PSYCHOLOGY 2311 CHAPTER 3 & 4

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Color

Which of the following is largely determined by the length of a light wave

Cornea

Aside from the lens, damage to the _________ can affect the eye’s ability to focus light

Presbyopia; in front of

In farsightedness, also known as _______, the focal point is _______ the retina

Any object that slowly crosses her visual field may at one point disappear

Colleen stares at a fixed spot in her bedroom using only one eye. After a while, what might happen to her vision?

red, green, blue

What are the three primary colors proposed by the trichromatic theory?

opponent-process theory

Which of the following best explains after images?

sense organs

eyes, ears, nose, skin, taste buds

microsaccades

constant movement of the eyes, tiny little vibrations called that people do not notice consciously; prevents sensory adaptation to visual stimuli

brightness

determined by the amplitude of the wave

color

determined by the length of the wave

saturation

refers to the purity of the color people see; mixing in black or grey would lessen the saturation

cornea

clear membrane that covers the surface of the eye; protects the eye and is the structure that focuses most of the light coming into the eye

Radial Kerototomy

Vision improving technique that uses this fact by making small incisions in the cornea to change the focus in the eye

Aqueous humor

next visual layer; clear watery fluid that is continually replenished and supplies nourishment to the eye

Pupil

hole through which light form the visual image enters the interior of the eye

Iris

round muscle (colored part of the eye) in which the pupil is located; can change the size of the pupil, letting more or less light into the eye. helps focus the image

Lens

another clear structure behind the iris, suspended by muscles; finishes the focusing process begun by the cornea

Visual Accommodation

the change in the thickness of the lens as the eye focuses on objects that are far away or close

Vitreous humor

jelly-like fluid called that also nourishes the eye and gives it shape

retina

final stop for light in the eye

Ganglion Cells, Bipolar Cells, Photoreceptors

Retina contains three layers

monochrome color blindness

either have no cones or have cones that are not working at all

red-green colorblindness

either the red or the green cones are not working

Wavelength

interpreted as frequency or pitch (high, medium, or low).

Amplitude

INTERPRETED AS VOLUME (HOW SOFT OR HOW LOUD SOUND IS)

Purity

Interpreted as timbre (a richness in the tone of the sound

hertz (Hz)

cycles or waves per second, a measurment of frequency

Auditory canal

short tunnel that runs from the pinna to the eardrum (tympanic membrane).

Eardrum

thin section of skin that tightly covers the opening into the middle part of the ear, just like a drum skin covers the opening in a drum.

Hammer, Anvil, Stirrup

When sound waves hit the eardrum, it vibrates and causes three tiny bones in the middle ear to vibrate

Cochlea

snail shaped structure of the inner ear that is filled with fluid

Organ of Corti

Rests in the basilar membrane; contains receptor cells for sense of hearing

Auditory Nerve

bundle of axons from the hair cells in the inner ear; receives nerual message from the organ of Corti

Pinna

The part of the ear you can see.

pitch

psychological experience of sound that corresponds to the frequency of the sound waves; higher frequencies are perceived as higher pitches

Place Theory

theory of pitch that states that different pitches are experienced bu the stimulation of hair cells in different locations on the organ of Corti

Frequency theory

theory of pitch that states that pitch is related to the speed of vibrations in the basilar membrane volley principle theory of pitch that states that frequencies above 100 Hz cause the hair cells (auditory neurons) to fire in a volley pattern, or take turns in firing.

Volley principle

theory of pitch that states that frequencies above 100 Hz cause the hair cells (auditory neurons) to fire in a volley pattern, or take turns in firing.

Conduction hearing impairment

can result from either: damaged eardrum (which would prevent sound waves from being carried into the middle ear properly), or damage to the bones of the middle ear (sounds cannot be conducted from the eardrum to the cochlea).

Nerve hearing impairment

damage in the inner ear, or damage in the auditory pathways and cortical areas of the brain.

Cochlear Implant

a microphone implanted just behind the ear picks up sound from the surrounding environment. Speech processor selects and arranges the sound picked up by the microphone. Implant is a transmitter and receiver, converting signals into electrical impulses. Collected by the electrode array in the cochlea and then sent to the brain.

Taste Buds

taste receptor cells in mouth; responsible for sense of taste

Gustation

the sensation of a taste

Five Basic Tastes

Sweet, Sour, Salty, Bitter, Brothy

Olfaction (olfactory sense)

Sense of Smell

Olfactory bulbs

areas of the brain located just above the sinus cavity and just below the frontal lobes that receive information from the olfactory receptor cells. At least 1,000 olfactory receptors.

