Psychology 203 Quiz 3

Total Word Count: 4204
   Send article as PDF   

1. (p. 92) According to the cephalocaudal growth pattern, which of the following is likely to show fast growth first?

A. legs B. hands C. brain D. stomach

C. brain

2. (p. 92) According to the proximodistal growth pattern, which of the following is likely to show growth earlier?

A. toes B. fingers C. feet and hands D. legs and arms

D. legs and arms

3. (p. 92) Which of the following indicates that growth progresses from the top of the body to the bottom?

A. cephalocaudal B. proximodistal C. sarcopenia D. lateralization

A. cephalocaudal

before the neck, shoulders, trunk, and limbs. What is this pattern of development called?

A. proximodistal B. cephalocaudal C. sarcopenia D. lateralization

B. cephalocaudal

5. (p. 92) Which growth pattern sequence indicates that growth progresses from the center of the body toward the extremities?

A. cephalocaudal B. proximodistal C. sarcopenia D. lateralization

B. proximodistal

6. (p. 92) Baby Kassie can slap the tray of the highchair but cannot pick up small pieces of cereal with her fingers yet. This is an example of

A. a neurological disorder. B. the cephalocaudal pattern in physical growth. C. a congenital birth defect. D. the proximodistal pattern in physical growth.

D. the proximodistal pattern in physical growth.

7. (p. 93) Sammi was born 3 days ago and has lost 3 percent of her body weight. Should her parents be concerned?

A. Yes. Sammi’s parents should consult her pediatrician immediately. B. No. Babies normally lose between 5 and 7 percent of their body weight within the first few days after birth. C. No. Babies normally lose between 9 and 12 percent of their body weight within the first few days after birth. D. Maybe. Sammi’s parents should begin supplementing breast-feeding with baby formula and weigh her twice a day to ensure no more we

B. No. Babies normally lose between 5 and 7 percent of their body weight within the first few days after birth.

8. (p. 93) Average North American babies double their birth weight by what age?

A. 1 month B. 4 months C. 8 months D. 10 months

B. 4 months

9. (p. 93) Marcia’s baby boy weighed 8 pounds at birth. How much should he weigh by 4 months of age?

A. 10 pounds B. 12 pounds C. 16 pounds D. 24 pounds

C. 16 pounds

10. (p. 93) During the second year of life, a child’s growth rate A. remains the same as the growth rate in the first year of life. B. accelerates considerably. C. slows considerably. D. accelerates for physical characteristics and slows for mental processes.

C. slows considerably.

11. (p. 93) Beginning in early childhood, girls have more _____ tissue than boys, and boys have more _____ tissue than girls.

A. fatty; muscle B. organ; brain C. brain; organ D. muscle; fatty

A. fatty; muscle

12. (p. 93) During the early childhood years, girls are generally _____ than boys.

A. much larger B. much smaller C. slightly larger D. slightly smaller

D. slightly smaller

13. (p. 93) Leon is unusually shorter than his peers. It could be because

A. he inherited the kind of genotype from his parents. B. he suffers certain growth hormone deficiency. C. his mother smoked while pregnant. D. All of these answers are correct.

C. his mother smoked while pregnant

14. (p. 93) Physical changes in middle and late childhood occur

A. at approximately the same rate as those in adolescence. B. more slowly than those in early childhood and more quickly than those in adolescence. C. in three rapid spurts. D. in a slow, consistent manner.

D. in a slow, consistent manner.

15. (p. 94) Which of the following changes are most pronounced in middle and late childhood?

A. changes in proportions B. changes in weight C. changes in height D. changes in brain size

A. changes in proportions

16. (p. 94) What is the period of rapid physical maturation involving hormonal and bodily changes that occurs in early adolescence known as?

A. spermarche B. gonadarche C. puberty D. menarche

C. puberty

17. (p. 94) During early adolescence, girls are generally _____ than boys.

A. taller B. stronger C. heavier D. smarter

C. heavier

18. (p. 94) Girls’ first menstrual cycle is called A. menarche. B. monarchy. C. estradiol. D. puberty.

A. menarche

19. (p. 94) Which of the following statements about growth spurts during puberty is TRUE?

