PSYCHOLOGY 160 Practice Quizzes Compilation

Total Word Count: 10927
   Send article as PDF   

quickly engaged in apologetic behavior

In a study conducted by Zahn-Waxler, 5-year-old girls acted out a disagreement between two female dolls. The researchers discovered that girls who _____ were more apt to be disruptive at age 9 than other girls

Christine wears a dress, and her parents tell her how pretty she looks

Which scenario demonstrates the behaviorist theory regarding gender development?

permissive

Abida is a nurturing parent and has good communication with her children whom she never disciplines. Her parenting style is:

Preeminent Psychosocial Accomplishment

between the ages of 2 and 6; Learning when and how to express emotions. Emotional Regulation.

initiative vs guilt

Erikson called the psychosocial developmental stage that occurs between 3 and 6 years of age: v

one half

Compared to parents in the United States, ______ as many Canadian parents use slapping, pinching, or smacking as a form of punishment.

competition

What is one of the functions peers provide in active play?

fear

Regulation of which emotion is MOST emphasized in the United States?

use a play face

Just as monkeys do in their rough-and-tumble play, human children:

were unlikely to draw independently at a later time

In 1973, Lepper and colleagues conducted an experiment in which children did drawings. Some of the children were promised a reward while others received a surprise reward. The researchers found that the children who received the expected award for drawing:

identifying with their father

According to Freud, little boys cope with the guilt of wanting to kill their fathers by:

professionals something something

What is the MOST probable reason child abuse is underreported?

2:4

By age ______, children can consistently apply gender labels. By age ____, children are convinced that certain toys are appropriate for one gender but not the other.

instrumental aggression

Aggression used to obtain or retain a toy or other object is called:

authoritarian

When parents expect unquestioning obedience from their children, their parenting style is labeled:

William’s positive self-concept

William is at the toy store and sees a construction set. He asks his dad if he can have it for his birthday. His dad asks him if he thinks he would be able to use it. William reminds his dad that he is good at building with blocks. What does this example demonstrate?

Using electronic media

Today’s children, especially those living in urban areas, spend more time _______ than playing outdoors.

They think that everyone wants to take advantage of them

How do abused children come to view other people?

Internalizing problems

_____ are marked by excessive guilt, withdrawal, or fearfulness.

evolutionary theory

Which theory states that gender role differences are rooted in a basic urge to reproduce?

Their peers

Young children usually play best with:

authoritative

Young children tend to learn the most from teachers who use which style?

permissive

Children who lack self-control are most likely to have parents who have the ______ parenting style.

antisocial behavior, including murder

Rough and tumble play between boys and fathers may prevent _____ later on.

an externalizing problem

When 4-year-old Karen is angry, she lashes out by hitting. This is an example of:

Example of proactive aggression

hitman for the mob breaks someone’s arm to increase obedience

Reactive Aggression example

punch your spouse in the face because he cheated on you

Example of indirect aggression

spreading a rumor that your ex has an STD

Psychopathology

The clinical term of illness or disorder of the mind referred to as:

D. Paul, who is unhappy and lacks self-control.

The individual most likely to have grown up with permissive parents is:

has been disproved by research

The idea that child maltreatment is rare and perpetuated by disturbed strangers:

flying kites

Which is NOT a form of play engaged in by young children in all cultures?

preconventional

Carla is usually good because she is afraid that she will be punished if she isn’t. Carla is at which level of Kohlberg’s view of moral development?

conventional; law and order

Leon is asked whether a person should steal food if they are starving. Leon says no because it is against the law. Leon is in Kohlberg’s _____ moral reasoning level, in the stage called _____.

the preoperational stage.

The Piagetian stage of development that is similar to Kohlberg’s stage of preconventional morality is:

functions of a family.

Developing self-respect, nurturing friendships with peers, and encouraging learning are three of the:

align themselves with their peers.

When child culture conflicts with adult morality, children will:

two-thirds

About _____ of school-age children live in a two-parent family.

Freud

Who described middle childhood as a time of latency?

Industrious

According to Erikson, if 9-year-old Anna is successful in solving her psychosocial conflict, she should be developing a(n) ______ view of herself.

keep quiet about it.

Ten-year-old India caught Lyndsey, her best friend, lying to her own mom. India will probably:

seeking pleasure and avoiding pain.

Preconventional morality involves:

middle childhood

What period is the prime time for moral development?

industry versus inferiority

What is Erikson’s fourth stage of psychosocial development?

Child Culture

The particular rules and behaviors that are passed down to younger children from older children are what define:

Reflecting her culture

Astrid, age 6, helps her aunt make tortillas in the early morning and then she goes to school until noon. In the afternoon, she and her best friend watch their baby brothers while their mothers sell goods at the market. In the evening, her whole family talks and eats together. She knows her parents are proud of her and she feels proud too. According to the text, Astrid’s labor is:

Stepparent Family

Dimitri has been married before and has two biological children. He has just married Natasha, who has also been married before and has a biological son. Their family is an example of a:

industrious, practicing the skills valued by their culture.

More than people of any other age, children between the ages of 6 and 11 are:

differential sensitivity theory

Marissa and Jessica, sisters born two years apart, grew up in an impoverished, violent neighborhood. As adults, Marissa is chronically jobless and is addicted to drugs while Jessica is a professor of economics at a community college. Which theory might explain their different life outcomes?

being actively involved in his church.

Joel, age 8, lives in a very stressful, chaotic home where he sometimes witnesses his mother being physically abused by her boyfriend. Joel’s problems may be overcome by:

members of their own sex.

Most bullies pick on:

self-concept

Children’s ideas about their intelligence, personality, abilities, gender and ethnic background form their:

functions of a family.

Developing self-respect, nurturing friendships with peers, and encouraging learning are three of the:

align themselves with their eers.

When child culture conflicts with adult morality, children will:

the universal needs of childhood.

Ajay, age 8, sleeps in the back of the shop where he works. His gets a bowl of rice with vegetables to eat. He carries heavy loads. In Ajay’s village, his siblings sometimes have nothing to eat. None of them goes to school. His employer’s son sometimes brings a book in the evening to teach Ajay to read. In making a judgment about Ajay’s situation, one must consider:

may change over time

The quality of resilience is dynamic, which means that it:

lower, at about 13 percent

While 41 percent of all U.S. births were to single mothers in 2010, the number of children who grow up in a household with a single mother who never marries is:

"I am careful not to get caught."

The statement that best reflects moral reasoning at the preconventional level is:

no child based on race or gender

One study found that 98 percent of surveyed children believed that sports teams should exclude:

the careful consideration of all options.

Postconventional morality involves:

her peers, parents, and culture.

Adrionna has begun to participate in arguments on issues of right and wrong. She is developing her own moral thinking, guided by:

decrease her self-esteem.

Andrea is a typical 11-year-old whose growing self-consciousness and self-criticism drive her to frequently compare herself with her peers. If Andrea is like most children, such comparisons will:

genes may have a stronger effect than familial environment on talents.

Alan is an adopted child who lives with three siblings, all biological children of his adoptive parents. Alan’s math skills are far better than those of his adoptive parents or his adoptive siblings. This provides evidence that:

African Americans

In the United States, which ethnic group is MOST likely to accept and support single parents?

their self-esteem may suffer as they compare themselves with others.

Since schoolchildren judge their own talents and limitations more realistically than preschoolers:

Marla, who was punished for not telling the teacher who threw a paper airplane

School-age children would most admire:

Industry

Barbara is in the third grade. She spends many hours rehearsing her math skills, reading books, and collecting bugs. According to Erikson, Barbara is developing a healthy sense of _____ through these tasks.

cognitive development.

