Psychology 101- Chapter 3

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What sensory receptors are triggered by chemical substances?

receptors for taste and smell

Research has shown that subliminal perception

does not work in advertising.

If you are experiencing habituation

sensory receptors are still responding to stimuli.

If you stare at something for a long time, it does not disappear because

tiny movements of the eyes keep them from adapting to what they see.

"Packets" of light waves are referred to as ______.

photons

As your lens hardens through aging, you may have trouble with

focusing on near objects.

Light adaptation, which involves going from a darkened room to one that is brightly lit, takes about

a few seconds.

In opponent-process theory, there are ______ primary colors.

four

When Stephen looks out at a field of red, purple, and yellow tulips, he can only see shades of gray. His condition is

monochrome color blindness.

Brendon has trouble seeing colors because the cones in his eyes do not work properly. When Brendon does see color, he sees primarily in blues, yellows, and shades of gray and confuses reds and greens. Brendon suffers from ______.

dichromatic vision

Sound waves and light waves share

the properties of wavelength, amplitude, and purity.

The eardrum is also known as the

tympanic membrane.

Which of the following sounds would be least likely interpreted by the brain as high pitch?
A.) a whistling tea kettle
B.) a screeching car tire
C.) a mooing cow
D.) a screaming child

C.) a mooing cow

Normal aging causes loss of hair cells in the

cochlea.

After sticking a cotton swab too far in his ear, Terrence experienced severe pain, drainage, and partial hearing loss in his ear. He was examined by his doctor and was told that there was damage to his ear and that the bones in his middle ear were visible. The part of Terrence’s ear that was most likely damaged was _______.

the eardrum

The bumps on the tongue are called

papillae.

Lindemann proposed that the most recent taste to be identified should be called

umami.

The cilia in the nose act most like

the taste buds on the tongue.

When you smell an oder, which aspect of the substance you are smelling actually enters your nose to create the sensation of smell?

particles of the substance itself

_______ pain is detected in the organs.

Visceral

As many as 50 to 80 percent of people who have had amputations experience a condition called

phantom limb pain.

When you close your eyes and raise your hand above your head, you know where your hand is because of

the kinesthetic sense.

________ sense is the body process that is mostly to blame if you become dizzy after a long ride on a carousel at the amusement park.

Vestibular

Dara tends to have motion sickness while spinning around during her gymnastics routine. Her teacher advises her that she can avoid this problem by

focusing her eyes on a distant, fixed object.

A person will perceive a coin as a circle, even if it is held at an angle to appear to the eye as an oval, because of

shape constancy.

The tendency to believe that the dummy, not the ventriloquist, is doing the talking is largely due to

contiguity.

People who are blind from birth, but later have their sight restored, are unlikely to develop

depth perception.

The linear perspective is an example of

a monocular cue.

The phi phenomenon is related to

stroboscopic motion.

Research involving illusions

provides valuable information about how the sensory receptors and sense organs work.

Which of the following is TRUE about the moon illusion?
A.) It is due to the mind’s misapplication of size constancy.
B.) It is due to convergence.
C.) It is explained by binocular disparity.
D.) It has to do with the angle at which one views the moon.

A.) It is due to the mind’s misapplication of size constancy.

The research of Ernst Weber led to the formulation of a theory of

just noticeable differences.

Amber can hear the horn from the train that runs 20 miles away from her house 50 percent of the time that the horn toots. If she were any farther from the train, her chances of hearing the horn would decrease. In this situation, which of the following concepts is being demonstrated?
A.) just noticeable difference
B.) habituation
C.) sensory adaptation
D.) absolute threshold

D.) absolute threshold

Color is largely determined by

the length of the wave.

Light bends as it passes through substances of different densities, a process known as

refraction.

Thomas Young’s theory of color vision

suggested that color vision is made possible by red, blue, and green cones.

Sound wavelengths are interpreted by the brain as

pitch.

Wever and Bray theorized that groups of auditory neurons take turns firing in a process called

volleying.

How many primary taste sensations have been identified by researchers?

five

Which of the following foods would most likely produce an umami taste?
A.) Chicken noodle soup
B.) Dill pickles
C.) Cookie dough
D.) Unsalted pretzels

A.) Chicken noodle soup

The olfactory bulbs are located

directly below the frontal lobes.

Kinesthetic sense involves

the location of body parts in relation to each other.

While walking past her bed, Crystal stubbed her toe on the bed’s post and experienced severe pain that eventually subsided. What type of pain did Crystal experience?

Somatic

While on active duty in the army, Chris was involved in a serious accident that led to the amputation of his leg. Though his leg is no longer there, Chris still reports feeling burning and tingling in his missing limb. Chris is most likely experiencing ______.

phantom limb pain

During her flight to Chicago, Ariel’s plane experienced severe turbulence. As a result, Ariel became sick to her stomach. Ariel’s sickness may be best explained by _______.

the sensory conflict theory

Randy and Amad are both listening to the same music. Randy thinks the music is mellow and relaxing while Amad thinks the music is unpleasant to the ear. Randy and Amad appear to have different _____ when it comes to the music they are listening to.

perceptions

While on a class field trip, Erika was mistakenly guided away from her group because she was standing closer to students from another class. The rule of perception to which this mix-up may best relate is ________.

proximity

_________ is the rotation of the two eyes in their sockets to focus on a single object.

Convergence

In ________, a small, stationary light in a darkened room, will appear to move because of the lack of cues to indicate that the light is not moving.

the autokinetic effect

One’s tendency to perceive things in a certain way because of previous experience or expectation is called

perceptual set.

Which of the following statements related to culture and perception is TRUE?
A.) Perceptual expectancies do not vary depending on culture.
B.) People in all cultures perceive the "devil’s trident" as a three-dimensional drawing.
C.) People in all cultures perceive the "devil’s trident as a two-dimensional drawing.
D.) Culture can affect visual perception.

D.) Culture can affect visual perception.

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