A. It occurs approximately two years earlier for boys than for girls. B. It occurs approximately two years earlier for girls than for boys. C. It occurs at approximately the same time for boys and girls. D. It is highly variable depending on individuals and occurs at a range of ages during adolescence

B. It occurs approximately two years earlier for girls than for boys.

20. (p. 94) Menarche occurs during what part of puberty?

A. just before puberty B. early stage of puberty C. in the middle of puberty D. rather late during puberty

D. rather late during puberty

21. (p. 95) Which part of the body controls growth and regulates other glands?

A. pituitary gland B. hypothalamus C. gonad D. thyroid gland

A. pituitary gland

22. (p. 95) Which part of the body monitors eating and sexual behavior?

A. pituitary gland B. hypothalamus C. thyroid gland D. adrenal gland

B. hypothalamus

23. (p. 95) The class of hormones that stimulate the testes and the ovaries is known as _____.

A. cortisols B. gonadotropins C. androgens D. estradiols

B. gonadotropins

24. (p. 95) The chemical substances secreted by the endocrine glands that are carried by the bloodstream are known as ______.

A. gonadotropin B. neurotransmitters C. gonads D. hormones

D. hormones

25. (p. 95) _____ is a hormone associated in boys with the development of genitals, increases in height, and change of voice.

A. Cortisol B. Estrogen C. Estradiol D. Testosterone

D. Testosterone

26. (p. 95) _____ is a hormone associated in girls with breast, uterine, and skeletal development.

A. Cortisol B. Estradiol C. Androgens D. Testosterone

B. Estradiol

27. (p. 95) Thirteen-year-old Melissa’s blood tests indicate testosterone levels twice as high as last year and estradiol levels eight times higher than last year. Melissa is most likely experiencing

A. normal changes as a result of having entered puberty. B. difficulties due to significant imbalances in hormonal levels. C. abnormal development due to the presence of male hormones in the body. D. abnormal development due to the excessive increase of female hormones.

A. normal changes as a result of having entered puberty.

28. (p. 96) Which of the following factors affects puberty’s timing and makeup? A. nutrition B. health C. eating patterns and stress D. All of these answers are correct?

D. All of these answers are correct?

29. (p. 96) Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding puberty for girls and boys?

A. Testosterone is present in boys only, and estradiol is present in girls only. B. The peak rate of pubertal change occurs at the age of 12 for both boys and girls. C. Both male and female adolescents are preoccupied with their bodies. D. In the United States, children mature up to two years later than children in European countries.

C. Both male and female adolescents are preoccupied with their bodies.

30. (p. 96) Samantha lives in the United States and was 14½ years old when she experienced menarche. Samantha is

A. slightly younger than average for menarche in Europe. B. entering puberty outside of the lower end of the normal range. C. within the normal range. D. entering puberty outside of the upper end of the normal range.

C. within the normal range.

31. (p. 96) The age at which puberty arrives dropped quickly throughout the 20th century. What might account for this change?

A. greenhouse effects on climate B. improved health and nutrition C. less manual labor requirements for adolescents D. amounts of radiation from electric appliances

B. improved health and nutrition

32. (p. 97) Joe is a late-maturing boy. How will his self-identity in his 30s compare to the self-identity of his early-maturing peers?

A. more negative B. more positive C. about the same D. There has not been any research in this area.

B. more positive

33. (p. 97) James is going through puberty quite early. Research indicates that James is likely to

A. be rejected by his peers. B. have a more negative self-image than his late-maturing peers. C. have a more positive self-image than his late-maturing peers. D. be highly successful in his later career.

C. have a more positive self-image than his late-maturing peers.

34. (p. 97) Andrea is an early-maturing adolescent. How does her self-image compare to the self-images of her late-maturing peers?

A. more negative B. more positive C. about the same D. There has not been any research in t

B. more positive

35. (p. 97) Thirteen-year-old Jodi smokes and has a 16-year-old boyfriend. What might have influenced Jodi’s behavior?

A. defective gonads B. late maturation C. early maturation D. lack of social skills

C. early maturation

36. (p. 97) Early maturation in girls is linked to which of the following?

