Psychology A- Language and Problem Solving

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Which of the following statements about grammar is not true?

Grammar is universal and is similar in most languages.

How many phonemes are there in the word "dogs"?

one WRONG

Phonology is the study of __________.

sounds

How could semantics be defined?

as a set of rules that is concerned with understanding the meaning of words

Language enabled philosophers in the Middle Ages to pass their ideas on to future generations.

true

Which of the following statements about language is true?

Languages have a set of rules that determine how sentences can be written.

One of the major advantages of language is its flexibility.

true

Semantics deals with understanding the meaning of __________ and __________.

words . . . word combinations

There are 26 phonemes in the English language, one for each letter of the alphabet.

false

All languages are comprised of the same phonemes.

false

Linguistic relativity is the hypothesis that an individual’s language __________.

shapes and influences one’s thoughts

Which of the following statements is true about prairie dogs?

Prairie dogs have one basic call that indicates the presence of predators.

Primates are able to acquire language about as fast as speaking children can.

false

Code switching refers to the ability to alternate between languages in conversation.

true

Some researchers assert that the evolution of language is a result of natural selection.

true

An innate mechanism that assists individuals in the development of language is the __________.

language acquisition device (LAD)

Which of the following statements concerning bilingualism is not correct?

Research indicates that bilingualism has serious negative effects on language development.

A child who says, "My toy car breaked," or "I runned up the hill," is demonstrating __________.

overregularization

Research indicates that infants can distinguish more phonemes from languages all over the world than adults.

true

When a person’s first language affects the pronunciation and grammatical pattern of the second language, it is called __________.

linguistic interference

Research indicates that Asian cultures pay more attention in general to information relating to context than North American cultures do.

true

In which step of the problem solving process should you write a concise statement about the problem?

identifying and defining the problem

All of the following are parts of the second step (analyzing the solution) except __________.

gathering information about the problem WRONG

Common obstacles or barriers of successful problem solving include all of the following except __________.

using rigid thinking that was used to solve past problems WRONG

When someone says the word "jewelry," the concept includes bracelets, necklaces, earrings, and pins.

true

Working backwards is an example of using an algorithm to solve problems.

false

Which type of thinking uses creativity and yields solutions that are original and creative?

productive

Convergent thinking utilizes creativity to generate possible solutions.

false

What should one do after the solution has been implemented?

Monitor the solution’s progress and make corrective adjustments if needed.

In the third step of the problem solving process, in which one generates a range of solutions, one should __________.

avoid ruling our or selecting a solution

Describe the difference in using an algorithm and a heuristic to solve a problem.

When an individual uses an algorithm to solve a problem, they are using a step-by-step procedure that assists them in attempting all possible alternatives for a solution. When an individual is using a heuristic to solve a problem, they are using a guiding principle or rule that assists them in disregarding some solutions while using other alternatives.

Reproductive thinking produces solutions that are novel and creative.

false

Briefly describe the three basic categories Jim Greeno created to classify problems.

Greeno classified problems into problems of inducing structure, problems of arrangement, and problems of transformation. Problems of inducing structure requires individuals to discover the relationship between various things relating to numbers, words, symbols, or ideas. Problems of arrangement requires individuals to arrange a problem in a specific way so a solution is obtained. Problems of transformation requires an individual to work out a problem through a sequence of steps.

When individuals attempt to use old strategies that do not work when solving new problems, they are __________.

experiencing mental set

John was asked to solve a series of six math problems. He was able to solve the first five problems using a specific sequence of operations. John got stuck on the sixth problem because the solution he used before did not work.
John is most likely experiencing __________.

mental set

Adults are less affected by functional fixedness than younger children.

false

Which problem solving strategy looks at every possible alternative?

algorithm

Describe the difference between divergent and convergent thinking, and explain which one is involved in creativity.

Convergent thinking narrows down a list of alternatives to converge on a single correct answer. Divergent thinking expands the number of alternatives by generating several possible solutions. Many theorists believe that creativity lies in divergent thinking and not convergent thinking.