Somesthetic senses
Soma = body
Esthetic= feeling

the body senses consisting of the skin senses, the kinesthetic sense, and the vestibular senses

Skin senses

the sensations of touch, pressure, temperature and pain

Gate Control Theory

pain signals must pass through a gate located in the spinal cord

Kinesthetic sense

sense of the location of body parts in relation to the ground and each other. Proprioceptive receptors (proprioceptors

Vestibular Sense

the sensations of movement, balance, and body position sensory conflict theory an explanation of motion sickness in which the information from the eyes conflicts with the information from the vestibular senses, resulting in dizziness, nausea, and other physical discomforts.

Perception

the method by which the sensations experienced at any given moment are interpreted and organized in some meaningful fashion

Size Constancy

the tendency to interpret an object as always being the same actual size, regardless of its distance.

Shape Constancy

the tendency to interpret the shape of an object as being constant, even when its shape changes on the retina

Brightness Constancy

the tendency to perceive the apparent brightness of an object as the same even when the light conditions change

Figure-ground

the tendency to perceive objects, or figures, as existing on a background.

Reversible figures

visual illusions in which the figure and ground can be reversed.

Gestalt Principles

Similarity, Proximity, Closure, Continuity, Contiguity

Similarity

the tendency to perceive things that look similar to each other as being part of the same group

Proximity

the tendency to perceive objects that are close to each other as part of the same grouping

Closure

the tendency to complete figures that are incomplete.

Continuity

the tendency to perceive things as simply as possible with a continuous pattern rather than with a complex, broken-up pattern.

Contiguity

the tendency to perceive two things that happen close together in time as being related.

Depth perception

the ability to perceive the world in three dimensions. Studies of depth perception Visual cliff experiment

Monocular Cues (pictorial depth cues)

cues for perceiving depth based on one eye only

Linear perspective

the tendency for parallel lines to appear to converge on each other

Relative size

perception that occurs when objects that a person expects to be of a certain size appear to be small and are, therefore, assumed to be much farther away

Interposition (overlap)

the assumption that an object that appears to be blocking part of another object is in front of the second object and closer to the viewer.

Ariel Perspective

the haziness that surrounds objects that are farther away from the viewer, causing the distance to be perceived as greater

Tecture gradient

the tendency for textured surfaces to appear to become smaller and finer as distance from the viewer increases.

Motion parallax

the perception of motion of objects in which close objects appear to move more quickly than objects that are farther away

Accommodation

as a monocular clue, the brain’s use of information about the changing thickness of the lens of the eye in response to looking at objects that are close or far away

Binocular cues

Cues for perceiving depth based on both eyes

Convergence

the rotation of the two eyes in their sockets to focus on a single object, resulting in greater convergence for closer objects and lesser convergence if objects are distant.

Binocular disparity

the difference in images between the two eyes, which is greater for objects that are close and smaller for distant objects.

Müller-Lyer illusion –

illusion of line length that is distorted by inward-turning or outward-turning corners on the ends of the lines, causing lines of equal length to appear to be different.

Moon illusion

the moon on the horizon appears to be larger than the moon in the sky. Apparent distance hypothesis

Illusions of Motion:

autokinetic effect, stroboscopic motion, phi phenomenon

autokinetic effect

a small, stationary light in a darkened room will appear to move or drift because there are no surrounding cues to indicate that the light is not moving

stroboscopic motion

seen in motion pictures, in which a rapid series of still pictures will appear to be in motion.

phi phenomenon

lights turned on in a sequence appear to move.

Perceptual set (perceptual expectancy)

the tendency to perceive things a certain way because previous experiences or expectations influence those perceptions.

Top-down processing

the use of preexisting knowledge to organize individual features into a unified whole.

Bottom-up processing

the analysis of the smaller features to build up to a complete perception.

Extrasensory Perception (ESP)

claim of perception that occurs without the use of normal sensory channels such as sight, hearing, touch, taste, or smell.

Telepathy

claimed ability to read another person’s thoughts, or mind reading.

Clairvoyance

supposed ability to "see" things that are not actually present.

Precognition

supposed ability to know something in advance of its occurrence or to predict a future event

Parapsychology

the study of ESP, ghosts, and other subjects that do not normally fall into the realm of ordinary psychology

Stimulant

Nicotine is a ________.

to perceive objects that are close to each other as part of the same grouping

Proximity

more detailed in the distance

Texture gradient refers to the fact that texture appears to become

12

A circadian cycle is about ________ hours long.

sensation

Activation of the receptors by stimuli is called ________.

awareness of ourselves and the environment

Consciousness is the ________.

insomnia is characterized by sleeplessness, whereas apnea is characterized by breathing difficulties

The difference between insomnia and apnea is that ________.

waking consciousness

The state we are in when we are awake and reasonably alert is called ________.

amphetamines

Benzedrine, methedrine, and dexedrine are all ________.

sleep periods in which a person’s eyes move rapidly

REM sleep refers to ________.

subliminal stimuli

Some people believe that ________ are messages that can be sent to consumers, prompting them to buy a product without their being aware of receiving such messages

in men over 60

REM behavior disorder most commonly occurs ________.

