Psychology 3

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People have historically believed that emotions and thoughts affect health. However, this popular belief declined in the late 1800s. Why?

Scientist discovered biological causes for infectious disease.

This is NOT a major cause of death in the United States today.

pneumonia

Why has the focus shifted back from biological (germ) causes of disease to exploring psychological factors in illness?

because major causes of death are due to lifestyle rather than infectious causes

Hans Selye defined stress as

the nonspecific response of the body to any demand made on it

Hans Selye defined a stressor as

an environmental trigger that prompts a stressful reaction

In your text, the physical and mental arousal to situations that we perceive as threatening or challenging is called _____.

stress

Which of the following is NOT a stressor?

all of these options ARE stressors

You have a minor car accident after which you experience sweaty palms, rapid breathing, and a racing heart. In this situation, _____ is the stressor, and _____ is the stress.

the accident; your physical reaction

Desmond sees an attractive woman whom he would like to meet. As he approaches her, his heart starts racing and his pupils dilate. In this situation, _____ is the stressor, and _____ is the stress.

approaching the attractive woman; Desmond’s racing heart

According to Selye, pleasant, desirable stress is called _____.

Eustress

According to Selye, distress is _____.

unpleasant

The end result of a total absence of stress is _____.

death

Which of the following situations is the BEST example of eustress?

Mose is performing his standard, moderate workout at the gym.

John was planning to ask Susan to marry him. When he saw Susan kissing another man at a party, he was quite upset. In this situation, John’s seeing Susan kissing another man is _____, and it illustrates _____.

a stressor; distress

15. Which of the following is NOT one of the major causes of stress identified in your text?

death of a child

The Social Readjustment Rating Scale constructed by Holmes and Rahe measures the stress in a person’s life on the basis of _____.

life changes

This is a TRUE statement about SRRS scores.

They are correlated with illness.

Poor working conditions or a bad marriage are classified in your text as:

chronic stressors

_____ is one of the largest sources of chronic stress for adults.

Work

Which of the following persons is MOST likely to experience chronic stress?

Paulette is shy and attending a new high school.

The stressor that includes role conflict and burnout is stress.

job stress

When one is forced to choose between two or more different and incompatible functions, one is experiencing ______.

role conflict

This person is LEAST likely to experience burnout.

secretary

Samsara is an idealistic person who is exposed to chronic stress in her emotionally draining job as an air traffic controller. The BEST term to describe what Samsara is likely to experience as a result of this situation is _____.

burnout

A state of physical, emotional, and mental exhaustion attributable to long-term involvement in emotionally demanding situations is called _____.

burnout

People who think of their professions as a calling, such as nurses, _________.

May burnout due to loss of idealism.

Small problems of daily living that accumulate and sometimes become a major source of stress are called _____.

hassles

Mark and Wendi deal with the hassles of life differently. As the literature expects he might, Mark

gets more colds and flus than Wendi due to a more impaired immune system

Moving to a new city is considered a _____, whereas filling out change of address cards for all of your subscriptions and creditors is considered a _____.

stressor; hassle

According to your text, the degree of frustration you feel is related to _____.

your level of motivation to achieve a blocked goal

_____ is an unpleasant state of tension, anxiety, and heightened sympathetic activity that results from a blocked goal.

Frustration

An elevator got stuck between floors and kept its occupants trapped for hours. Which of the occupants was likely to experience the MOST frustration?

the woman who was late for her job interview

A negative emotional state caused by having to choose between two or more incompatible goals or impulses is called _____.

conflict

In an approach-approach conflict, a person must choose between two or more goals that will lead to _____.

a desirable result

In an avoidance-avoidance conflict, a person must choose between two or more goals that will lead to _____.

an undesirable result

Tanner wants to make his mother’s favorite dish but has no cardamom, an essential ingredient. He tries, unsuccessfully, to borrow some from three of his neighbors. He drives to several stores-none of them have it. The negative emotion Tanner begins to experience is called _____.

frustration

Moya really wants to study so she can pass her psychology exam tomorrow, but she also wants to go out with her new boyfriend tonight. This is an example of _____ conflict.

an approach-approach

Three-year-old Cory wants to stay up, but has to decide whether he will go to bed now or in five minutes. This is an example of _____ conflict.

an avoidance-avoidance

The most difficult conflict to resolve is usually the _____ conflict.

avoidance-avoidance

In a _____ conflict, a person must choose between two or more alternatives that each have both desirable and undesirable results.

approach-avoidance

Which of the following is an approach-avoidant conflict?

Choice A or B positive and negative result

Holmes is running for congress and has to decide whether to tell the truth about his use of drugs in high school. This is an example of _____.

an approach-avoidance conflict

Cataclysmic events

may not be as stressful as we think

As a result of Hurricane Katrina, many people experienced life-changing psychological and physical events. In measuring optimism versus pessimism in regular versus displaced students __________.

both groups were the same

The most common coping strategy in students post-Katrina was ______.

humor

"Karoshi" means _______.

death from overworking

The relationship between job stress and overworking and dying from heart disease or stroke is ______.

job stress and overworking greatly increase the risk of dying from heart disease or a stroke

The body’s immediate fight-or-flight response is facilitated by the _______ system(s).