A. problem behaviors such as smoking, drinking, and having an eating disorder B. wreckless driving C. overdependence on parents D. low academic achievement

A. problem behaviors such as smoking, drinking, and having an eating disorder

37. (p. 98) Janice is 75. How does her height MOST likely compare to when she was 25?

A. She is a ¼ inch shorter. B. She is a ½ inch shorter. C. She is an inch shorter. D. She is two inches shorter.

D. She is two inches shorter.

38. (p. 98) Body fat accounts for _____ percent of body weight in adolescence and _____ percent or more in middle adulthood.

A. 10; 20 B. 15; 25 C. 5; 15 D. 20; 25

A. 10; 20

39. (p. 98) Bill is just beginning to sense that he has less strength, especially in his back and legs. That he is experiencing age-related loss of lean muscle mass and strength tells us he is most likely in his _____.

A. 20s B. 30s C. 40s D. 50s

D. 50s

40. (p. 98) Age-related loss of muscle mass and strength is called

A. climacteric. B. gonadotropins. C. monarchy. D. sarcopenia.

D. sarcopenia.

41. (p. 98) When does maximum bone density occur? A. early 20s B. mid-20s C. early 30s D. mid-30s

D. mid-30s

42. (p. 98) Mac is 63 years old. Which of the following statements is TRUE?

A. Mac’s artery walls are thinning. B. Mac’s blood pressure will remain about the same as it was in his 40s. C. Mac’s blood cholesterol is increasing and deposits are beginning to accumulate on artery walls. D. Proteins in Mac’s lung tissue are becoming more elastic.

C. Mac’s blood cholesterol is increasing and deposits are beginning to accumulate on artery walls.

43. (p. 99) At 45 years old, Susan is having difficulty trying to conceive a child. This is referred to by the term

A. gonadotropins. B. menarche. C. climacteric. D. menopause.

C. climacteric.

44. (p. 99) Just as _____ has been coming earlier, _____ has been coming later.

A. puberty; menarche B. menarche; puberty C. puberty; menopause D. menopause; menarche

C. puberty; menopause

45. (p. 99) At 51, Beverly is experiencing nausea, fatigue, and rapid heartbeat. A blood test reveals very low levels of estrogen. Beverly is most likely experiencing symptoms of

A. climacteric. B. puberty. C. menarche. D. menopause.

D. menopause.

46. (p. 100) What explanation BEST accounts for why those older than 60 lose weight?

A. They exercise more regularly. B. They eat smaller meals. C. They experience muscle loss. D. Their metabolism speeds up.

C. They experience muscle loss

47. (p. 100) Hypertension and stroke are signs of which of the following in older adults?

A. changes in the neural system B. changes in the digestive system C. changes in the circulatory system D. changes in the musculoskeletal system

C. changes in the circulatory system

48. (p. 102) Which structure is responsible for about 80 percent of the brain’s volume and critical to perception, thinking, and language?

A. forebrain B. cerebral cortex C. left hemisphere D. hippocampus

B. cerebral cortex

49. (p. 102) Which brain lobe is responsible for voluntary movement, thinking, personality, and intentionality or purpose?

A. frontal B. occipital C. temporal D. parietal

A. frontal

50. (p. 102) Which brain lobe is responsible for vision?

A. frontal B. occipital C. temporal D. parietal

B. occipital

51. (p. 102) Which brain lobe is responsible for hearing, language processing, and memory?

A. frontal B. occipital C. temporal D. parietal

C. temporal

52. (p. 102) Which brain lobe is responsible for registering spatial location, attention, and motor control?

A. frontal B. occipital C. temporal D. parietal

D. parietal

53. (p. 102) The hippocampus lies deeper in the brain, beneath the cortex, and plays an important role in which of the following?

A. memory and emotion B. attention and impulse control C. fine motor skills D. critical and creative thinking

A. memory and emotion

54. (p. 102) What is the layer of fat cells that helps electrical impulses travel faster along the axon of a neuron?

A. dendrite B. cerebral cortex C. myelin sheath D. synapse

C. myelin sheath

55. (p. 102) Communication in the synapses occurs through the release of chemical substances known as

A. neurotransmitters. B. neurons. C. dendrites. D. axons.

A. neurotransmitters

56. (p. 102) Specialization of functions in one hemisphere of the cerebral cortex is called

A. myelination. B. neuroconstructivist view. C. lateralization. D. plasticity.

C. lateralization. C. lateralization.

57. (p. 102) Which of the following functions occur primarily in the left hemisphere of the brain?