According to Kohlberg _____ is what advances a person’s morality.

It provides a crucial defense against emotional problems.

Why is it so important that children learn a sense of industry?

Jean Piaget

Lawrence Kohlberg built on the theories of ______ in his description of the stages of moral development.

Newborns

__________ prefer their mother’s language more than any other language.

Slow-wave

______________ sleep which is characterized by slow, deep breathing; a calm, regular heartbeat; and reduced blood pressure increases significantly at about three or four months of age.

sensorimotor

Piaget called an infant’s first period of cognitive development ________________ intelligence.

cortex

This makes up the outer layers of the brain and is responsible for thinking, feeling, and sensing.

15 to 17

Approximately how many hours per day does the average newborn spend asleep?

triples

The average newborn ________ his weight by 1 year.

autism

A hypothesis that has been repeatedly disproved is that the MMR vaccine causes ___________.

vision

The neonate’s __________ is clearest when objects are four to 30 inches away. Neonate- a newborn child

8 and 10

Between _____ months of age, most infants can lift their midsections and crawl on "all fours."

Piaget

According to _________, a stage-five sensorimotor baby is like a scientist who experiments to see what will happen.

malaria

For which illness is an immunization NOT available?

prefrontal cortex.

The last part of the brain to mature is the _______________.

fewer

Studies comparing breast-feeding to bottle-feeding show that breast-fed babies have ________ allergies and stomachaches.

neurotransmitters

The function of _______________ is to carry information from one neuron to another.

sensation

The process that first detects an external stimulus is ____________.

vision

The sense that is the least developed at birth is an infant’s __________.

stage three.

The first of Piaget’s sensorimotor stages that involves an infant’s interaction with something else is ______________.

28

A typical child at 24 months weighs about _____ pounds.

sensation/perception/cognition

You see a beautiful yellow flower while walking through a meadow. Your eyes seeing the flower is a matter of ______. Your brain determining that the flower is yellow is a matter of ______. Imagining how the flower will look in a vase would demonstrate ______.

3 months

Children as young as _____ old exhibit signs of the own-race effect.

Skinner

By 10 months of age, Alan has a vocabulary of a dozen words. ____________ would have attributed Alan’s rapid speech development mainly to the amount his parents talk to him.

mother’s

Newborns prefer their ____________ language more than any other language.

neuron

A basic nerve cell in the central nervous system is called a(n):

nouns

As infants acquire language, they say more _____ than any other parts of speech.

motherese

Elaine communicates with her new baby using child-directed speech, which is also referred to as ______________.

75 44

In the United States, _____ percent of babies are breast-fed at birth, and _____ percent are breast-fed at six months.

less

Jordan’s weight is in the 50th percentile. This means that 50 percent of children his age weigh ______ than he does.

crawl

Renee is concerned because her son is 13 months old and is starting to walk before learning to crawl. What advice would a pediatrician give to Renee? She should not be worried since some babies do not ______.

fivefold

From birth until age two, dendrites in the cortex increase __________.

B

The usual order of the development of spoken language in an infant is: A) cooing, babbling, reflexes, and spoken words. B) reflexes, cooing, babbling, and spoken words. C) babbling, cooing, spoken words, and reflexes. D) cooing, reflexes, babbling, and spoken words.

sensation

Whenever the eyes, ears, tongue, skin, or mouth detect a stimulus, a(n) _____ has occurred.

pruning

The process through which unused and misconnected dendrites atrophy and die is called:

500 and 1500

When they practice walking, babies average between _____ steps per hour.

marasmus

Lyrissa lives in Africa. She is 9 months old and does not weigh enough due to malnutrition. Her life is in danger. Lyrissa suffers from:

infant and child mortality

Clean water, immunizations, and nutritious food have all had a dramatic impact on:

normally

Trent is an infant who lacks the toys and videos that promote brain development. He spends much of his day in a playpen with kitchen items for toys, listening to his grandmother sing while his mother works outside the home. In this situation, Trent’s brain development will most likely proceed __________ due to the self-righting tendency.

2 and 4

Binocular vision appears between _____ months of age.

stage four

In which of Piaget’s sensorimotor stages do infants adapt, anticipate, and become more deliberate in responding to people and objects?

transient exuberance.

The brain develops extremely quickly in the first few years, but not all of this growth is permanent. Due to its rapidity and temporary nature, this rapid brain growth is called:

20

A newborn’s brain weight is _____ percent of an adult’s brain weight.

almost as much

Mothers who work full time outside the home play with their children ______ as mothers who stay at home play with their children.

learning trust or mistrust.

In Erikson’s theory, the infant’s earliest task is described as that of:

awareness

The emotions of shame, pride, and embarrassment require that a child first gain _________________ of other people.

Watson

Which theorist stated, "Failure to bring up a happy child, a well-adjusted child—assuming bodily health—falls squarely upon the parents’ shoulders"?

trust versus mistrust

The first crisis of life, according to Erikson, is:

frustration

An infant’s anger is usually triggered by ________________.

disorganized

Baby Carrie’s father is holding her. She is smiling at him one minute and then, unexpectedly, she slaps his face. Since this is typical behavior for her, she may have which type of attachment?

first

If a child successfully resolves Erikson’s __________ stage, he or she can be expected to explore his or her world.

social awareness

Which characteristics must be present before an infant can experience pride, shame, or guilt?

6 months

The emotion of anger usually appears at the age of:

responds

The Strange Situation measures how a child ____________ to separations and reunions with a caregiver.

temperament

Research has found that a person’s _____________________ is linked to biological patterns that appear in infancy.

sadness

Increased levels of cortisol are associated with an infant’s:

anterior cingulate gyrus

This specific part of the brain is responsible for emotional self-regulation:

secure

A child being willing to explore a new environment in the presence of the caregiver is a scenario which portrays ______________ attachment.

5

Parents of a typical ____ year-old girl in America are MOST likely to say: "She isn’t eating enough."

myelination

The ability to generate several thoughts in rapid succession is most specifically related to ___________________.

scaffolding

Sydney helps her 2-year-old daughter to make hot chocolate. She helps the child to measure teaspoons of cocoa into a cup, add water, stir the contents, and then microwave the cup. Sydney is providing _________________.

Overregularization

___________________________ in a child’s speech patterns indicates that the child can apply grammatical rules to vocalizations.

fast-mapping

When children hear a new word in a familiar context, they can simply add the word to the general category without fully understanding the word. This is called:

focus on appearance

A preschool child thinks a tall 20-year-old man is older than a short 40-year-old man. This is an example of:

Montessori

Learning Circle Preschool emphasizes individual pride and achievement while focusing on teaching young children literacy-related tasks. Learning Circle’s approach seems to most closely resemble a(n) ______________ program.

critical period

When Renee was 11 months old, she was injured in a car crash. She was in a coma for almost a year and then spent many months of recovery from a brain injury. By her third birthday, although she is making good process, she has not yet spoken, and her parents are fearful that she will never speak. The doctors, however, feel confident that Renee will learn speak. This is because language learning in the first four years is NOT a:

developed

In ________________ nations, calcium, iron, and zinc are MOST apt to be lacking in a child’s diet.

Vygotsky

According to ______________, guided participation requires that a child interacts with a mentor to accomplish a task.

just right

Kindra, age 4, is very particular about her daily routines, especially at mealtime. She will only eat from a certain plate, drink from one certain cup, and must have a folded napkin next to her plate. She is exhibiting the phenomenon called __________________.

fine

Using scissors to cut paper. an example of a ________ motor skill.