SAM

According to your text, the chemical that saves to feedback information to the brain about the body’s response to stress is _______.

cortisol

_____ plays a critical role in the long-term effects of stress, and is the most common measure of stress.

Cortisol

51. The body’s state of equilibrium is called ______.

homeostasis

Hypercortisolism can lead to all EXCEPT which of the following choices?

it can lead to all of these choices

The fight or flight response is triggered by the _____ nervous system.

sympathetic

The release of cortisol during the fight or flight response occurs at the end of the _____ pathway.

Hypothalamus, Pituitary, Adrenal cortex

A physiological alarm reaction, followed by resistance, and ending with exhaustion is known as _____.

the general adaptation syndrome

_____ is the field that studies the effects of psychological factors on the immune system.

Psychoimmunology

In Selye’s general adaptation syndrome theory of stress, the initial response of the autonomic nervous system to a stressor occurs in the _____ phase.

alarm reaction

Than was recently laid off. His bills are piling up, he hasn’t found a new job yet, and his wife is pregnant. Which phase of the general adaptation syndrome is he MOST likely experiencing?

resistance

As Michael watches his instructor pass out papers, he suddenly realizes this is the first major exam and he is totally unprepared. Which phase of the GAS is the he most likely experiencing?

alarm

During the _____ phase of Selye’s theory of stress, considerable energy is expended to adapt to the stressor.

resistance

This is a (These are) disease(s) of adaptation that may occur after the resistance phase of the GAS.

all of these options

After exposure to a severe and prolonged stressor, illness and death may occur in the _____ phase of the general adaptation syndrome.

exhaustion

Which of the following has been implicated in the origin or progression of cancer-related diseases?

all of these options

According to your text, most people do NOT have cancer because _____.

the immune system keeps cancer cells in check

Cancer can result from

stress, which releases hormones that suppresses immune functioning

Which of the following persons is NOT adversely affecting his immune system functioning?

all of these people are adversely affecting their immune systems

_____ is the general term for all disorders that affect the heart muscle that can ultimately result in heart failure.

Heart disease

Simon is experiencing chest pain due to an insufficient blood supply to the heart. Saul’s coronary arteries are nearly blocked, which is slowing blood flow to his heart, and Sean has just experienced the death of some of his heart muscle tissue. What do these men have in common?

heart disease

The two chemicals released during the fight or flight stress response that are associated with the development of heart disease are _____.

cortisol and epinephrine

Stress increases the risk of heart disease because unused fat cells released during the stress response may _____.

be deposited on and block coronary arteries

Intense ambition, competition, exaggerated time urgency, and a cynical, hostile outlook on life are associated with _____.

Type A personalities

Which of the following is NOT among the characteristics associated with Type-A personality?

patience

A calm, patient, relaxed attitude toward life is associated with _____.

a Type B personality

Research suggests that this Type A characteristic is MOST associated with heart disease.

cynical hostility

People with cynical hostility are more prone to heart disease because _____.

all of these options

Dr. Sidney is treating a client with Type A personality by teaching him behavioral strategies for changing at least one characteristic per week. Dr. Sidney is practicing _____.

the shotgun apporach

Dr. Friedman is treating a Type A client by modifying only the cynical hostility that is associated with heart disease. Dr. Friedman is practicing _____.

the target behavior approach

People who interpret stress as challenging and interesting rather than threatening or frustrating are exhibiting _____.

hardiness

Which of the following is NOT one of the characteristics associated with hardiness?

competition

Charles is eager to start a new career, committed to solve any problems that come his way, and believes he has control over what happens in his life. This suggests that Charles _____.

is psychologically hardy

Hardiness is _____.

learned

Which of the following is NOT a risk factor for heart disease?

optimism

People who experience flashbacks, nightmares, and impaired functioning following a life-threatening or other horrifying event are _____.

experiencing posttraumatic stress disorder

About what percentage of Americans will have PTSD at some time in their lives?

10

A man who was viciously beaten three months ago and is suffering from PTSD. Which of the following symptoms is he LEAST likely to develop?

manic and depressive episodes

Ulcers are associated with _____.

all of these options

The H. pylori bacterium that is associated with ulcer formation is _____.

found in 75% of people who do not have ulcers

Which of the following is TRUE of health psychology?

