epidemic is true?

Obesity-related medical coverage in government-sponsored health insurance programs for low-income families could help combat the obesity epidemic.

Which of the following statements about the obesity epidemic is true?

Obesity-related medical coverage in government-sponsored health insurance programs for low-income families could help combat the obesity epidemic.

Nadine, an average-weight adult, gained a small amount of weight between the ages of 25 and 50. Nadine should
know that

this is a normal part of aging, resulting from a drop in basal metabolic rate.

Trena is an overweight adult. Compared with her normal-weight agemates, Trena is

less likely to receive financial aid for college.

Marleen, an obese adult, lost 20 pounds over the course of a year. Within the next two years, she is most likely to

gain back 20 or more pounds.

Family and friends can help a dieter by

offering encouragement and helping foster the dieter’s self-esteem and self-efficacy.

Weight-loss maintainers are more likely than individuals who relapse to

use social support and to keep a record of their weight.

Which of the following statements about diets and dieters is true?

About one-third of Americans on weight-reduction diets are within their normal weight range.

Which of the following diets meets the U.S. national dietary recommendations?

Fat is 30 percent of total caloric intake, with 7 percent made up of saturated fat.

__________ fat generally comes from meat and dairy products and is solid at room temperature.

Saturated

The main reason for limiting saturated fats is that they are strongly connected with

cardiovascular disease.

When it comes to dietary fat, the best suggestion is

to eat less fat of all kinds.

Which of the following statements about Americans and exercise is true?

Over half of Americans are inactive, with no regular brief sessions of even light activity.

Regular physical activity is linked to

reduced incidence of cancer.

Which of the following statements about exercise is true?

It produces high-density lipoproteins that help remove LDLs.

Physical activity

reduces anxiety and depression.

The most commonly abused substances in the United States are

cigarettes and alcohol.

Which of the following individuals is the most likely to be a smoker?

Troy, a high school dropout

The earlier people start smoking, the

greater their cigarette consumption.

__________ is the single most important preventable cause of death in industrialized nations.

Cigarette smoking

Which of the following statements about alcoholism is true?

Alcoholism crosses SES and ethnic lines but is higher in some groups than others.

Alcoholism is a more common problem in cultures where alcohol is

a carefully controlled sign of adulthood.

Which of the following statements about alcohol use in adulthood is true?

About half of police activities in large cities involve alcohol-related offenses.

Philip, Bob, Bill, and Walter recently joined Alcoholics Anonymous. Which of the following is probably true?

Two of them will relapse within a few months.

At the end of high school, about 65 percent of U.S. young people have had sexual intercourse; by age 25, __________ have done so.

nearly all

Sexual partners, whether dating, cohabiting, or married, tend to be

similar in age and education.

After meeting through friends, the most common way to meet a partner is

on the Internet.

Contemporary men and women

differ little in average number of lifetime sexual partners.

When adults of any age are asked how many sexual partners they have had in the past year, the usual reply is

one.

Which of the following statements about the sex lives of American adults is true?

As number of sex partners increases, satisfaction declines sharply.

Researchers have found that satisfying sex generally involves

an emotionally fulfilling relationship.

__________ million U.S. adults identify as lesbian, gay, or bisexual.

More than 8

Which of the following statements about research on homosexuality is true?

There is limited information about the sex lives of homosexuals because many people who are gay do not report themselves as such in surveys.

Homosexuals tend to live in

college towns.

Michele openly lives her life as a lesbian. Statistics indicate that Michele

probably has a college degree.

In the United States, one in every _____ individuals is likely to contract a sexually transmitted disease at some point in life.

four

The overall rate of STDs is higher among women than men because

it is at least twice as easy for a man to infect a woman with any STD than for a woman to infect a man.

The majority of rape victims are __________, and the abusers are __________.

under age 30; men they know well

Which of the following statements about sexual coercion is true?

People of all SES and ethnic groups are offenders and victims.

Which of the following statements about sexual coercion is true?

Male victims often report that women perpetrators threatened to end a relationship unless the victim complied.

Which of the following statements about rape prevention and treatment is true?

Practically no services are available for victimized men, who are often too embarrassed to come forward.

Ingredients of effective rape intervention include

teaching social skills and social awareness.

Which of the following statements about the impact or prevention of sexual coercion is true?

In some U.S. states, a woman legally cannot rape a man.

Compared with __________ adults, __________ adults show a stronger cardiovascular response to stress.

higher-SES; low-SES

A strong cardiovascular response, interference with immune system functioning, and reduced digestive activity are all symptoms of

psychological stress.