altered state of consciousness

What do we call a state of consciousness that can result from the use of alcohol, drugs, or hypnosis?

the tendency to perceive objects, or figures, on some background

Figure-ground relationships concern ________.

gate-control theory of pain

The idea that pain signals must pass through a type of "doorway" in the spinal cord is referred to as the ________.

absolute threshold

The smallest amount of a particular stimulus required to produce any sensation at all in the person to whom the stimulus is presented is the ________.

absolute threshold

The point at which a person can detect a stimulus 50 percent of the time it is presented is called the ________.

cigarette smoking

What is the largest single preventable cause of premature death in the United States?

is still a serious problem

According to research on sleep deprivation, a moderate amount of sleep loss ________.

things that look similar as being part of the same group

Similarity is the tendency to perceive ________.

90

Periods of REM sleep alternate with periods of non-REM sleep in a cycle that recurs about every ________ minutes or so.

hypothalamus

The sleep-wake cycle is ultimately controlled by the part of the brain called the ________.

process by which people take all the sensations they experience at any given moment and interpret them in some meaningful fashion

Perception is the ________.

stem from unconscious conflicts, memories, and desires

Freud believed that dreams ________.

circadian

Our sleep-wake cycle follows a(n) ________ rhythm

to complete figures that are incomplete

Closure is the tendency ________.

At one time, cocaine was an ingredient in Coca-Cola

Which of the following statements is true concerning cocaine use in the United States?

generate pain sensations

Endorphins are the neural transmitters that ________.

physical dependence

The need to take a drug in order to avoid withdrawal symptoms is called ________.

sensory receptors

Cells that are triggered by light, vibrations, sounds, touch, or chemical substances are called

stage 4

The deepest stage of sleep is ________ sleep.

is a perception that does not correspond to reality

An illusion ________.

Hypnosis can create amnesia

Which of the following statements is correct concerning what hypnosis can do?

the pain signals must pass through a kind of "gate" located in the spinal cord

The gate-control theory of pain suggests that ________.

concentration

Which of the following is NOT an altered state of consciousness?

drugs capable of influencing perception, mood, cognition, or behavior

Psychoactive drugs are ________.

stage 3

The stage of sleep in which delta waves begin to appear is ________ sleep.

evidence of deep sleep (stage 4)

What would you expect to see on the EEG record of a person who is engaged in an episode of sleepwalking?

lower brain stem

According to the activation-synthesis theory of dreaming, the source of a dream is neuronal firing in the ________.

size constancy

The tendency to interpret an object as always being the same physical dimensions, regardless of its distance from the viewer, is known as ________.

sensory adaptation

In the process known as ________, sensory receptors become less sensitive to repeated presentations of the same stimulus.

Learning

A relatively permanent change in behavior based on experience

Operant Conditioning

learning to engage in the behavior because of the consequences of the behavior Causes us to actively engage in a behavior

Classical Conditioning

Learning based on anticipating events Causes us to anticipate or look forward to an event

Pavlov’s Experiment

Food=Salivation in Dogs Food+Bell=Salivation Bell = Salivation

Conditioned reflexes

reflexes begin as atomatic behavior, but they can be trained or conditioned by our experience

meat powder

In Pavlov’s experiment ______ was the unconditioned stimulus

bell

The bell was meaningless at first, but became the conditioned stimulus

Delayed
Simultaneous
Trace
Backward

What are the four types of Classical Conditioning

Delayed

Conditioned Stimulus precedes and endures throug the unconditioned stimulus until the subject responds (Most Effective)

Simultaneous

Conditioned Stimulus and Unconditioned Stimulus are applied together

Trace

Conditioned Stimulus is presented then removed before the unconditioned stimulus is presented

Backward

unconditioned stimulus presented before the conditioned stimulus (Least effective and usually does not work at all)

Spontaneous Recovery

If a Conditioned Stimulus has lost the ability to elicit the Conditioned Response due to Extinction, a new presentation of the Conditioned Stimulus tends to again produce the Conditioned Response

Geeralization

The more similar the presented shape was to the circle, the stronger the Conditioned Response.

Discrimination

Pavlov showed the dogs were able to tell the difference in the shapes by pairing the meat only with the circle and nothing wiht the ellipses

Frusteration and Aggresstion

Pavlov set about purposely frusterating the dogs by flattening the circles to appear more sililar to the ellipses. The dogs began to behave as if they were tormented. When the dog no longer could determined the difference, it barked, urinated, defecated and attacked labratory personnel

Higher oder conditioning

Pairing a controlled stimulus with another controlled stimulus on order to elicit a controlled response (Example: Pair the bell with a light and after several trials, the light will elicit a controlled response, in this case: salivation)

flooding

a continuous presentation of a stimulus that produces fear- Continuus exposure to the fear until the fear is extinguished Drawback- Very unpleasant

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