1/3

What proportion of all children under the age of 6 in the United States suffer from tooth decay?

decreases

A child’s appetite _____ between the ages of 2 and 6.

acid

Sylvia wants to keep her son from getting cavities, so she lets him drink diet soda instead of regular soda. Her dentist tells her that her strategy won’t work because diet soda has as much _______ as regular soda.

injury control

Instead of accident prevention, health workers prefer the term ____________.

fine

Buttoning a coat is an activity that requires ________ motor skills.

Logical extension

_______________________ involves linking a newly-learned word to other objects in the same category.

centration

Nine-year-old Bobby has no problem understanding that the 20-year-old woman who sometimes stays with him is both a student and a babysitter. According to Piaget, this is because Bobby’s thinking has moved beyond _____________.

fine/gross

Writing your name is a ______ motor skill, whereas kicking a ball is a ______ motor skill.

static reasoning

When children assume that the world is unchanging, they engage in:

Math

A study of 5-year-old children in Milwaukee showed that those who attended a Montessori preschool were more advanced in _____ skills than those who did not attend.

centration

A magician’s goal is to get the audience to focus on one aspect of his demonstration while he manipulates another. This is easy to do with preoperational children, as they are fooled by their tendency to demonstrate ___________________.

corpus callosum

Kayla is 4 years old and has recently begun coordinating the two sides of her body more efficiently. This improvement can be attributed to the growth of her _______________________.

scaffolding

Miriam helps her son Ben to make cookies. She measures all of the ingredients out and places them on the counter in small bowls. She reads the recipe aloud as Ben places the ingredients in the bowl and mixes them together with a spoon. This is an example of ______________________.

left

Ryan suffered a brain injury as a result of an automobile accident. His abilities to speak and to process language were severely affected. His injury was to the __________ side of his brain.

learn

The goal of most teacher-directed preschools is to make children ready to _________.

Vygotsky

Each time Juan puts a puzzle together, his father gives him a little less help. Which theorist would be MOST pleased with Juan’s father?

emotions

The amygdala is a brain structure that registers:

static reasoning

When Jennie sees her third-grade teacher in the grocery store, she is shocked to see her outside of school. This is likely due to Jennie’s:

lowest

An evaluation of Head Start found that benefits were MOST apparent for children with the _________ family income.

Reggio Emilia

The _____________________ early-childhood program focuses on children’s creativity and artistic talent.

2/6

By the age of __, a child will typically have a vocabulary of 500 words; by the age of __, a child will typically have a vocabulary of 10,000 words.

parent

According to Vygotsky, a child’s first mentor is a ____________.

4 years

At what age do MOST children without older siblings develop theory of mind?

logical extension

Caitlin, age 4, visited the city zoo, pointed to a zebra, and exclaimed, "Look at the horse with stripes!" In describing the zebra, she used:

logically

Piaget believed that until about age 6, it is difficult for children to think __________.

change

The science of human development seeks to understand how and why people _________ over time.

together

Most developmental psychologists believe that development is the result of nature and nurture working _____________.

sensitive

Language learning is considered a __________ period.

multidirectional

With age, people experience losses in some domains and gains in others. This is consistent with the ____________ nature of development.

exosystem

Church is an example of an _______________?

epigenetic

The ___________ theory places the greatest emphasis on the interaction between genes and the environment.

Freud

Psychoanalytic theory originated with ________.

master

In Erikson’s industry versus inferiority stage, children try to _______ new skills.

crisis

Each of Erikson’s developmental stages is characterized by a particular challenge or developmental __________.

learning theory

Behaviorism is also called ________________.

classical conditioning.

Pavlov’s experiment in which he conditioned dogs to salivate after hearing a bell demonstrated what he called ______________ ________________.

modeling

In social learning theory, ____________ is a process by which people observe the actions of others and then copy them.

operant

According to behaviorists, almost all daily behavior, from combing your hair to joking with friends, is a result of past ____________ conditioning

think

Piaget was primarily interested in how children ________.

experiment

An ___________ is a research method that is used in order to establish what causes a behavior.

first

Posing a question is the ______ step of the scientific method.

environmental

In the science of human development, "nurture" refers to ______________ influences.

multidirectional

The idea that change does not always occur in a straight line defines the _____ characteristic of development.

natural

Throughout his life, Bronfenbrenner emphasized studying humans in __________ settings.

microsystem

The ______________ includes family and peers.

social class

What does "socioeconomic status" refer to?

Epigenetic

The ______________ theory arises from biology, genetics, and neuroscience.

epigenetic

Development is the result of interaction between biological and environmental forces. This statement most closely describes the _______________ theory.

sexual

According to Freud, each stage of development in the first six years of life is characterized by ______________ pleasure.

difference

Freud emphasized psychosexual development, whereas Erikson emphasized psychosocial development. This is a major ____________ between Erikson and Freud is that

adolescence

At what age does Erikson’s stage of identity versus role confusion occur?

learning

Behaviorists are also referred to as ___________ theorists.

operant

The type of learning in which either a reinforcement or punishment follows a particular behavior is called _________ conditioning.

Bandura

Social learning theory was first described by _________.

Formal Operational

____________ _____________ is Piaget’s stage in which one expect would expect to see the development of an interest in ethics, politics, and social and moral issues.

cognitive

Five-year-old Jada is learning to speak Dutch. In this example, what would be the primary domain of development?

experiment

In an ____________, tests of significance are used to indicate whether the results might have occurred by chance.

one

For several months after birth, newborns gain approximately _____ ounce per day.

50

By 24 months, most children are about ____ percent of their adult height.

billions

At birth, the brain has ____________________ of neurons.

synapses

The axon of one neuron meets the dendrites of other neurons at intersections called _____.

pruning

Unused neurons and misconnected dendrites shrink and die. This process occurs during ___________.

Shaken baby syndrome

___________ ________ __________ is seen in one in five children hospitalized for maltreatment.

REM

Sleep characterized by flickering eyes and rapid brain waves is called ________ sleep.

focus

Typically, infants’ eyes can _______ on a single thing between two and four months.

gross

Crawling is an example of a _______ motor skill.

fine

Holding a bottle is an example of a _______ motor skill.

malaria

According to your text, which of the following diseases does NOT have an immunization available?

whooping cough

Lack of immunization is blamed for a spike in _____ in California in 2010.

colostrum

The thick, high-calorie fluid secreted by the mother’s breasts at birth is called ___________.

reduces

Breast-feeding ________ the risk of cancer, asthma, and diabetes.

sensorimotor intelligence

Piaget’s cognitive development period that lasts from birth to two years is called ____________ ________________.

adaptation

What occurs when infants change from sucking their mother’s breast to sucking a pacifier?

four

Stage _______ of sensorimotor intelligence is characterized by new adaptation and anticipation.

deferred imitation

One-year-old Danielle watches her sister talk on a cell phone. The next day Danielle holds the cell phone to her ear as if she is using the phone. Danielle is demonstrating ________ ___________.

spoken

Reflexive, cooing, babbling, and simple words is the typical order of ________ language development.

reinforcement

Behaviorists believe that a mother who gives _________ will stimulate her child’s communication skills.

20

The average length of a newborn at birth is approximately ___ inches.