A. performing music B. reading and complex thinking C. humor and the use of metaphors D. speech and grammar

D. speech and grammar

58. (p. 102) Which of the following functions occur primarily in the right hemisphere of the brain?

A. performing music B. reading and complex thinking C. humor and the use of metaphors D. speech and grammar

C. humor and the use of metaphors

59. (p. 102) Which of the following statements about brain lateralization is NOT true?

A. Complex functions like performing music involve both hemispheres. B. The right and left hemispheres of the brain handle different types of information. C. People who are logical thinkers are left-brained, and creative thinkers are right-brained. D. Complex thinking requires communication between both hemispheres.

C. People who are logical thinkers are left-brained, and creative thinkers are right-brained.

60. (p. 103) Research shows that living in a deprived environment

A. does not significantly affect brain development. B. promotes greater brain development. C. depresses brain activity. D. results in defective brain development that is not reversible regardless of future experiences in better conditions.

C. depresses brain activity

61. (p. 103) Anya is growing up in an orphanage and receives very little emotional, mental, or physical stimulation and nurturing. Anya’s brain development will likely be

A. the same as peers raised in enriched environments. B. greater than peers raised in enriched environments. C. depressed compared to peers raised in enriched environments. D. greater than her biological parents.

C. depressed compared to peers raised in enriched environments.

62. (p. 104) Michael Rehbein had the left hemisphere of his brain removed in order to stop seizures. After much therapy, the right side of his brain began to reorganize and take over left hemisphere functions. This example supports neuroscientists’ belief that what "wires" the brain is

A. repeated experience. B. lateralization. C. not affected by seizures. D. housed in the right hemisphere.

A. repeated experience.

63. (p. 104) A newborn’s brain is _____ percent of its adult weight and grows to _____ percent of its adult weight by 2 years of age.

A. 10; 20 B. 15; 25 C. 25; 50 D. 25; 75

D. 25; 75

64. (p. 105) What is meant by the "blooming and pruning" analogy of brain development?

A. The brain produces many more dendrite and synapse connections than it uses (blooming). Unused connections disappear or are replaced (pruning). B. Early brain function is not specialized by location (blooming). Lateralization (pruning) occurs around 2 years of age. C. Myelination produces the brain’s bumpy surface (blooming). Brain activity and learning smoothes this surface (pruning). D. Areas of the brain mature gradually and uniformly during the first half of life (blooming) and decline in the same manner during the second half of life (pruning).

A. The brain produces many more dendrite and synapse connections than it uses (blooming). Unused connections disappear or are replaced (pruning).

65. (p. 106) Cognitive control involves all of the following EXCEPT

A. inhibiting motor actions. B. controlling attention. C. reducing interfering thoughts. D. improved vocabulary.

D. improved vocabulary.

66. (p. 106) Brain pathways and circuitry in the _____ continue to increase in middle and late childhood.

A. hippocampus B. hypothalamus C. prefrontal cortex D. parietal lobe

C. prefrontal cortex

67. (p. 106) Adolescents are often characterized as impulsive and emotional. This behavior may be due to immature development in which area of the brain?

A. temporal lobe B. right hemisphere C. left hemisphere D. prefrontal cortex

D. prefrontal cortex

68. (p. 106) Thirteen-year-old Jonathan is impulsive and emotional. This may be due to increased activity and growth in the

A. amygdala. B. frontal lobes. C. GABA. D. hypothalamus.

A. amygdala.

69. (p. 106) Seventeen-year-old Jake tends to take risks while driving and is quick-tempered. This lack of self-control and reasoning may be due to the later development of the

A. corpus callosum. B. prefrontal cortex. C. amygdala. D. limbic system.

B. prefrontal cortex

70. (p. 106) The corpus callosum, which connects the brain’s left and right hemispheres, thickens in adolescence, and this improves adolescents’ ability to

A. process information. B. have better self control. C. learn foreign languages. D. control aggressive behavior.

A. process information.

71. (p. 106) The prefrontal cortex, which is the highest level of the frontal lobes, is involved in reasoning, decision making, and self-control. It finishes most of its development during

A. early childhood. B. late adolescence. C. emerging adulthood. D. older adulthood.

C. emerging adulthood.

72. (p. 106) The amygdala, which is the "seat" of emotions such as anger, matures much earlier than the prefrontal cortex. This may account for which of the following?

