Psychology Ch. 11

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G. Stanley Hall described adolescence as a

period so turbulent that it resembles the era in which humans evolved from savages into civilized beings.

Contemporary research suggests that the storm-and-stress notion of adolescence is

exaggerated.

According to anthropologist Margaret Mead, __________ is/are entirely responsible for the range of teenage experiences

the social environment

Most researchers today believe that adolescent development is

influenced by biological, psychological, and social forces.

In most tribal and village societies,

adolescence is only a brief intervening phase between childhood and full assumption of adult roles.

On average, girls reach puberty __________ boys.

two years earlier than

Fourteen-year-old Phil experiences muscle growth and notices the growth of body and facial hair. Which of the following hormones is responsible for this change?

testosterone

The first outward sign of puberty is

the rapid gain in height and weight known as the growth spurt.

During puberty,

the cephalocaudal growth trend of infancy and childhood reverses.

Which of the following statements about physical skill in midadolescence is true?

Few girls perform as well as the average boy.

Brian is a star high school athlete, who has recently exhibited severe mood swings and aggressiveness. An initial health screening also indicates that Brian has acne, excess body hair, and high blood pressure. Brian’s symptoms are consistent with

anabolic steroid use.

In 1972, the U.S. federal government required schools receiving public funds to provide

equal opportunities for males and females in all educational programs.

According to a recent survey of all 50 U.S. state high school athletic associations, ______ percent of sports participants are boys.

69

Which of the following is a secondary sexual characteristic?

pubic hair

Female puberty usually begins with

the budding of the breasts and the growth spurt.

Male puberty usually begins with

the enlargement of the testes.

For boys, voice change usually takes place

at the peak of the growth spurt.

Mary and Ashley are identical twins. Abbie and Chandra are fraternal twins. Which of the following is likely to be true about the timing of puberty?

Mary and Ashley will reach menarche within a month or two of each other.

Girls with a history of family conflict tend to reach puberty __________, whereas those with warm, stable family ties tend to reach puberty __________.

early; relatively late

Threats to __________ health accelerate puberty, whereas threats to __________ health delay it.

emotional; physical

In the United States and a few European countries, __________ are responsible for a modest, continuing trend toward earlier menarche.

soaring rates of overweight and obesity

During puberty, neurons become more responsive to excitatory neurotransmitters. As a result, adolescents

react more strongly to stressful events and experience pleasurable stimuli more intensely.

Adolescents need about _____ hours of sleep each night.

9

Sleep-deprived adolecents

are more likely to suffer from anxiety and depression.

Some evidence suggests that __________-American families may better prepare girls for menarche, treat it as an important milestone, and express less conflict over girls reaching sexual maturity.

African

Which of the following statements about sex differences in adolescents’ reactions to pubertal changes is true?

Overall, boys get much less social support than girls for the physical changes of puberty.

Initiation ceremonies in industrialized nations, such as the Jewish bar or bat mitzvah and the quinceañera in Hispanic communities, have less effect on the timing of puberty than initiation ceremonies in tribal and village societies because they

usually do not mark a significant change in social status in larger society.

Western adolescents are granted partial adult status upon the happening of many different events, including

voting.

Which of the following statements about adolescent moodiness is true?

Younger adolescents’ mood swings are strongly related to situational changes.

Which of the following teens is likely to have the most stable moods?

19-year-old Jesse

__________ is a modern substitute for the actual physical departure of young people from the family group that takes place in industrialized nations.

Psychological distancing

Ann is having more frequent disagreements with her teenage daughter. If they argue over typical parent-adolescent issues, these disagreements are most likely

about everyday matters, such as driving, dating partners, and curfew.

Jason, a late-maturing boy, is

likely to be viewed by both peers and adults as anxious.

Randy is viewed by both adults and peers as relaxed, independent, and self-confident. Maria is viewed by both groups as physically attractive, lively, and sociable. Which of the following is likely to be true?

Randy is an early-maturing boy, and Maria is a late-maturing girl.

Which of the following statements about the role of physical attractiveness and the timing of puberty in Western society is true?

The ideal male image is a muscular shape that favors the early developer.

Adolescents feel most comfortable with peers who

match their own level of biological maturity.

Follow-ups reveal that __________-maturing __________, especially, are prone to lasting difficulties.

early; girls

The most common nutritional problem of adolescence is __________ deficiency.

iron

Frequency of __________ is strongly associated with healthy eating in adolescents.

family meals

Anorexia nervosa is

a tragic eating disorder in which young people starve themselves because of a compulsive fear of getting fat.

About _____ percent of North American and Western European teenage girls are affected by anorexia nervosa.

1

Boys account for about __________ percent of cases of anorexia.

10 to 15

Which of the following parent-child relationships is the most common among anorexic teenagers?

overprotective and controlling mothers and emotionally distant fathers

Which of the following statements about individuals with anorexia nervosa is true?