50

Typical two-year-olds are already ___ percent their adult height.

before

Most neurons are created ________ birth.

pruning

Which term is used to describe the process in which unused neurons die?

shaken baby syndrome

Which of the following may result in brain damage, coma, or death?

self-righting

The inborn drive to remedy a developmental deficit is known as __________________.

decreases

Over the first few months of infancy, the amount of time spent in REM (dreaming) sleep ___________.

sensation

When a sensory system detects a stimulus, _____ occurs.

perception

Which term describes what occurs when the brain notices and processes a sensation?

sight

Which of the following senses is the least developed at birth?

gross

Large body movements, such as walking and jumping, are ______ motor skills.

MMR

The ______ vaccine protects against measles, mumps, and rubella.

less

Breast-fed babies are often _____ sick than formula-fed babies.

Benefits

__________ for breast-fed babies include fewer cavities, better childhood vision, and protection against many childhood diseases.

sensorimotor intelligence

The thought process in infants that relies on senses and motor skills is known as ___________ _________________.

object permanence

Isaiah is seven months old. His sister takes a toy and hides it behind her back. Isaiah cries and does not look for the toy. It is likely that he has not yet acquired _______________ _____________.

Tertiary

____________ circular reactions are characterized by active exploration and experimentation.

computer

The information-processing theory compares human thinking to _____________ functioning.

motherese

Child-directed speech is preferred by newborns over other sounds, is high-pitched, simplified, and repetitive speech used by adults. It is also called _______________.

innate

According to Chomsky’s theory of language development, __________ ability predicts communication.

expressions

The first emotional ________________ to emerge at birth are crying and contentment.

6

An infant normally begins to express anger at ___ months.

Separation

______________ anxiety is normal at age one but not after age three. It happens when a child shows distress when his or her caregiver leaves. It intensifies by age two and then usually subsides by age three.

self awareness

When an infant realizes that he or she is a distinct individual whose actions are separate from others, she is exhibiting _______ ______________.

self recognition

Pretending and using the words "I," "me," "mine," and "myself" are evidence that the child has developed ____ ______________.

synchrony

A mutually coordinated, rapid, smooth interaction between a caregiver and an infant is called _____________.

attachment

When a toddler begins to walk and talk, the social bond with the caregiver changes from synchrony to ____________.

proximity

When one-year-old Albert exhibits ___________ seeking behavior, he crawls after his father when his father leaves the room.

Mary Ainsworth

Although cultural differences exist, most infants worldwide develop special attachments to their caregivers. This discovery is attributed to _________ ___________.

insecure

_____________ resistant/ambivalent attachment pattern describes a child who both welcomes and resists contact with his caregiver after being apart for some time.

Secure

____________ attachment is more difficult when the parents were abused as children, when families are socially isolated, and when infants are unusually difficult.

cautious

According to the text, father encourage infants to explore, whereas mothers tend to be more ___________.

development

The psychoanalytic theory emphasizes the need for responsive maternal care and connects biosocial with psychosocial ________________.

anus

According to Freud, the primary source of gratification during the second year of life is the ________.

trust vs mistrust

What does Erikson call the first crisis of life?

Proximal

________ parenting involves close physical contact with a child.

distal

_______ parenting involves engaging the child more intellectually rather than with close physical contact.

cognitive theory

The idea of a working model is from ____________ ___________.

schema

A ______ is an organized conception of something.

allocare

The care of children by people other than the biological parents is called ___________.

family day care

According to the text, nonrelative child care in a home is referred to as __________ ____ _______.

6

An infant smiles at someone who is holding her. We can assume that the infant is probably about _____ weeks old.

stranger

When an infant is fearful of strangers, he or she is exhibiting __________ wariness.

separation

An infant’s distress when his or her caregiver leaves is known as ____________ anxiety.

self awareness

The realization that one’s body, mind, and activities are distinct from those of other people is known as _____ _______________.

proximity

Albert crawls after his father when his father leaves the room. In doing so, Albert is exhibiting ____________ seeking behavior.

still face

The experimental practice in which adults stare at their baby and remain expressionless is called the ______ ________ technique.

secure

When an infant is comfortable and confident in the presence of his or her caregivers, the infant is said to have a _________ attachment.

contact

insecure resistant/ambivalent attachment pattern involves an infant who both resists and seeks ___________ when reunited with his or her caregiver

toys

Exploration of ______ is one of the key aspects of the Strange Situation.

responsiveness

One of the most influential factors that determine a child’s type of attachment is the ___________________ of the parents.

fathers

Synchrony, attachment, and social referencing are all apparent with ________ in all cultures.

autonomy vs shame and doubt

Erikson’s second crisis of life that begins when self-awareness emerges is known as _____.

psychoanalytic

The theory that emphasizes the need for responsive maternal care and connects biosocial with psychosocial development is _________________.

Freud

__________ would trace a person’s excessive eating, drinking, or talking to how that person’s mother handled his or her urge to suck during infancy.

trust vs mistrust

What is Erikson’s first crisis of life?

Behaviorists

_____________ believe that emotions and personality are molded as parents reinforce or punish a child.

proximal

Research indicates that toddlers with ________ mothers were more compliant but less self aware.

internal working model

A set of assumptions that become a frame of reference for later life is known as the _______ __________ __________.

low

High-quality day care during infancy has a ______ turnover rate.

almost

A time-use study found that mothers who worked full time outside the home spent ________ as much time playing with their babies as mothers with no outside jobs.

developed

By age six, the average child in a ____________ nation weighs between 40 and 50 pounds.

just right

The _________ _______ phenomenon refers to young children’s insistence on routine.

motor skills

Environmental hazards such as pollution interfere with the development of ______________.

tertiary

Removing an abused child from the home is an example of ___________ prevention of child maltreatment.

inevitable

Experts prefer the term "injury control" over the term "accident prevention, because the use of the term "accident" suggests that no one is at fault and that certain events are _________.

prefrontal cortex

Which area is said to be the "executive" area of the brain?

corpus callosum

The _________ allows communication between the two hemispheres of the brain.

perseveration

The tendency to stick to one thought or action for a long time is known as _____________.

limbic system

The ________ ________ is crucial for the expression and regulation of emotions.

hippocampus

The ________________ is a central processor of memory, particularly for remembering locations.

egocentrism

Which Piagetian term literally means "self-centered"?

focus on appearance

Which characteristic of preoperational thought involves a child ignoring all attributes that are not obvious?

guided

After noticing that her younger brother was having difficulty with a jigsaw puzzle, Rose helped him by praising his successes and recognizing his progress. From Vygotsky’s perspective, this as an example of ____________ participation.

zone of proximal development

Vygotsky believed that everyone learns within their _________________, which is an intellectual area where new skills can be mastered.

theory-theory

__________ refers to the idea that children naturally construct theories to explain what they see and hear.

suddenly

Theory of mind typically appears rather __________.

fast mapping

The process by which children develop an interconnected set of categories for words is called ________ __________.

overregularization

The tendency of a young child to apply rules of grammar when he or she should not is ______________.

Vygotsky

Child-centered programs recognize that children learn through play with other children. This is most consistent with the views of ____________.

head start

According to the text, these programs vary in length, curriculum, and goals which complicates the evaluation of ______ ________ programs?