Summarize the six steps of the problem solving process.

The first step of the problem solving process is to identify and define the problem. The second step is to analyze the problem. The third step is to generate a broad range of solutions by using the brainstorming process. The fourth step is to select and plan the solution. The fifth step of the problem solving process is to implement the solution. Last, one should evaluate and monitor the solution’s progress.

Evaluating the solution is the last step of the problem solving process.

true

All of the following are categories used to classify problems except problems of __________.

schematic completion

In which step of the problem solving process are all of the solutions evaluated and prioritized against a set of criteria, such as time and resources?

implement the solution WRONG

Changing how a problem is represented can assist in overcoming problem solving issues.

true

Cognitive diversity refers to the similarities in viewpoints and methods in problem solving.

false

Which of the following examples best illustrates functional fixedness?

Julie lost her earring back, so she throws the earring away instead of using a pencil eraser.

Belief bias may cause one to make invalid conclusions seem valid or vice versa.

true

In the decision-making process, the last step is to __________.

c select an option

The availability and representativeness heuristics are not useful and should be entirely avoided.

false

What does the subjective utility of a decision involve?

b and d are both WRONG

Recent scientific research was released about global warming and climate change. Both defendents and opponents of the theory of global warming saw the information as supporting their own beliefs.
Both sides fell victim to __________.

a, c, and d are WRONG

If someone is making a decision using the additive strategy, he or she would eliminate alternatives based on their attributes.

false

Mark is 6’4, weighs 200 pounds, and is very muscular. People who think that Mark is more likely to be a football player than an engineer are victims of __________.

c

Evaluating alternative options and choosing one option among them is called the theory of bounded rationality.

false

Risky decision making occurs when an individual makes a decision __________.

b

The abundance of choices available to people when making a decision can cause them to feel overwhelmed.

true

What heuristic estimates the probability of something occurring based on how easily one recalls relevant occurrences of the event?

d

Once beliefs are formed, it often takes stronger evidence to change them than it did to create them.

true

What is belief bias and what is the best way to avoid belief bias when making decisions?

Belief bias is the tendency to cling to one’s beliefs after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited. The best remedy for belief bias is to consider the opposite view.

Confirmation bias is the tendency to solve problems using one specific approach, even if other ways might be better.

false

Losing 50 dollars may affect one’s level of happiness more than winning 50 dollars. This illustrates the concept of __________ aversion.

a

Individuals tend to make decisions with the elimination-by-aspects strategy as choices become more simple.

false

The tendency to have more confidence in judgment and decisions than one should, based on probability or past experience is __________.

b

The belief that the odds of two events occurring together are greater than the odds of either event occurring alone is the __________.

d

Describe the difference between the availability heuristic and the representativeness heuristic.

The availability heuristic involves estimating the probability of an event outcome on information readily available to the individual. The representativeness heuristic involves estimating the probability of an event outcome on how similar the event is to the norm or on a typical event representing the situation.

When does the confirmation bias occur?

a

How an issue is framed has an effect on decision making.

true

The __________ heuristic is the method in which one chooses the alternative they recognize and infers that it has greater value.

b

The symbols used in language have no direct relationship between the word and the object or idea.

true

Daniel has decided to drive to work instead of taking the bus because of a recent publicized bus crash that has caused him to overestimate the incidence of such disasters. His decision is most likely being influenced by the __________.

b

An algorithm is a guiding rule used to solve problems or make decisions.

false

Morphemes are the smallest distinctive sound units in a language.

false

A representativeness heuristic involves making a prediction about an event based on how similar it is to the norm.

false

B. F. Skinner claimed that the nativist theory accurately explains the process of language development.

false

Underextension in language occurs when a child incorrectly uses one word to describe other objects or actions that are similar to that word.

false

Research indicates that individuals often assume that all numerical information included in a problem should contribute to the solution.

true

Define decision making and provide two strategies that one may use to make decisions.

the process of evaluating alternatives and making choices among them

The only modes of communication are through the spoken and written word.

false

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