A. adolescents’ increased information processing speed B. adolescents’ risky, impulsive behavior C. early onset of puberty D. adolescents’ sharper self-regulatory skills

B. adolescents’ risky, impulsive behavior

73. (p. 107) Which neurotransmitter has been associated with increased reward-seeking and risk-taking in adolescence?

A. dopamine B. acetylcholine C. testosterone D. estradiol

A. dopamine

74. (p. 108) What happens to the brain’s weight and volume as it ages?

A. weight increases, volume decreases B. volume increases, weight decreases C. weight and volume increase D. weight and volume decrease

D. weight and volume decrease

75. (p. 109) Ora’s blood test shows a major reduction in acetylcholine. The effect of this may be responsible for

A. the slowing of motor reflexes. B. symptoms of Alzheimer disease. C. symptoms of Parkinson disease. D. increased impulsivity.

B. symptoms of Alzheimer disease

76. (p. 109) Leonard’s blood test shows a major reduction in dopamine. The effect of this may be responsible for

A. decreased visual acuity. B. symptoms of Alzheimer disease. C. symptoms of Parkinson disease. D. increased impulsivity.

C. symptoms of Parkinson disease.

77. (p. 109) If an older adult participates in 6 months of aerobic activity, what would most likely occur?

A. decreased hippocampus volume B. increased hippocampus volume C. no change in hippocampus volume D. a near-fatal increase in brain volume

B. increased hippocampus volume

78. (p. 110) When engaging in cognitive tasks, older brains may compensate for the effects of aging with less

A. dopamine. B. lateralization. C. acetylcholine. D. myelination.

B. lateralization

79. (p. 110) When Doctor Jansen compares brain scans belonging to a 70-year-old and a 50-year-old, what might she see in the 70-year-old brain?

A. more dendrites B. more neurons C. an equal number of dendrites as the 50-year-old brain D. fewer neurons and dendrites

A. more dendrites

80. (p. 110) At what age does dendrite growth appear to stop? A. 60s B. 70s C. 80s D. 90s

D. 90s

81. (p. 111) Which of the following was a conclusion reached in the brain study of the Sisters of Notre Dame of Mankato?

A. High levels of folic acid were linked to increased symptoms of Alzheimer disease. B. "Serving" nuns showed more moderate declines in intellectual skills than "teaching" nuns. C. Positive emotions in early adulthood were linked to longevity. D. High levels of dopamine were linked to increased brain lateralization.

C. Positive emotions in early adulthood were linked to longevity.

82. (p. 112) How much time can newborn Tyler’s parents expect him to sleep?

A. 5-7 hours a day B. 9-13 hours a day C. 16-17 hours a day D. 22-23 hours a day

C. 16-17 hours a day

83. (p. 112) Tameka’s newborn baby is awake for several hours during the night and often sleeps during the day. At what age will her child establish a pattern of sleeping mostly at night?

A. 1 month B. 3 months C. 6 months D. 12 months

C. 6 months

84. (p. 112) Which of the following is true regarding 6-month-old Cassidy’s sleep pattern?

A. She spends most of her time in REM sleep. B. She spends the same amount of time in REM sleep as in non-REM sleep. C. She starts to begin her sleep cycle with REM sleep. D. She spends her longest span of sleep at night.

D. She spends her longest span of sleep at night.

85. (p. 112) Which of the following has NOT been linked to shorter durations of infant sleep?

A. infant TV viewing B. maternal depression during pregnancy C. early introduction of solid food D. the mother’s emotional availability at bedtime

D. the mother’s emotional availability at bedtime

86. (p. 112) Six-month-old Ethan goes to day care, watches TV when his parents make dinner, and has already started eating solid food. Which of the following is likely to be a problem for Ethan and his parents?

