Psychology ch. 1 & 2

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Which of the following is associated with the formal beginningof psychology?

Leipzig, Germany

Gesault psychology may be seen as a reaction to the ___________ perspective.

structuralist

At the heart of the humanistic perspective is the concept of

free will

Dr. Chen studies how people grow and change during late adolescence and young adulthood; Dr. Doherty focuses on several traits that distinguish one person from another. Dr. Chen is a ____________ psychologist; Dr. Doherty is a ____________.

developmental psychologist; personality psychologist

Irving has noticed the followingpattern: the more alcohol people drink, the more aggressive they seem to be. Which research method is aimed at verifying a relationship between two variables?

correlation research

A placeebo is a

false experimental treatment

Which of the following individuals is LEAST likely to be a psychologist?

Everett, who has an MD degree

At a DUI checkpoint, some cars are stopped at random, while many others are not stopped. Using the terminology of psychological research, the cars that are stopped may be considered a ______ off all the cars that pass by the checkpoint.

sample

Noreen asserts that our behavior often reflects unconscious motives and conflicts. This viewpoint is most consistent with the ____ perspective in psychology.

psychodynamic

Dr. Greenway argues that psychology should focus on observable, measurable behavior. Dr. Cech suggests that psychology should study how people think about and understand the world. Which option below correctly identifies their respective perspectives?

Dr. Greenway- behavioral perspective; Dr. Cech- cognitive perspective

DeAndre is recording instances of physical aggression among children in a schoolyard at recess. DeAndre is undertaking

naturalistic observation

Lassandra takes a sip of cola. "Sweet… cold, wet, tingly…slightly bitter," she reports. :Assandra is

introspecting

Which of the following coefficients represents the strongest relationship between two variables?

-.75

The correlation coefficient ranges from ______ to __

-1.00 to 1.00

Dr. Gigliotti is conducting a detailed examination of a patient with dissociative identity disorder. Dr. Gigliotti is conducting a

a case study

A group of researchers examined the influence of the number of bystanders on the liklihood that an individual would help someone in distress. Their investigation exemplifies the subfield of _____ psychology in contemporary psychology.

social

Which perspective below is CORRECTLY matched with its description?

Gestalt psychology- emphasized the organization of perception and thinking in a "whole" sense

In an experiment, the _____ variable is deliberately manipulated by the researcher

indepedent

Which of the following is NOT a component of informed consent?

a detailed explanation of the study and its procedures

Which of the following is NOT one of the goals of psychology?

research

In an experiment, the _____ variable is measured by the researcher.

dependent

The approach psychologists use to acquire information about behavior in a systematic fashion is called

the scientific method

Evolutionary psychologists are especially interested in

the genetic basis of personality traits and social behavior

Penny is a recovering drug addict. Her treatment program emphasizes the influence of her environment, including people, places, things, on her use of her drug choice. Her program reflects the _________ perspective in psychology.

behavioral

Which of the following guidelines is NOT among those that researchers are required to follow when they use animals as research subjects?

they must follow all of the above guidelines

At Folger U. Drs. Chase and Sanborn are conducting an experiment on the effects of caffeine on memory. Participants are randomly assigned to a CAFFEINE or a NO CAFFEINE group; their recall of items on a word list is later assessed. In this experiment, word recall is the _____ variable.

dependent

Dr. O’Connor is telling his participants before he begins the experiment that their participation is completely voluntary and that they can stop taking part at any time. Dr. O’Connor is

obtaining informed content

Regaurding theories, which of the following statements are TRUE?

Both of these

Between which pair of values is one most likely to find a positive correlation?

GPA and amount of studying

A behavior, event, or other characteristic that can take on different values is termed a(n):

variable

Which of the following sequences best reflects the order of events in a typical experimental session?

informed consent experimental debriefing

Which of the following is a descriptive research technique?

all of these

Fiona helps students with ADHD develop effective study regimens and strategies. Fiona is probably a ___________ psychologist

counseling

A ________ correlation results when there is no relationship between two variables

zero

At Folger U., Drs. Chase and Sanborn are conduction an experiment on the effects of caffeine on memory. Participants are randomly assigned to a CAFFEINE or NO CAFFEINE group and their recall of items on a word list is later assessed. Which pair correctly identifies a variable in this experiment?

caffeine-independent variable

Which of the following psychologists is/are associated with the behavioral perspective?