6

By age ___, the average child in a developed nation is at least three and one-half feet tall.

just right

When a young child insists that he brushes his teeth before he reads a story – not after – he or she is exhibiting the _______ ________ phenomenon.

motor

Exposure to high levels of lead does not cause a decrease in ________ skills.

prefrontal cortex

The __________ _________ is involved in planning and goal-directed behavior.

lateralization

The specialization in certain functions by each side of the brain is ________________.

amygdala

The _______ is the brain structure that registers emotions, particularly fear and anxiety.

egocentrism

A three-year-old who gives his mother a toy car for HER birthday and expects that she will love it is demonstrating _________________.

static reasoning

_________ ___________ is a characteristic of preoperational thought which involves a child assuming that the world is unchanging.

intelligence

Vygotsky emphasized the ability to learn as a measure of _____________.

scaffolding

________________ refers to temporary support that is tailored to a learner’s needs and aimed at helping him or her master a new skill.

overimitation

The tendency of children to copy an action that is not a relevant part of the behavior to be learned is known as ________________.

theory of mind

The understanding that others can have thoughts and ideas unlike one’s own describes _______________________.

fast mapping

As a hobby, Jessica and her husband work on car engines. Jessica doesn’t always know what a particular car part is, but she typically understands its function and places it in an appropriate mental category. This is an example of ________________.

grammar

Overregularization demonstrates a child’s understanding of __________.

quality

Research on early-childhood education programs finds that _________ matters most.

Montessori

___________ schools emphasize individual pride and accomplishment.

Reggio Emilia

Which of the following preschools, named after the town in Italy where it began, encourages students to master skills such as writing and using tools?

teacher

_________ directed programs stress readiness for school, emphasizing letters and numbers that all children should understand.

1965

Head Start, the federally-funded early-childhood education program for four-year-olds, began in ________.

hispanic

The young children who are least likely to attend preschool in the United States are typically ____________.

emotional regulation

Children who have mastered ___________ have learned when and how to express emotions.

third

Initiative versus guilt is Erikson’s _____ developmental stage.

protective optimism

Preschoolers predict that they can solve impossible puzzles or control their dreams. These naive predictions are called __________ ____________.

motivation

The impulse that propels someone to act is called _____________.

intrinsic

A musician who plays for the delight of making music has an _________ motivation.

prefrontal cortex

Four-year-old Brooks is afraid of certain things, such as the sound of a train whistle and going to bed without a light on. His excessive fears are an expression of immature development of his ___________ ____________.

psychopathology

An illness or disorder of the mind is referred to as ____________________.

externalizing

When a person expresses powerful feelings through uncontrolled physical or verbal outbursts, he or she is _________________ problems.

internalizing

An example of an externalizing problem is attacking other people, while an example of an ______________ problem is being withdrawn.

Peers

_________ provide practice in emotional regulation, empathy, and social understanding.

parallel

When children play with similar toys, but not together is an example of ___________ play.

Baumrind

Many researchers have traced the effects of parenting on child development, but the researcher whose findings continue to be very influential is _____________.

authoritarian

What is the parenting style in which parents are more likely to use physical punishment?

electronic media

On average, young children of every ethnic and economic group spend three to five hours a day exposed to __________ _______.

empathy

___________ refers to a true understanding of the feelings and concerns of another person.

antisocial

Six-year-old Johnny suddenly makes an angry face at Alan and kicks him hard for no apparent reason. Johnny is displaying _____________ behavior.

relational

_____________ aggression is type of aggression which is characterized by insults or social rejection aimed at harming the victim’s friendships.

discipline

The ultimate goal of ____________ is to teach the child the standards of behavior within his or her culture.

physically

Longitudinal research has found that children who are __________ punished are more likely to become bullies, delinquents, and then abusive adults.

time out

A disciplinary technique in which a child is separated from other people for a specified time is called a _______ ____.

regulation

The ability to control when and how emotions are expressed is referred to as emotional ________________.

third

Erikson’s _______ developmental stage, in which self-esteem emerges, is called initiative versus guilt.

Imaginary

__________ friends are increasingly common between ages three and seven.

intrinsic

Drive that comes from inside a person is called ____________ motivation.

emotion

The part of the brain in which neurological advances significantly affect the ability to regulate ________ is the prefrontal cortex.

less

In an experiment by Lepper and colleagues (1973), children who knew they would receive an award for drawing were _______ likely to draw.

reparative

Girls whose behavior problems got worse over the first years of primary school were more likely to engage in _____________ behavior than boys were.

hormonal

According to the text, neurological and ___________ effects may make boys more vulnerable to externalizing problems and girls more vulnerable to internalizing problems.

peers

People of about the same age and social status are known as _______.

Solitary

________ play is the first to appear in Parten’s progression of social play.

warmth

The researcher Diana Baumrind found that parents differ in expressions of _________ of child rearing.

permissive

Parents who have low expectations for maturity and rarely discipline their children are characterized by Baumrind as ___________.

sex

Biological differences between males and females are referred to as _____ differences.

Erikson

__________ explained that with maturity and adult guidance, children develop guilt and self-control.

empathy

A parent might ask a child, "How would you feel if someone did that to you?" to encourage ___________.

prosocial

Feelings and actions that are helpful and kind without a personal motive are ____________.

Bullying

_____________ is a kind of aggression that is unprovoked and involves repeated physical or verbal attacks.

intrumental

Hurtful behavior, common among two-year-olds, that is intended to get something that another person has is called ______________ aggression.

Physical

____________ punishment increases the possibility of aggression and temporarily increases obedience.

fourth

Industry versus inferiority is Erikson’s _________ stage of psychosocial development.

inferior

According to Erikson, if eight-year-old Kristina does NOT solve the fourth stage of her psychosocial conflict, she will come to view herself as _________.

latency

Freud referred to middle childhood as the period of __________.

comparison

The tendency to assess one’s own abilities by measuring them against those of other people, especially peers, is social _____________.

resilience

The capacity to develop well by adapting positively to significant adversity is called ______________.

function

The way in which a family works to meet the needs of its members is referred to as family ___________.

structure

The legal and genetic connections among people living in the same household are known as family _________.

stability

A child that grows up in a military family is usually lacking in ________.

nuclear

The most common type of family structure for U.S. children between ages six and 11 is __________.

extended

An ___________ family is a family that may include cousins, uncles, and grandparents.

function

According to your text, two factors that significantly interfere with family ___________ in every nation are low income and high conflict.

culture

A characteristic of the _______ of children may include spouting curses, accents, and slang.

peers

Psychosocially, one of the most important tasks of a middle-school child is to learn how to get along with _______.

change

Research on social acceptance among children indicates that some children are well liked – others aren’t – and those in both groups ________ over time.

cognition

The ability to understand human interactions is called social _________.

aggressive rejected

Rita, who is unpopular among her peers, frequently ridicules and antagonizes other children. Her behavior suggests that she is an _________ ____________ child.

bullying

Repeated, systematic efforts to inflict harm through physical, verbal, or social attack on a weaker person is the definition of ____________.

guided

Research has shown that children develop their own standards of right and wrong, and are ________ by peers, parents, and culture.

Kohlberg

The theorist associated with the six stages of moral reasoning is ___________.

middle

Civic sense and virtue begins in __________ childhood.

skills

During Erikson’s crisis of industry versus inferiority, children attempt to master many ________.

fourth

Marisol can’t wait to begin her first karate class. This represents the typical child in Erikson’s ________ stage.

latency

Freud believed that children’s emotional drives and psychosocial needs are quiet during the _______ stage.

social

School-aged children tend to be aware of their classmates’ opinions, judgments, and accomplishments. This development enables school-aged children to engage in _______ comparison.

dynamic

Resilience is _________.

function

According to your text, the most important overall family ________ is to provide love and encouragement.

lower

Children in U.S. military families move often and have _______ school achievement.

nuclear

A family that consists of a father, a mother, and their biological children younger than age 18 is referred to as a ________ family.