__________ adults report more depressive feelings than __________ adults.

Young; middle-aged

_________ adults are better than __________ adults at coping with stress.

Middle-aged; young

Which of the following statements about cognitive development in early adulthood is true?

The cognitive changes of early adulthood are supported by further development of the cerebral cortex, especially the prefrontal cortex.

According to some researchers, cognitive development continues beyond Piaget’s formal operational stage to the __________ level.

postformal thought

Bryson and his co-workers are developing a new sales strategy. When Bryson’s conclusions differ radically from the rest of the team, he considers the justifiability of his conclusions and revises them slightly. Bryson is engaged in

epistemic cognition.

Xavier believes everything his college professor says because she is in a respected position. Xavier accepts what the professor says because he believes that knowledge is certain and the professor has that knowledge. Xavier is engaged in

dualistic thinking.

In college, Edward comes to the realization that his own beliefs are often subjective. He notes that his roommate, who holds vastly different beliefs from his own, has his own "truth." Edward is engaged in

relativistic thinking.

Karen considers two theories she studied in her college philosophy course. She determines that neither theory is entirely accurate, and she tries to formulate a more satisfying perspective that synthesizes contradictions. Karen is engaged in

commitment within relativistic thinking.

Which of the following adults is the most likely to engage in commitment within relativism?

Nadia, a 30-year-old college professor

With the birth of Brenda’s first child, she felt more fulfilled than ever before. However, she also acknowledged feelings of concern and fear over being able to meet all of her parental responsibilities while maintaining personal happiness and satisfaction. Brenda’s thinking reflects

cognitive-affective complexity.

For young adults, __________ is supported by the specialization that begins with selecting a college major or an occupation.

expertise

Which of the following statements about creativity in adulthood is true?

Creativity is a function of "career age," not chronological age.

Jim is a musician, Joy is an artist, and Danielle is a scientist. Which of the following statements is probably true?

Danielle’s creativity will peak later than that of the other two.

Creative individuals are

willing to try again after failure.

From the freshman to the senior year of college, most students

become better at reflecting on the quality of their thinking.

Which of the following statements about the psychological impact of attending college is true?

The type of four-year institution attended makes little difference in psychological outcomes or even in ultimate career success and earnings.

Which student is most at risk for dropping out of college?

a freshman at a school with open enrollment

Colleges that __________ have a higher percentage of dropouts.

do little to help high-risk students

Which of the following college freshmen is the most likely to graduate?

Elyssa, who feels that her college community is concerned about her as an individual

Eight-year-old Marcie is involved in community theater. She fantasizes about starring in a Broadway musical. Marcie’s desire to be an actress

will probably bear little relation to the vocational decisions that she will eventually make.

When asked about her future vocational choice, 14-year-old Grace says, "I’m good at math and I like solving problems. But I like helping people. So maybe teaching math or working as an engineer would be good." Grace is in the __________ period of vocational development.

tentative

During the realistic period of vocational development, the first step is often __________ and the final phase is __________.

exploration; crystallization

Max enjoys working with ideas; Madison is emotional and has a high need for individual expression. According to Holland’s six personality types, Max is __________ and Madison is __________.

investigative; artistic

According to Holland, the __________ person prefers working with objects and tends to choose a mechanical occupation.

realistic

Alan likes well-structured tasks and values material possessions. Alecia prefers working with people. According to Holland’s six personality types, Alan is __________ and Alecia is __________.

conventional; social

Young people’s vocational aspirations correlate strongly with their

parents’ jobs.

__________ predicts confidence in career choice and career attainment beyond SES.

Parental guidance

Which of the following statements about gender stereotypes in vocational choice is true?

One explanation for women’s attraction to male-dominated careers is a change in gender-role attitudes.

Which of the following women is the most likely to thrive in a nontraditional career?

Raelynne, whose three aunts have successfully dealt with family-career role conflict

Compared to their traditional-career counterparts, men who enter traditionally female-dominated careers

are more interested in working with people.

Which of the following statements about men who choose nontraditional careers is true?

They usually report feeling socially accepted while in training and on the job.

Paul is a male librarian. Which of the following individuals is the most likely to be critical of Paul’s career choice?

Paul’s male friends in traditional careers

Approximately __________ of U.S. young people with a high school diploma have no current plans to go to college.

one-third

Troy is an American high school graduate who chose not to go on to college. He is likely to

be working in a low-paid, unskilled job.

American employers regard recent high school graduates as

unprepared for skilled business and industrial occupations and manual trades.

A major obstacle to the implementation of an apprenticeship program that even Germany has not overcome is

preventing low-SES youths from being concentrated in the lowest-skilled apprenticeship placements.

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