Psychology Ch. 1-2

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Dr. Growe is reading about a research in which psychologists investigated the effect of group size on the conformity of group members. Dr. Growe is most likely reading the Journal of _____ Psychology.

Social

Which branch of psychology explores the relationship between psychological factors and physical ailments or disease?

Health psychology

Which of the following statements concerning the representation of racial and ethnic minorities among American psychologists is TRUE?

The number of minority members entering the field is higher than it was 10 years ago.

Personality psychology:

focuses on the consistency in people’s behavior over time and the traits that differentiate one person from another.

Dr. Alvarez studies how the degeneration of certain components of nerve cells in the brain might contribute to the development of multiple sclerosis. Dr. Alvarez’s work BEST exemplifies the _____ subfield of psychology.

behavioral neuroscience

The Gestalt psychologists made substantial contribution to our understanding of:

perception

The phrase tabula rasa may be translated as:

blank slate.

Which of the following was a disadvantage of introspection?

Introspection was not truly scientific.

The computer metaphor is at the heart of the _____ perspective.

cognitive

Recall Watson’s quote – "Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring them up in and I’ll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select—doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief, and yes, even beggar-man and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations and race of his ancestors." Where 1 = extreme nature and 10 = extreme nurture, where would you place Watson on the nature vs. nurture issue?

9 or 10

Race is to ethnicity what _____ is to _____.

biology; culture

Research has shown human beings to be notoriously bad decision makers in general. Which type of psychologist was most likely to have carried out this type of research?

Cognitive

According to the ___________ perspective, we are in control of our lives and have the capacity for positive growth.

humanistic

Dr. Wade uses PET scans to explain that the difference between a male and a female is apparent in the structure and function of the brain. Dr. Wade’s specialty is

neuropsychology.

Jason is struggling with feelings of resentment toward his new stepmom. Outwardly she is a pleasant person, but he just cannot bring himself to accept her. To make matters worse, he is experiencing unprovoked feelings of aggression towards her as well. His therapist insists that he has unresolved issues in regards to his biological mother. Which type of therapist is Jason seeing?

Psychodynamic

Early researchers from which school of thought asked participants to report sensations they were experiencing?

Structuralism

Who conducted the first psychological experiment in 1879?

Wilhelm Wundt

Who is demonstrating psychological skepticism?

Lindsey is wondering if you can really improve your memory over night by taking a pill.

Evolutionary psychologists are especially interested in:

how behavior is influenced by our genetic inheritance from our ancestors.

Dr. Hart investigates how depressive disorders are related to levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin in the brain. Dr. Hart’s research falls within the field of:

clinical neuropsychology.

Fiona helps students with ADHD develop effective study regimens and strategies. Fiona is most likely a(n) _____ psychologist.

counseling

In what way are the diverse subfields of psychology related?

They ultimately share a common goal.

Which of the following individuals is LEAST likely to be a psychologist?

Everett, who has an MD degree

The emphasis of the humanistic perspective is on:

free will.

Which contemporary perspective is CORRECTLY matched with its description?

Behavioral perspective; emphasizes observable behavior and objectivity

_____ is an early approach to psychology that concentrated on what the mind does and the role of behavior in allowing people to adapt to their environments.

Functionalism

Lassandra takes a sip of cola. "Sweet…cold, wet, tingly…slightly bitter," she reports. Lassandra is:

introspecting.

Strategies aimed at encouraging one to examine assumptions, evaluate assertions, and think more carefully are specifically called _____ techniques.

critical thinking

Psychologists adhering to the _____ perspective are probably the LEAST likely to take a "nature" stance on the nature vs. nurture issue.

behaviorist

Jean is a psychologist who studies the changes that take place in people over the course of their life spans. Jean most likely specializes in ________ psychology.

developmental

Evolutionary psychology maintains that

All of these (the traits of living members of a species are the result of survival of the fittest. the traits which one looks for in a potential spouse are based on characteristics which have allowed humans to survive. some behaviors are pre-wired into species as they assist in maintaining the reproductive ability of the species.)

Which of the following best describes the impact that nature and nurture have on a person’s psychological characteristics?

Genetics has a significant impact.