30

According to your text, approximately _____ percent of six to 11-year-olds currently live in a single-parent family.

stress

The family __________ model examines crucial questions about the effect of risk factors such as poverty, divorce, or job loss on the family.

blames

Ten-year-old Julian’s parents frequently yell and argue. He will more likely feel lonely if he _________ himself for his parents’ fights.

egocentrism

The difference in the psychosocial development of young children compared to middle-school children is that young children’s _____________ makes them less affected by other children’s acceptance or rejection of them.

strongly

One interesting aspect of the culture of children is that gender stereotypes and gender segregation are _________ maintained.

cognition

Social _________ refers to the ability to understand social interactions.

popular

According to research, the most _________ young children are kind and cooperative.

withdrawn rejected

A child who is rejected by peers because of timid and anxious behavior is referred to as __________ __________.

bullying

Characteristics of _________ are repeated, systematic attacks intended to harm a weaker person.

Kohlberg

__________ described three levels of moral reasoning with two stages at each level.

moral

Preconventional moral reasoning is one of Kohlberg’s levels of _______ thought.

Kohlberg

_____________ would expect a child whose thought processes are egocentric to display moral reasoning with a punishment and obedience orientation.

spermarche

For boys, the event that most closely parallels menarche is __________.

puberty

In the twenty-first century, early ___________ correlates positively with aggression and antisocial behavior in boys.

limbic

José enjoys sports, especially running. As an adolescent, he has the potential to become a star athlete. The development of his _______ system and the influence of male hormones will be MOST beneficial to him in reaching his full potential.

bulimia nervosa

Josefina is obsessed with her weight. She sometimes eats a whole package of Oreos at once and then makes herself vomit. Josefina is of normal weight, but she constantly has heartburn. She MOST likely suffers from ________ ________.

hypothetical

Justine is 14 years old. Her parents are frequently annoyed because Justine tends to ask critical questions such as, "Why can’t I have wine with dinner? You do." or "I don’t understand why I’ll be able to vote when I’m 18, but I have to wait until I’m 21 to buy alcohol!" This demonstrates Justine’s _______________ thinking.

precocious

Latisha experienced menarche when she was 8 years old. She experienced __________ puberty.

imaginary

Marsha says, "There is no way I am going to school today with this bruise on my cheek. Everybody is going to laugh at me." Marsha is demonstrating her belief in an ______________ audience.

anxiety

One reason adolescents’ nutritional habits may be poor is ________ about their body image.

formal operational

Piaget called the reasoning that characterizes adolescence ___________ __________ thought.

hypothetical

Reasoning that includes propositions and possibilities that may not reflect reality defines ________________ thought.

strongly

Research has shown that adolescents who drop out of high school are __________ influenced by their middle school experiences.

caution

Since adolescents’ prefrontal cortex is not fully developed, many of them tend NOT to exercise __________ in most situations.

perspective

Since adolescents regard themselves as uniquely special it is difficult for them to envision another person’s _______________.

developmental

The common middle-school schedule that involves classroom changes every 40 minutes creates a ________________ mismatch.

hypothetical

What-if propositions require ____________ thought.

growth

Some teenagers seem able to skate, play basketball, or dance for hours without rest. This increased endurance is best explained by the _______ of the heart and lungs.

intuitive

Thinking or drawing conclusions based on past personal experience, emotions, or a gut feeling is referred to as __________ thought.

secondary

Graduates of vocational programs earn less than students who do not attend them. This is a challenge associated with vocational education at the ____________ level in the United States.

puberty

There is no correlation between body fat and the early onset of ___________.

prefrontal cortex

Xavier, 16, invites a group of his high school friends to swim in a neighbor’s pool late at night while that neighbor is away. They climb the fence and jump in, playing wildly and loudly in the water. Just a few minutes later, the police arrive. His ___________ __________ is underdeveloped. This helps explain Xavier’s poor decision making.

psychosocial

During _____________ development, the adolescent is trying to figure out "Who am I?"

fifth

During the __________ stage of psychosocial development, an adolescent who isn’t sure which role to adopt is said to be experiencing a crisis of identity versus role confusion.

diffusion

It is typical for an adolescent experiencing identity __________ to sleep too much, care little about school, and be indifferent to parental criticism.

identity

In achieving full __________, an adolescent should understand his or her goals and values regarding religion, sex, politics, ethnicity & vocation.

vocational

Today, _______________ identity is postponed because many vocations require specialized skills that take years to attain.

gender

An example of _______ role is when there is a pattern of behavior that society considers appropriate for only men or only women.

bickering

Petty, peevish arguing that is usually ongoing is known as ____________.

closeness

Adolescents are said to have _____________ with family when there is open communication, support, emotional connectedness, and parental control.

Facilitation

_____________ specifically in adolescent peer relationships, refers to the way that peers encourage each other to do things that most wouldn’t do on their own.

decreased

In the past 50 years, teen births have _____ in every nation.

third

According to Dunphy, the ________ event in the sequence of male-female small mixed-sex groups.

10

___ percent of heterosexual adults report having had same-sex encounters during their adolescence.

programs

The best sex-education ____________ are those that start before high school, require parent-child communication, focus on behavior, and last for years.

familism

The belief that family members should support one another, sacrificing individual freedom if necessary, is called __________.

more

Serious depression among adolescents is ________ common in females than in males.

ideation

Suicidal _________ is common among adolescents, but completed suicides are not.

normal

Most longitudinal studies on adolescent destructiveness conclude that increased anger at puberty is _________ and is usually expressed in acceptable ways.

predictor

The best __________ of drug abuse in adulthood is drug use before age 18.

tobacco

____________ is a psychoactive drug used during adolescence inhibits growth and may result in the adolescent becoming a shorter and heavier adult.

more

Adolescents who regularly smoke marijuana are ______ likely to drop out of school, become teenage parents, be unemployed.

identity vs role confusion

What is Erikson’s fifth stage of psychosocial development?

role confusion

Understanding oneself based on past experiences and future plans is called identity achievement, and lack of commitment to any goals or values is called _______ ____________.

foreclosure

Erikson’s term for premature identity formation is ______________.

religious identity

Within which type of identity does society expect some debate and questioning during late adolescence?

Gender Identity

________ ___________ refers to a person’s self-definition as male or female, and sexual orientation refers to a person’s erotic desires.

conflicts

Parent and adolescent __________ occur when a child’s drive for independence clashes with the parents’ supervision and control.

parental monitoring

Parents’ ongoing awareness of what their children are doing, where, and with whom is called _________ _______________.

parental monitoring

Mr. Sanchez gives the car keys to his son and asks, "Who is going to the movies with you, and what time will you be home?" This questioning is an example of _________ ___________.

conform

Peer pressure or encouragement to ___________ to a friend’s behavior or fashion style can be positive.

year

High school romances are short-lived, rarely lasting more than a _______.

decreased

From 1991 to 2001, the rate of sexual activity among U.S. high school students __________.

criminal

In many nations of Africa and the Middle East, same-sex behaviors are considered _________ and pathological.

Asian

Which immigrant youth seem to suffer from lower self-esteem than the other groups?

adolescence

Research has shown that the dip in self-esteem during ______________ is experienced by both sexes.

depression

Two causes of ____________ in adolescence are genetics and having a mother who is often belligerent and disapproving.

suicidal ideation

Thinking about suicide is called _________.

parasuicide

A failed suicide is called __________.

neurological

Early ____________ impairments increase the risk of a child becoming a life-course persistent offender, and a teen experiencing a negative psychosocial development is at greater risk of becoming an adolescence limited offender.

inhalants

The only drug(s) used by more eighth-graders than twelfth-graders is __________________.