They typically deny or minimize the seriousness of their disorder.

The most successful treatment for anorexia usually involves

family therapy and medication to reduce anxiety and neurotransmitter imbalances.

Carlie engages in strict dieting and excessive exercise accompanied by binge eating, often followed by deliberate vomiting and purging with laxatives. Carlie suffers from

bulimia nervosa.

Which of the following statements about individuals with bulimia nervosa is true?

They usually feel depressed and guilty about their abnormal eating habits and desperately want help.

Bulimia is usually treated by

training in changing eating habits.

Compared to other cultures, North American adolescents have

relatively restrictive sexual attitudes.

About _____ percent of young people report getting information from parents about intercourse, pregnancy prevention, and sexually transmitted disease.

50

Which of the following statements about the sexual behavior of U.S. adolescents is true?

Boys tend to have their first intercourse earlier than girls.

Nearly _____ percent of adolescents in the United States and other Western countries report having had sexual intercourse.

50

Early sexual activity is more common among young people from

economically disadvantaged homes

Research shows that many adolescents do not use contraception during sexual activity because they

fail to apply their reasoning skills to everyday situations.

Many gay men and lesbians first sensed their biologically determined sexual orientation between ages __________, when they discovered __________.

6 and 12; their play interests were more like those of the other gender

Which of the following three-phase sequences do many homosexual adolescents and adults move through in coming out to themselves and others?

feeling different, confusion, and self-acceptance

Studies show that __________ makes an important contribution to homosexuality.

heredity

Research indicates that __________ may predispose males to become homosexual.

a gene or group of genes on the X chromosome

Girls __________ are more likely to become lesbian or bisexual.

exposed prenatally to very high levels of androgens or estrogens

Which of the following statements about homosexuality is true?

Attraction to members of the same sex is not limited to teens who identify as lesbian, gay, or bisexual.

In the United States, 1 out of _____ sexually active teenagers contracts a sexually transmitted disease each year.

5

Mark is from Texas, and Daryl is from Alberta, Canada. Which of the following statements about the likelihood of each sexually active teen contracting AIDS or another STD is true?

Mark is more likely than Daryl to contract AIDS or another STD.

Which of the following statements about the spread of STDs, including AIDS, is true?

It is at least twice as easy for a male to infect a female, as for a female to infect a male.

Studies show that most adolescents are aware of basic facts about AIDS but

are poorly informed about how to protect themselves against other STDs.

Teenage pregnancies are a far greater problem today than several decades ago because

adolescents are far less likely to marry before childbirth, increasing the negative consequences for both mother and baby.

Which of the following statements about adolescent mothers is true?

Very few give up their infants for adoption.

Compared with adult mothers, adolescent mothers

more often engage in child abuse.

Which of the following statements about intergenerational continuity in adolescent parenthood is true?

Intergenerational continuity in adolescent parenthood is far greater when teenage mothers remain unmarried.

Which of the following statements about most basic sex education programs is true?

They last only a few sessions and provide basic facts about anatomy and reproduction to teenagers who are already sexually active.

In Canada and Western Europe, where community- and school-based clinics offer adolescents contraceptives and where universal health insurance helps pay for them, __________ than in the United States.

pregnancy, childbirth, and abortion rates are much lower

Which of the following substances do American adolescents experiment with most during high school?

alcohol

By the end of high school, _____ percent of U.S. young people have tried at least one highly addictive and toxic substance.

25

Minimal drug experimenters are

usually psychologically healthy, sociable, curious young people.

Toby lives in the United States. Gerri lives in Europe. Based on research on adolescent drug use, which of the following can you infer?

Toby is less likely to use tobacco and alcohol than Gerri.

Adolescent drug experimentation

should not be taken lightly because a single heavy dose can lead to permanent injury or death

Adolescents who reach the formal operational stage of cognitive development

no longer require concrete things and events as objects of thought.

According to Piaget, around age 11, young people enter the formal operational stage of development, in which they

are able to come up with new, general logical rules through internal reflection.

Kia, age 14, uses hypothetico-deductive reasoning. Therefore, she probably

makes predictions about variables that might affect an outcome and then deduces logical, testable inferences from that hypothesis.

Which of the following statements about a school-age child’s ability to use hypothetico-deductive reasoning is true?

She can understand that hypotheses must be confirmed by appropriate evidence.

Seven-year-old Adea is asked to evaluate evidence about a hypothesis. She will probably

deal with only one or two possible variables and be unable to deal with three or more.

Maddy, age 7, is presented with the following statement: If rats are bigger than cats and cats are bigger than mice, then rats are bigger than mice. She will probably judge such reasoning to be

false because not all relations specified occur in real life.

With respect to propositional thought, young children have great difficulty reasoning from premises that contradict reality or their own beliefs because they

fail to grasp the logical necessity of propositional reasoning.