Both A and B

According to your textbook, Psychology is defined as

the science of behavior and mental processes

Dr. Carruthers is using crime statistics available in a federal database as part of a study. Dr. Carruthers is conducting

archival research

Psychologists that follow the _________ perspective are probably the LEAST likely to emphasize a "nature" explanation for behavior in the nature vs. nurture issue

behaviorist

Which contemporary perspective is correctly matched with its description?

behavioral perspective- emphasizes observable behavior and abjectivity.

The brain and the spinal cord consitute the _________ nervous system

central

Kate has suffered right hemisphere damage. Which of the following processes is LEAST likely to be affected?

balancing her checkbook

Trevor is scratching his head, trying desperately to solve a verbal analogy as part of a standardized entrance examination. Meanwhile Sienna is giving an oral presentation in a political science class. Of the brain’s hemispheres, Trevor’s _______ hemisphere is most active; Sienna’s ________ hemisphere is most active.

left; left

In a rollerblading mishap, Wendy fell down and injured the very back of her head. Which of her senses is most likely impaired?

vision

How are hormones simular to neurotransmitters?

both are chemical messengers

Which of the following structures is NOT part of the brain’s central core?

hippocampus

Ultimately extending from the medulla into the forebrain, the ________ functions to increase or decrease the brain’s arousal in response to the external situation.

reticular formation

The endocrine system is linked to the ________ in the brain via the _______ gland

hypothalamus; pituitary

The thalamus may be linked to a(n)

relay station

The limbic system contains each of the following EXCEPT the

medulla

Your text suggests that new brain cells may be created even during adulthood. Which of the following statements is the most likely response by the average person to this idea?

it surprises me-I didn’t think new neurons and synapses could form during adulthood.

Somatic is to autonomic as _________ is to __________.

voluntary; involuntary

With respect to the basis of thought and behavior, your text suggests that

Both A and B

Dendrite is to axon as _______ is to _______.

recieving; sending

For what purpose are PET scans and MRI used?

observing images of the brain

How are hormones different from neurotransmitters?

Hormones are carried in the bloodstream

As an action potential occurs, the neuron’s electrical charge

changes from negative to positive

Izzy was startled by the sound of a loud explosion. Her heart is pounding and her breathing is shallow and rapid. Her ________ nervous system is active.

sympathetic

Which limbic system structure is INCORRECTLY matched with the potential effects of damage to the structure?

Niether A or B is incorrectly matched

Which of the following is NOT one of the functions of glial cells?

They communicate messages within the nervous system

Which area is largely responsible for voluntary body movements?

motor area

Which of the following statemtnts best expresses the relationship between the central nervous system and the endocrine system?

The enocrine system is linked to the central nervous system

Which of the following is NOT a brani scanning technique?

electromyogram (EMG)

Similar to firing a bullet from a gun, a neuron either fires completly or not at all. This is known as the ____ law

all-or-none

Your body has designed a "traffic signal" for neurotransmitters. In this system, a "red light" would represent

an inhibitory neurotransmitter

Too little of this neurotransmitter may be related to Parkinson’s diesease, while too muchof this neurotransmitter may be related to schizophrenia

dopamine

Which of the following sequences accurately reflects the route followed by nerve impulses when one neuron communicates with another?

dendrite cell body axon

Which of the following sequences accurately reflects the relative sizes of the components of the human genome, ordered smallest to largest?

gene chromosome DNA

Dr. Ewing is advising young woman about the risks involved in a potential pregnancy based on the woman’s age and the hereditary illness present in her family and that of her husband. Dr, Ewing is a

genetic counselor

Yves has been drinking. He has difficulty walking a straight line when asked to do so by a police officer. Apparently, Yves’s _______ is functioning poorly.

cerebellum

The amygdala is to emotion as th hippocampus is to

memory

Which of the following sequences correctly identifies and orders the lobes of the cortex, from anterior to posterior?

frontal temporal and pariental occipital

Which brain imaging technique below is CORRECTLY matched with its description?

EEG-records the brain’s electrical activity with the scalp electrodes

Visual cortex is to auditory cortex as the _____ lobe is to _____ lobe

occipital; temporal

Which of the following statements is most accurate with the respect to the laterialization of language among right-handers?

It is most likely left-lteralized.

The left and right hemispheres of the brain are connected by a bundle of fibers called the

corpus callosum

The part of the neuron that usually recieves the messages from other neurons is called

dendrite

The process by which the brain recognizes itself throughout development is termed

neuroplasticity

The hindbrain includes each of the following structures EXCEPT the

thalamus

Chemical messengers that are released by axons and stimulates the dendrites of other neurons are called

neurotransmitters

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