If you were a psychologist who was labeled a structuralist, you would be interested in the ___________ of the mind, and you would use ___________ as your primary research method.

structures; introspection

Kara was surprised to learn that certain hand signals which indicate a "job well done" in the United States are socially unacceptable in other countries. This finding comes from research completed by a ________ psychologist.

cross-cultural

The specialist most likely to have a medical degree is a(n)

psychiatrist.

"I am not as concerned about what is going on in your life today as I am with the upbringing you received." Which type of psychologist is most likely to have uttered these words?

Psychodynamic

Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding the difference between the PhD and the PsyD degrees?

The PhD requires a dissertation based on an original investigation.

Dr. Hart investigates how depressive disorders are related to levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin in the brain. Dr. Hart’s research falls within the field of:

clinical neuropsychology.

Beatriz has just received her doctoral degree in psychology. All else being equal, in which of the following settings is she most likely to find employment?

A college/university

Psychology is defined as the:

scientific study of behavior and mental processes.

Which of the following psychologists is associated with functionalism?

William James

_____ is a procedure used to study the structure of the mind in which subjects are asked to describe in detail what they are experiencing when they are exposed to a stimulus.

Introspection

Darwin, when describing the process of natural selection, claimed that

characteristics favored by the environment are more likely to continue.

What was innovative about Wundt’s early work?

He was the first person to introduce the idea of measuring mental processes.

Dr. Ames studies the way groups influence the decisions that people make. She is a ________ psychologist.

social

Psychologists rely on ___________ which is the process of thinking reflectively and actively, and evaluating evidence.

critical thinking

Regarding operational definitions, which of the following statements is most accurate?

For a given hypothesis, many operational definitions are usually possible.

When asked to define "popularity," Brianna offers, "It’s when everyone likes you." Chrissy suggests, "It’s basically the number of friends you have." How do the two girls’ definitions differ?

Chrissy’s is an operational definition; Brianna’s is not.

Which of the following statements best expresses the relationship between a theory and a hypothesis?

A theory is broader than a hypothesis.

Prediction is to explanation what _____ is to _____.

hypothesis; theory

Which of the following is the first step in the scientific method?

Identifying questions of interest

Wallace is engaged in archival research. In which of the following projects is he most likely engaged?

Examining the registrar’s records at a state university to explore the relationship between SAT scores and freshman GPA

In an experiment, the _____ variable is deliberately manipulated by the researcher.

independent

Using a sample of young adolescents, Dr. Nguyen finds a correlation of +.55 between scores on a measure of neglectful or uninvolved parenting and scores on a measure of delinquent behavior. Which of the following might Dr. Nguyen legitimately conclude?

Parenting that is more neglectful is related to a higher degree of delinquent behavior.

In a negative correlation:

as the value of one variable increases, the value of the other decreases.

DeAndre is recording instances of physical aggression among children in a schoolyard at recess. DeAndre is undertaking:

a naturalistic observation.

Dr. Gigliotti is conducting an in-depth, intensive investigation of a patient with dissociative identity disorder. He uses psychological tests and interviews to better understand the patient. Dr. Gigliotti is undertaking:

a case study.

Experimental research requires that the responses of _____ group(s) be examined.

at least two

A pharmaceutical company wishes to test the efficacy of a new antidepressant using a double-blind procedure. Which alternative correctly describes the procedure the company would use?

The research assistants would not know which participants were receiving the new drug and which were receiving an inert pill. Also, each patient would not know which type of pill he or she was taking.

In an experiment involving a placebo:

all the participants receive a treatment.

A placebo is intended to minimize _____ expectations; a double-blind procedure minimizes _____.

participant; experimenter expectations

We can predict participants’ scores on Variable A with perfect accuracy by knowing their scores on Variable B. Higher scores on Variable A are associated with higher scores on Variable B. What is the correlation coefficient for the correlation between Variables A and B?

+1.00

What does the positive or negative sign of a correlation coefficient indicate?

Direction of the relationship

Researchers who use ___________ attempt to view behavior without disturbing the environment.

naturalistic observation

"The problem with drinking coffee in the evening," complained Saundra, "is that it interferes with my ability to fall asleep. My mind keeps racing, but my body is so tired!" Saundra is describing the ________ between caffeine intake and sleep.

negative correlation

The specific description of a behavior to be studied is referred to as the

operational definition.