Alcohol

The most frequently abused drug among North American teenagers is __________.

marijuana

Longitudinal research on ______________ use suggests that drug use causes more problems than it solves.

ideal

Biologically, the years from 18 to 25 are the ________ time for physical work and successful reproduction.

emerging adult

According to the text, the term used to describe a person between the ages of 18 and 25 is ___________ _____________.

96

Approximately what percentage of young adults in the United States rate their health as good, very good, or excellent?

30

Most women under age ___ who gave birth in 2011 were not married.

heart disease

Young adults rarely die from ________ _______.

53

In the United States, ___ percent of people in their mid-20s feel that premarital sex "is not wrong at all"

26

Half of all new cases of STIs occur in people younger than ____.

brazil

Which of the following nations are making progress in its effort to halt AIDS?

Stereotype threat

The possibility that one’s appearance or behavior will be misread to confirm another person’s prejudice is known as __________ _______.

Massification

______________ is the idea that establishing higher learning institutions and encouraging college enrollment could benefit everyone.

developed

In every ___________ nation, more than half of college students are female.

intimacy vs isolation

During which stage did Erikson believe that adults seek someone with whom to share their lives in an enduring and self-sacrificing commitment?

emerging

Worldwide, ____________ adults think about their identities in terms of political loyalties, religious commitments, gender roles, and ethnic and vocational identities.

likely

During late adolescence and early adulthood, people are _____ to be proud of their ethnic background.

personality

Research reveals that ____________ is genetically influenced, environmentally influenced, not fixed; plasticity is evident.

increasing

In general, emerging adults experience ____________ self-esteem.

women

Severe anxiety and depression are not unusual during adolescence and emerging adulthood, especially for young ________.

schizophrenia

Distorted thinking, lack of energy, and flat affect can all be signs of ____________.

30

After age _____, few people are newly diagnosed with schizophrenia.

Ireland

In which of the following countries is cohabitation considered unusual?

emerging adulthood

The period of _________ ________ occurs between 18 and 25 years old.

20

According to the text, by age ____, the immune system can fight off just about everything from the sniffles to cancer.

25

Historically, most couples had their first child as teenagers, whereas now most women are having their first child at age _____.

premarital

Most people over age 65 think that __________ sex is wrong.

50

What percentage of emerging adults has at least one sexually transmitted infection?

AIDS

The leading cause of death for young men in South Africa is ________.

destructive

Driving fast without a seat belt, abusing drugs, carrying a loaded gun are _____________ risks which are common in emerging adulthood.

extreme

Forms of recreation that risk causing injury or death, and are attractive and thrilling as a result, are referred to as _________ sports.

stereotype threat

The possibility that one’s appearance or behavior will be misread to confirm another person’s prejudices is __________ _________.

salary

U.S. Census data confirm that a college degree adds about $20,000 per year to a worker’s _______.

more

College trends indicate that ______ girls than boys attend college.

adulthood

Erikson’s fifth stage of development, identity versus role confusion, starts in adolescence and is completed later during _____________.

more

A longitudinal study found that students at four-year colleges were ______ likely to be involved in extra-curricular activities than were students at two-year colleges.

Personality

____________ patterns of adults are affected by cultural norms, social context, and genetic continuity.

Aggressive

________ young adults rated themselves as quite conscientious.

20

Social phobia is most likely to be diagnosed in women around age ____.

schizophrenia

Which disorder is characterized by having irrational thoughts, delusions, and hallucinations?

intimate

A commonality among _________ relationships is that they progress from attraction to close connection to ongoing commitment.

self expansion

The idea that each of us enlarges our understanding, our experiences, and our resources through our intimate relationships is known as _____ ___________.

primary

Changes in __________ sex characteristics include growth of the uterus or the testes.

anorexia nervosa

The absence of menstruation, close to normal weight, and distorted body image are symptoms associated with ____________ _____________.

personal fable

Many adolescents feel that their own thoughts and experiences are far more extraordinary than those of other people. This is part of their _____________ ________.

hypothalamus

The biological events that begin puberty involve a hormonal signal from the ___________________.

10

When Piaget and Inhelder asked children of different ages to balance a scale using several different weights, they found that by age ___, children used trial-and-error strategies.

growth

Some teenagers seem able to skate, play basketball, or dance for hours without rest. This increased endurance is best explained by the ________ of the heart and lungs.

sequence

During puberty, the growth spurt __________ typically occurs in this order: weight, height, muscle.

pituitary

Which gland(s) receive(s) signals directly from the hypothalamus?

nipple

The first outward sign of puberty in a typical girl is the onset of ___________ growth.

tenth

Allen, who is in the ________ grade is MOST likely to fall asleep during class.

40

Researchers predict that if PISA scores in the United States rose by 25 points, the result could mean an increase of _____ trillion in the nation’s Gross Domestic Product over an 80-year time span.

teasing

Ellie is 10 years old and well into puberty. She will probably experience ____________ and name-calling from her classmates.

decreased

As the age of puberty has ____________, secondary education now starts with grade five.

healthier

No matter where they live, individuals who complete secondary education are ___________.

economic

A nation’s ___________ growth advances when its population completes secondary education.

circadian

The day-night cycle that occurs approximately every 24 hours is the ____________ rhythm.

hypothetical

What-if propositions require _____________ thought.

hypothalamus

The biological events that begin puberty involve a hormonal signal from the _________________.

middle

Research has shown that adolescents who drop out of high school are strongly influenced by their ___________ school experiences.

Deductive

_________ reasoning is also referred to as top-down reasoning.

torso

During the adolescent growth spurt, what is the last part(s) of the body to grow?

highest

According to the results of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), the countries with the ___________ math test scores are China and Singapore.

puberty

The period when children’s bodies become adultlike is called ______________.

clinically

Bulimia nervosa is ___________ present in 1 to 3 percent of young women in the United States.

invincibility

Sixteen-year-old Paul drinks heavily and drives dangerously fast, believing that he cannot be hurt. Paul is demonstrating the _____________ fable.

spurt

One of the first signs of the growth _______ is growth of fingers and toes.

imaginary

When adolescents fantasize about how others will react to their new hairstyle, they are creating an ____________ audience.

analytical

Fifteen-year-old Latrina has a 10 P.M. curfew. She asks her parents to extend her curfew to 11 P.M. on weekends. When her parents ask her why, Latrina replies, "I’ve never been late for my 10 P.M. curfew. You can trust me. Can we at least give it a try?" This is an example of what kind of thinking?

intuitive

Thinking or drawing conclusions based on past personal experience, emotions, or a gut feeling is referred to as ___________ thought.

inductive

______________ reasoning refers to the ability to begin with specifics, such as accumulated facts, and then make general conclusions.

more

Compared with younger children, when thinking about historical or other serious problems adolescents tend to consider _____ possibilities.

stress

Research indicates that female children who experienced a great deal of _____ while very young also experienced early puberty.

menarche

Rebecca, who is of African descent adolescent is statistically most apt to experience __________ first.

formulas

The nations with the best PISA results do NOT focus on memorization of math __________.

puberty

For both girls and boys, __________ typically begins as young as 8 years of age or as late as 14 years of age.

calcium

The recommended daily dose of _______ is 1300 milligrams; most teens consume less than 500 milligrams per day.

without

Jeremy is 7 years old and has been asked to balance a scale with weights that can be hooked to the arms of the scale. Jeremy will probably put weights on both sides ___________ considering distance from the center of the scale.