When faced with a propositional reasoning problem, 17-year-old Max is likely to

justify his reasoning by explaining the logical rules on which it is based.

Which of the following college students is the most likely to show improvements in propositional thought?

Cali, who took a science course

Which of the following individuals is the most likely to master formal operational tasks?

Geni, an American high school student

In adolescence, the speed of thinking and processing capacity increase. As a result,

more information can be held at once in working memory and combined into increasingly complex, efficient representations.

The ability to distinguish theory from evidence and use logical rules to examine their relationship

improves steadily from childhood into adolescence.

88) Researchers believe that sophisticated __________ is vital for scientific reasoning.

metacognitive understanding

Adolescents develop scientific reasoning skills

B) in a step-by-step fashion on different types of tasks.

Mr. Peabody is frustrated with his daughter’s exaggerated sense of her personal uniqueness. One way he could deal with this is to

acknowledge her unique characteristics, but also point out how he felt similarly as a teenager to encourage the development of a more balanced perspective.

Mrs. Frishman is concerned because her teenage son has become increasingly critical of others, while maintaining a high sense of idealism for the world at large. Mrs. Frishman could

respond patiently to his remarks and point out positive features of his targets to help him see that the world is made up of blends of virtues and imperfections.

The imaginary audience is adolescents’ belief that they are

the focus of everyone else’s attention and concern.

The imaginary audience is most likely responsible for adolescents’

extreme self-consciousness and sensitivity to public criticism.

Certain that others are observing and thinking about them, teenagers develop an inflated sense of their own importance known as

the personal fable.

Jonathan views himself as reaching great heights of omnipotence and also sinking to unusual depths of despair. Which of the following cognitive distortions contribute to Jonathan’s views?

the personal fable

Fifteen-year-old Mary has become critical of her parents and siblings, yet envisions a world with no injustice or discrimination. This is typical of the __________ that manifests during the development of abstract reasoning.

idealism

Compared with adults making decisions, teenagers

perform less well because they must inhibit emotion and impulses in favor of thinking rationally.

In making decisions, teenagers, more often than adults,

fall back on well-learned intuitive judgments.

99) Differences in __________ skills are believed to be major contributions to a widening gender gap in college enrollments.

literacy

With regard to verbal abilities, girls have a biological advantage in earlier development of

the left hemisphere of the cerebral cortex.

The gender gap favoring males in mathematical reasoning is large for

mental rotation tasks.

Which of the following statements about sex differences in spatial abilities is true?

Sex differences in spatial abilities emerge as early as the first few months of life.

Research suggests that __________ cause(s) girls to do worse than their abilities allow on difficult math problems.

stereotype threat

Research on mathematical abilities in adolescence shows that

American boys and girls reach advanced levels of high school math study in equal proportions.

Which of the following statements about sex differences in computer use is true?

Girls typically focus on information gathering and social networking.

Which of the following statements regarding students’ ratings of their elementary, middle-, and high school learning experiences is true?

Students report that their middle- and high school teachers care less about them and are less friendly than their elementary school teachers.

Which of the following statements about school transitions is true?

C) Adolescents facing added strains at school transitions are at greatest risk for self-esteem and academic difficulties.

Central Middle School has a large student body. Staff can minimize the effects of school transitions by

forming smaller units within the school.

Which of the following high schools is the most likely to help its students adjust to the school transition?

East High, which provides homerooms for students

__________ parenting is linked to higher grades in school among adolescents varying widely in SES.

Authoritative

Adolescents whose parents engage in __________ decision making achieve better academically.

joint

High-achieving students typically have parents who

keep tabs on their child’s progress.

A survey of a nationally representative sample of U.S. 8- to 18-year-olds found that their most frequent type of media multitasking is

listening to music.

In a study involving weather predictions, media multitaskers

activated subcortical areas involved in implicit memory.

Which of the following high school students is most likely to show accelerated academic progress?

Juan, who is assigned to a college preparatory track

Which of the following statements about part-time work during high school is true?

The more hours students work, the more likely they are to drop out of school.

The high school dropout rate in the United States is about _____ percent.

12

The dropout rate in the United States is higher among __________ than __________ and is particularly high among __________.

boys; girls; lower-SES ethnic minorities

Which of the following statements about dropping out of high school is true?

Risk factors in first grade predict dropout nearly as well as risk factors in secondary school.

Students placed in general education and vocational tracks

are three times as likely to drop out of high school as those in a college preparatory track.

Which of the following is most helpful in keeping potential dropouts in school?

remedial instruction in small classes

To work well, vocational education must

carefully integrate academic and job-related instruction.

The most powerful influence on extracurricular involvement is

small school size.

Today, the percentage of U.S. young people completing high school by age 24 is just over _____ percent.

90

The good news about American high school dropouts is that about one-third of them

return to finish their secondary education within a few years.

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