All of these options

Which of the following would NOT be researched by health psychologists?

broken bones

A health psychologist is LEAST likely to _____.

study interpersonal relationships among nurses and doctors

King James I said that _____ was "loathsome to the eye, hateful to the nose, harmful to the brain, [and] dangerous to the lungs."

smoking

According to your text, a primary reason young people begin smoking is _____.

social pressure from peers

The effects of nicotine are related to the release of _____ in the brain.

all of these options

Rewards for smoking come from ______.

all of these options

Which two factors make it hard to quit smoking?

social rewards and physical addiction to nicotine

If you are mounting a campaign to prevent young people from taking up smoking, you are likely to get the BEST results if you emphasize the _____.

short-term detrimental effects of tobacco use

Anti-smoking laws _____.

may make it harder for smokers to quit

The anti-smoking laws have had unintended effects that may make quitting more difficult for some people including

enhancing the formation of a strong social bond

Which of the following may be the MOST effective method of quitting smoking?

a combination of all these options

This is NOT a behavioral strategy for quitting smoking: _____ when the urge to smoke strikes.

Putting on a nicotine patch

According to your text, no program to quit smoking can work without _____.

strong personal motivation

At a party, Arash consumed 5 drinks in a row and his girlfriend consumed 4 drinks in a row. This means that _____ met the definition for binge drinking.

both Arash and his girlfriend

If you frequently drink 4 or 5 alcoholic drinks at a sitting, this means you _____.

are a binge drinker

Any pain that continues or recurs for six months or more is considered to be _____.

chronic

Which of the following is TRUE about the relationship between chronic pain and psychological factors?

Psychological factors can encourage or intensify chronic pain.

An increase in activity and exercise levels can be beneficial to pain patients because exercise increases the release of _____.

endorphins

Encouraging someone with chronic pain to talk about the pain is a(n) _____ strategy because her anxiety and pain are likely to _____.

ineffective; increase

If you wanted to help someone you know with their chronic pain symptoms, which of the following should you do?

Praise him for following doctor’s orders.

In _____, information about physiological functioning, such as heart rate or blood pressure, is monitored and displayed to help an individual to learn to control these functions.

biofeedback

The _____ measures muscle tension and provides feedback regarding a patient’s level of relaxation.

EMG

EMG stands for _____.

electromyography

Biofeedback with the EMG has been effective in treating _____.

tension headaches and lower back pain

In simple terms, coping is defined in your text as _____.

managing stress in an effective way

_______ coping can allow people to step back from an especially overwhelming problem, which they can reassess later.

Emotion-focused

Emotion-focused forms of coping are based on changing your _____ when faced with stressful situations.

feelings

Fantasy is a _____ form of coping.

emotion-focused

Which of the following persons is EFFECTIVELY using emotion-focused coping?

Logan rationalized that not making the basketball team would give him more time to focus on his studies and finish college sooner.

A small plane just crashed in your neighborhood. You take a fire extinguisher and blankets to the scene, then stand back and pray when you realize there is nothing you can do to help. In this situation, praying is an example of _____ coping.

emotion-focused

A small plane just crashed in your neighborhood. You take a fire extinguisher and blankets to the scene, then stand back and pray when you realize there is nothing you can do to help. Which behavior is an example of problem-focused forms of coping?

taking the extinguisher and blankets to the scene

Which of the following situations would be MORE effectively handled with emotion-focused rather than problem-focused coping?

Your best friend is being treated for testicular cancer.

Problem-focused forms of coping strategies focus on _____.

decreasing or eliminating the source of stress

If the circumstances that are creating your stress can be changed, _____ forms of coping are likely to be MOST effective.

problem-focused

If you want to apply a problem-focused form of coping to answering difficult questions on this exam, your BEST strategy would be to _____.

mark and return to answer them after checking other questions for clues

In terms of Selye’s general adaptation syndrome, coping occurs in the _____ stage.

resistance

Research on exercise and stress has found which of the following to be TRUE?

It increases strength and stamina for coping with future stress.

Positive beliefs are considered a resource for coping. Such beliefs are most closely related to the concept of _____.

emotion-focused coping

Which of the following is NOT an important social skill that can help you cope with stress?

the ability to control a conversation

Which of the following is NOT an effective use of social support during a stressful situation?

You can divert responsibility away from yourself and onto others.

Money is an important coping resource because _____.

it increases your options for eliminating stressors or reducing stress

Which of the following is NOT among the coping resources listed in your text?

religious commitment

This term refers to a person’s belief that life’s circumstances are under their internal, personal control or outside, external factors.

locus of control

One threat to well being occurs in people who _____.

believe they have no control over their circumstances

When diagnosed with diabetes, Derek placed his fate in God’s hands. Derek’s method of coping suggests that he has an _____ locus of control.

external

When diagnosed with diabetes, Evelyn searched the Internet for information about the causes, symptoms, and treatment options for this disease. Evelyn’s method of coping suggests that she has an _____ locus of control.

internal

Research suggests that people with higher _____ have less psychological stress than those with higher _____.

internal locus of control; external locus of control

Which of the following is NOT part of your textbook author’s directions for progressive relaxation?

Begin and end the session with muscles slightly tensed.

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