As compared to the theories about human behavior we all develop in daily life, those formulated by psychologists are:

As compared to the theories about human behavior we all develop in daily life, those formulated by psychologists are:

more formal.

In an experiment, the _____ variable is measured and is expected to change due to the experimenter’s manipulation.

dependent

Behaviors, events, or other characteristics that can change in some way are referred to as:

variables.

Experimental group is to control group what _____ is to _____.

treatment; no treatment

Wallace is engaged in archival research. In which of the following projects is he most likely engaged?

According to Bibb Latane and John Darley’s theory of _____, the greater the number of bystanders or witnesses to an event that calls for helping behavior, the more the responsibility for helping is perceived to be shared by all the bystanders.

diffusion of responsibility

Which of the following is the first step in the scientific method?

Identifying questions of interest

In an experiment, the _____ variable is measured and is expected to change due to the experimenter’s manipulation.

dependent

Behaviors, events, or other characteristics that can change in some way are referred to as:

variables.

Experimental group is to control group what _____ is to _____.

treatment; no treatment

Wallace is engaged in archival research. In which of the following projects is he most likely engaged?

Examining the registrar’s records at a state university to explore the relationship between SAT scores and freshman GPA

Experimental research is to correlational research what _____ is to _____.

cause; association

The strength and direction of the relationship between the two variables are represented by a mathematical statistic known as a(n) _____.

correlation

In an experiment, the _____ variable is deliberately manipulated by the researcher.

independent

When cues are transmitted to participants about how they are expected to behave in particular experimental conditions, the research results may reflect _____ expectations. When people develop their own ideas about the topic of the research, the investigation’s outcomes may be biased by _____.

experimenter; participant expectations

Which of the following is not a component of informed consent?

A detailed explanation of the study and its procedures.

In an experiment involving a placebo:

all the participants receive a treatment.

We can predict participants’ scores on Variable A with perfect accuracy by knowing their scores on Variable B. Higher scores on Variable A are associated with higher scores on Variable B. What is the correlation coefficient for the correlation between Variables A and B?

+1.00

The group of participants observed in a research study are referred to as the

sample.

When conducting an experiment, Jamie assigns everybody who arrives before noon to the treatment condition and everybody who arrives after noon to the control group. What is wrong with this experiment?

Jamie has not used true random assignment to conditions.

Kevin has just completed his first day of naturalistic observation at the local high school, and he is concerned about the effects his presence in the classrooms is having on adolescent behavior. This is an important issue since, in truly naturalistic research, researchers cannot

intervene.

If Professor Jung wants to be able to draw cause and effect conclusions from her research, which of the following is the most crucial aspect of her experimental design?

Random assignment

Which of the following is the final step in the scientific method?

Communicating the findings

Regarding operational definitions, which of the following statements is most accurate?

For a given hypothesis, many operational definitions are usually possible.

The approach used by psychologists to systematically acquire knowledge and understanding about behavior and other phenomena of interest is called:

the scientific method.

As compared to the theories about human behavior we all develop in daily life, those formulated by psychologists are:

more formal.

Which of the following statements best expresses the relationship between a sample and a population?

A population includes a sample.

Which of the following is a disadvantage of survey research?

The sample may not be representative of the larger population.

In a negative correlation:

as the value of one variable increases, the value of the other decreases.

The correlation coefficient ranges from _____ to _____.

-1.0 to 1.0

Wilma is undertaking survey research. Which of the following is she probably doing?

Asking a sample of students a series of questions about their sexual attitudes and behaviors

Irving has noticed a pattern: The more alcohol people drink, the more aggressive they seem to be. Which research method is aimed at verifying a relationship between two variables?

Correlational research

Which of the following researchers is conducting a case study?

Dr. Innis, who is investigating in detail the tactile perception of a blind woman

What is a placebo?

A false experimental treatment

To guard against participant expectations biasing the results of an experiment, the experimenter may:

try to disguise the true purpose of the experiment.

Which of the following is not one of the reasons that college students are so often used as participants in psychological research?

They are representative of the population at large.

