Psychology 101- Chapter 4

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In a(n) ___________ view, consciousness is generated by a set of action potentials in the communication among neurons just sufficient to produce awareness.

cognitive neuroscience

When people’s thoughts, feelings, and sensations are clear and organized, and they feel alert, they are generally said to be in a state of

waking consciousness.

When under the influence of a stimulant, you are likely to be in a state of

increased alertness.

After taking medication for his back, Todd’s thoughts become fuzzy and disorganized. Todd was in a state of

alerted consciousness.

Which of the following is TRUE about the circadian rhythm?
A.) It is a cycle that takes about a day to complete
B.) It consists of the changes in a person’s heartbeat throughout the stages of sleep
C.) It is a cycle controlled by the hippocampus.
D,) It is when most dreams occur

A.) It is a cycle that takes about a day to complete

As _______ accumulate(s) in the body, a person will begin to feel sleepy.


As a person relaxes and becomes drowsy, ______ waves appear.


Many researchers believe that reports of ghostly visions and alien abductions can be explained by ________ during the first stage of sleep.

hypnogogic images

_______ is a rare disordering which the mechanism that inhibits the movement of the voluntary muscles fails, allowing the person to thrash around and even get up and act out nightmares.

REM behavior disorder

Night terrors are experienced

during deep non-REM sleep.

The real inquiry into the process of dreaming was begun by


People under hypnosis

can be made to forget what happens during the hypnotic session.

For which of the following would hypnosis probably be most effective?
A.) Helping people to stop smoking
B.) curing alcoholism
C.) controlling pain
D.) changing eating habits

C.) controlling pain

The _________ of hypnosis suggests that people who are hypnotized are not in an altered state, but are playing the role expected of them in that situation.

social-cognitive theory

Just before every test, Juan closes his eyes, relaxes, and visualizes himself passing all of his exams with high scores. Juan appears to be engaging in the practice of ________.


When someone is properly meditating, brain waves change to include

more theta and alpha waves.

Whenever Caroline goes more than a day without drinking, she begins to experience severe headaches, irritability, nausea, cramping, and shaking. Caroline is experiencing symptoms of _________.


Evelyn smoked cigarettes when she was younger but had no problem quitting. Though ten years have passed since Evelyn has touched a cigarette, every now and then she gets a strong craving to smoke again. Evelyn’s craving is most likely the result of ___________.

psychological dependence

Minor tranquilizers

are commonly used to treat anxiety.

Depressant drugs derived from the opium poppy are called


________ are sometimes used to treat narcolepsy


Alcohol indirectly stimulates the release of _______, the brain’s major depressant.


Which of the following situations best demonstrates waking consciousness?
A.) Orlando carefully calculates his taxes two weeks before taxes are due
B.) Derrick brings his car to a sudden halt as he notices that the light has already turned red.
C.) Kim fights to keep her eyes open as she reads a bedtime story to her children.
D.) Doretta wobbles just a bit as she tried to walk after drinking three glasses of wine

A.) Orlando carefully calculates his taxes two weeks before taxes are due

Antwon can’t seem to focus in class today. Though he’s not asleep, his mind appears to be drifting off, leading to thoughts of his girlfriend, his job, and upcoming events of the day. Antwon appears to be in which of the following states pf consciousness?
A.) unfocused
B.) unconscious
C.) waking
D.) altered

D.) altered

Eventually, everyone must sleep due to our

biological rhythms.

The sleep-wake cycle is controlled by _________.

the brain

Some instances of automobile accidents have been caused by the driver falling asleep at the wheel, even though the person was certain that he or she had not slept. Which of the following may explain why the happens?
A.) The person’s delta waves had increased
B.) The person was in REM sleep and she was dreaming
C.) The person was in the N1 stage of sleep
D.) The person was experiencing sleep spindles

C.) The person was in the N1 stage of sleep

Melatonin is secreted by the _______ gland.


The body is at its lowest level of functioning during

N3 (R&K Stages 3 & 4).

Which of the following is TRUE about REM sleep?
A.) It is when most dreams occur.
B.) It is the stage of sleep in which the heart beats the slowest
C.) It involves a lot of movement and thrashing as people have vivid dreams
D.) It is a much deeper, more restful kind of sleep than non-REM sleep

A.) it is when most dreams occur

Jonah is often a victim of bad dreams, frequently centered around being left at a store or getting lost at an amusement park. He sometimes wakes up from them, and calls for his parents to help him calm down. These episodes take place during REM sleep. Jonah is experiencing


Which statement about sleep apnea is TRUE?
A.) it causes SIDS
B.) There is no effective treatment for it
C.) it causes a person to slip suddenly into REM sleep during the day
D.) The person experiencing sleep apnea may stop breathing for 10 seconds or more

D.) The person experiencing sleep apnea may stop breathing for 10 seconds or more

David often experiences "sleep seizures" during the day. He probably suffers from


Freud believed that dreams were a kind of _________ for his patients.

wish fulfillment

According to researchers, men tend to

have more physical aggression in their dreams than women

About _____ percent of people are good hypnotic subjects


Archie believes that people who think they are hypnotized are not actually hypnotized at all. In fact, they are simply acting out everything they are being told to do by the hypnotist. Archie’s way of thinking is similar to which of the following theories?
A.) theory of hypnotic confusion
B.) Freudian theory of hypnosis
C.) dissociative theory of hypnosis
D.) social-cognitive theory of hypnosis

D.) social-cognitive theory of hypnosis

Every night, Pricilla increases her dose of pain medication, noting that the initial dose no longer works. Pricilla seems to have developed

drug tolerance

Darren uses cocaine recreationally. Darren’s drug of choice is a ___________.


Ecstasy is classified as a

stimulatory hallucinogenic

Both marijuana and hashish contain


Smoking marijuana

may cause cardiovascular disease in chronic users

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