25

At what age does the brain become fully mature?

invincibility

The power of the ____________ fable may be observed in young military recruits who hope to be sent into combat.

Romance

Miko is a 16-year-old girl who lives in Japan with her family. If she is typical, she will MOST likely seek her parents’ advice on ____________.

intercourse

Those who have sexual ___________ before the age of 16 are twice as likely to catch a STI than those who begin sexual activity after age 19.

drugs

The two most common ______ used by adolescents are tobacco and alcohol.

rumination

Elyse broke up with her boyfriend after a fight. She has spent the last week repeatedly going over the fight in her mind, which has caused her to sink into depression. Her continual reliving the fight is known as ____________.

diffusion

According to Erikson, the identity status characterized by not questioning and making no commitment is ______________.

stops

An adolescence-limited offender refers to someone who ______ committing crimes by age 21.

alcohol

One study found that less than 1 percent of parents of 6th graders thought their children had tried ________, yet 22 percent of the children said they had.

declines

In general, as children become adolescents, their self-esteem __________.

decline

Higher cigarette prices, warnings printed on tobacco products, and better law enforcement of tobacco sales has contributed to a _________ in the number of young adolescent smokers in the United States.

depressed

Nate’s parents are restrictive and controlling. Compared with Nate’s peers whose parents engage in less psychological control, Nate is more likely to be ______________.

decrease

A __________ in juvenile criminal behavior can be attributed to fewer school dropouts, smaller families, and less lead poisoning.

deviancy

Isaac and Derek persuaded Robert to cut school and steal alcohol from a store. Isaac and Derek provided __________ training to Robert.

damaging

Heavy drinking impairs memory and self-control by ______________ the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex.

interests

Mr. and Mrs. Cortina have discovered that their son has been skipping classes and cutting school with a group of boys. Their son chose this group because he shares their _________.

worse

The cognitive and psychosocial effects of sex abuse can be _________ than the biological harm it causes.

early

In the United States, parent-child conflict is most common when children are in ______ adolescence.

neurological

Life-course-persistent offenders may show signs of ______________ impairment.

pressure

Peer _________ usually leads to socially desirable behaviors.

depression

Restrictive and controlling parenting practices are associated with adolescent ____________.

clinical

Approximately 1 in 10 adolescent boy is affected by __________ depression.

20

Research indicates that adolescents who work ____ hours a week or more tend to hate their jobs and achieve less in school.

not

In communities and families that forbid adolescent sex, teenagers are _____ likely to receive medical care when they contract an STI.

expected

An example of a behavior that demonstrates identity foreclosure is working in the family business because it is ____________.

less

Compared to when they were children, many adolescents are _______ self-confident.

NOT

The legal smoking age has _____ contributed to a decline in the number of young adolescent smokers in the United States.

Magolda

Following Erikson’s lead, ________ distinguished four specific ways young people cope with this life stage.

apathy

Identity diffusion is typically characterized by ________.

more

Children of young parents have _______ medical, educational, and social problems than children of older parents.

backgrounds

One study found that the short allele of the serotonin transporter promoter gene (5-HTTLPR) contributes to increased rates of depression in all girls, but only in boys who come from low-SES ______________.

social

Most drug abuse begins as _______ use.

US

Which developed nation has the highest rate of teenage pregnancy?

Few

_____ adolescents totally reject the religion in which they’ve grown up.

abandoning

Mary is an adolescent. According to Erikson, her new identity will be established by choosing to embrace some parental and societal values while ______________ others.

understanding

Psychosocial development during adolescence involves the search for an _____________ of oneself.

clique

Chris typically can be found with the same group of close friends on the gym steps at lunchtime. He and his friends do not ask others to sit with them. Psychologists call Chris’s group a ________.

gender

Enrique believes that males should always be the ones to ask females out on dates. He thinks that if a man accepts an invitation for a date from a girl it makes him a wimp. This is an example of Enrique’s ____________ identity.

higher

Teenagers have a _______ rate of gonorrhea, genital herpes, and chlamydia when compared to sexually active people of other age groups.

sex

One reason that the teenage pregnancy rate in most European nations is less than half of that in the United States may be because most European schools begin offering _____ education in elementary school.

marriage

Arranged _________ occurs in 1/3 of families around the world.

serious

Emerging adults are in a high-risk category for _______ injury and violent death.

sociology

Research indicates that if a person wants to increase his or her critical thinking ability in college, that person should take a _________ class that requires lots of reading and writing.

postformal

In late adolescence and emerging adulthood, people are able to use both emotion and logic when grappling with personal and social problems; such thinking demonstrates _____ thought.

vector

A _______ is a person who spreads a disease.

acceptable

Delilah is currently a 22-year-old college student. Like most of her peers she believes that premarital sex is __________.

China

When parents disagree with an emerging adult’s choice of partner, the young adult in _____ will be MOST apt to stop dating that person.

better

According to the 2011 research conducted by Pryor et al, the number one reason more than 9 out of 10 U.S. students cite for selecting a major is based on getting a _________ job.

cognitive

The increased diversity of the college atmosphere encourages ____________ development.

personality

College success can improve one’s _____________.

HIV

Largely due to the sexual activities of young adults, _____ has become a worldwide epidemic in the past 20 years.

faithfulness

What is rated as most important for successful marriage by Western emerging adults?

higher

In spite of the new challenges and stressors that emerging adults face, their self-esteem is _________ than earlier and continues to rise throughout emerging adulthood.

50

About _____ percent of all new cases of STIs worldwide occur in people under the age of 26.

divorce

Research suggest caution with regard to cohabitation because Cohabitators who marry have a high rate of _________.

first

According to Perry’s research, the ________ phase of college students’ thinking is believing in the existence of absolute right and wrong.

love

For most Western emerging adults, what is considered the primary prerequisite for marriage?

optimal

During emerging adulthood, fertility is _________.

linked

All members of a family have _____ lives, as the experiences and needs of individuals at one stage of life are affected by all those at other stages.

change

Talal is 23 and works in an entry-level sales position at a local company. If he is typical, in the next few years, he will __________ jobs more than once.

everyone

The term massification means that college could benefit ____________.

decreasing

The number of single-sex campuses is ___________ in the U.S. higher education system.

extreme

Statistically, Stanley, who is a 20-year-old college junior, would be the most likely to engage in _________ drinking.

emerging

A person between the ages of 18 and 25 is entering a stage developmentalists call ____________ adulthood.

schizophrenia

The onset of _____ peaks around age 21, with men more likely to develop the disorder than women.

aggressiveness

According to one study (Asendorf et al., 2008), which personality traits were still evident in individual emerging adults after first being observed in them at the age of 4?

restrict

Recent research suggests that commitment to one career may _______ vocational success compared to vocational flexibility.

society

Risk taking during early adulthood may benefit or harm ________.

childbearing

Emerging adulthood has traditionally been the optimal time for hard physical work, athletic achievement, and ___________.

more

Compared to 1970, today’s college population in developed countries worldwide is ________ diverse.

whites

In 2008, members of which group were LEAST apt to marry someone of another ethnicity?

disorders

On average, well-being increases in emerging adulthood, as does the incidence of psychological _____________.

without

Genevieve is about to complete her bachelor’s degree. If she is typical, once she is established in her career she will earn approximately $20,000 more per year than a peer ___________ a college degree.

abuse

Using a drug in a quantity or a manner that harms physical, cognitive, or psychosocial well-being is called drug _______.

Scroll to Top