Mean, median, and standard deviation are examples of ___________ statistics.

descriptive

"This cannot be the real opinion of the entire student body! She didn’t ask me to fill out her survey!" Haley complained. Her psychology teacher explained that

a representative sample of responses can indicate the view of the majority.

It has been proposed that students have difficultly returning to their academic schedule after a holiday or break. Specifically, it has been predicted that there will be more student absences on the Monday following spring break than on the Friday prior to spring break. The first statement describes the ___________, while the second is the ___________.

theory; hypothesis

Psychology is defined as the:

scientific study of behavior and mental processes.

Fiona helps students with ADHD develop effective study regimens and strategies. Fiona is most likely a(n) _____ psychologist.

counseling

In psychology, William James was highly influential in developing the school of thought known as

functionalism.

Penny is a recovering drug addict. Her treatment program emphasizes the influence of her environment—"people, places, and things"—on her use of her drug of choice. Her program reflects the _____ perspective in psychology.

behavioral

A placebo is intended to minimize _____ expectations; a double-blind procedure minimizes _____.

participant; experimenter expectations

Which of the following statements best expresses the relationship between a sample and a population?

A population includes a sample.

In which of the following procedures are participants assigned to different experimental groups on the basis of chance and chance alone?

Random assignment to condition

Which of the following correlation coefficients is indicative of the strongest relationship between two variables?

-0.87

Group A received progressive relaxation training prior to test taking, while Group B received no treatment. Group A is the ________ group, while Group B is the ________ group.

experimental; control

Participants in a study listen to a lecture either in a lecture hall filled with natural light or in a lecture hall with no windows and artificial light. Before leaving the lectures, the participants fill out a mood survey. What is the independent variable in this study?

Type of light

Akira has declared psychology as his major. He will be studying:

behavior and mental processes.

_____ is the idea that people’s behavior is produced primarily by factors outside of their willful control.

Determinism

"People with opposite personality traits are more likely to be attracted to each other." This is a:

hypothesis.

A pharmaceutical company is conducting an experiment to test the effectiveness of a tricyclic antidepressant. Which of the following, if true, would indicate that the experimenters used a placebo?

The participants in both groups did not know if they were getting a real or a false treatment.

A team of researchers conduct an experiment to test the effectiveness of a new drug in treating anxiety disorders. The participants in the control group receive sugar pills without active ingredients, while those in the experimental group receive the new, anti-anxiety drug. In this example, the researchers use:

a placebo.

Allie has developed a theory concerning test grades. She believes there is a relationship between her frequency of study and the resulting grade. To test her theory, she has to state a(n)

hypothesis.

In a formal experiment, the group that is NOT subjected to a treatment condition is referred to as the ________ group.

control

Which of the following subfields of psychology is INCORRECTLY matched with its description?

Cognitive: examines how people grow and change from conception through death

In order to study mind and behavior, psychologists:

rely on the scientific method.

Contributions of the psychodynamic perspective include all of the following EXCEPT:

a way to look at behavior in a more concrete, objective fashion.

Which of the following sequences correctly arranges the steps in the scientific method from first to last?

Identify problem → formulate explanation → carry out research → communicate findings

Correlation research is:

research in which the relationship between two sets of variables is examined to determine whether they are associated.

Meaningful results that make it possible for researchers to feel confident that they have confirmed their hypotheses is known as a _____.

significant outcome

Random assignment of participants is important in order to ensure that

groups have equal and balanced composition.

If a psychologist were to study "love," she would need to have a(n) ___________ love. Without this specific information, the hypothesis could not be tested.

operational definition for

In a double-blind experiment,

neither researchers nor participants know who is in the control or experimental group.

Psychology majors are highly valued by employers because they can:

think critically.

The approach that views behavior from the perspective of the brain, the nervous system, and other biological functions is known as the _____ perspective.

neuroscience

Cognitive psychology can best be described as the

study of higher mental processes.

Many colleges use students’ SAT scores to determine whom they will accept into their programs. Which goal of psychological science are they utilizing?

Predict

Which of the following is a disadvantage of a case study?

Results may not be generalizable beyond the sample.

The placebo effect refers to the

finding that people feel better simply because they believe they are receiving medication.

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