A. obesity B. nighttime waking C. night terrors D. lack of attachment with the mother

B. nighttime waking

87. (p. 113) What percentage of infant sleep is spent in REM sleep?

A. 70% B. 50% C. 25% D. 10%

B. 50%

88. (p. 113) What percentage of adult sleep is spent in REM sleep?

A. 20% B. 40% C. 50% D. 75%

A. 20%

89. (p. 113) Although some child experts argue that shared sleeping benefits babies, others recommend against it. Two recent studies link bed sharing with which of the following?

A. infant sleep apnea B. infant heart arrhythmias C. co-dependency issues D. SIDS

D. SIDS

90. (p. 114) Which of the following is recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics to reduce the risk of SIDS?

A. Place infants on their sides to sleep. B. Place infants on their backs to sleep. C. Infants should sleep next to a parent to ensure quick response to breathing pauses. D. Place infants on their stomachs to sleep.

B. Place infants on their backs to sleep.

91. (p. 114) Molly is premature, of low birth weight, and experiences some respiratory problems while in the hospital. Molly is likely at higher risk for

A. sudden infant death syndrome. B. congenital heart disease. C. cystic fibrosis. D. folic acid deficiency.

A. sudden infant death syndrome.

92. (p. 114) Which of the following is NOT a risk factor related to sudden infant death syndrome?

A. passive exposure to cigarette smoke B. congenital heart disease C. sleeping in a bedroom with a fan D. having siblings who have died of SIDS

C. sleeping in a bedroom with a fan

93. (p. 114) Lack of sleep in young children is linked with which of the following?

A. problems at school B. an increased likelihood of depression C. attention problems D. All of these answers are correct.

D. All of these answers are correct.

94. (p. 115) Which of the following is NOT associated with a lack of sleep in adolescents?

A. higher levels of irritability B. higher levels of melatonin C. higher levels of depression D. higher levels of fatigue

B. higher levels of melatonin C. higher levels of depression

95. (p. 115) Fifteen-year-old Tamara only gets about six hours of sleep each night. Which of the following behaviors may Tamara exhibit due to her lack of sleep?

A. irritability B. depression C. fatigue D. All of these answers are correct.

D. All of these answers are correct.

96. (p. 116) What hormone prepares the body for sleep?

A. melatonin B. cortisol C. testosterone D. estrogen

A. melatonin

97. (p. 116) High schools in Edina, Minnesota, delayed class start time based on the finding that _____, the sleep hormone, is released approximately an hour later in older adolescents.

A. cortisol B. melatonin C. testosterone D. estrogen

B. melatonin

98. (p. 116) Who is MOST likely to get up latest in the day?

A. Tom, who is a junior in high school B. Phil, who is a freshman in college C. Joe, who is a junior in college D. Steve, who is a senior in college

B. Phil, who is a freshman in college

99. (p. 116) Which of the following is NOT true about sleep in adulthood?

A. Poor sleep can result in earlier death B. Older adults tend to go to bed earlier and wake up earlier than adolescents and emerging adults C. Sleep problems in middle-aged adults are more common in those who are obese D. The average American adult gets just under 6 hours of sleep a night

D. The average American adult gets just under 6 hours of sleep a night

100. (p. 116) Thirty-nine-year-old Janice is considered sleep-deprived because she only gets about 6 hours of sleep instead of the recommended

A. 7. B. 8. C. 9. D. 10.

B. 8.

101. (p. 116-117) What is true of 45-year-old Jim’s sleep patterns compared to those of his 21-year-old son, Matt?

A. Jim requires an average of 2 hours more sleep than Matt. B. Jim spends more time in deep sleep than Matt. C. Jim stays up later and wakes later than Matt. D. Jim experiences more wakeful periods during the night.

D. Jim experiences more wakeful periods during the night.

102. (p. 117) The maximum life span of human beings is approximately __________ years

A. 90 B. 100 C. 120 D. 150

C. 120

103. (p. 118) Which of the following BEST explains why life expectancy is longer now than in the early 1900s?

A. People today have fewer children. B. People today engage in less risky behavior. C. The human life span has increased significantly. D. Adults today have better health and well-being and infant deaths have been reduced.

D. Adults today have better health and well-being and infant deaths have been reduced.

Scroll to Top