psychobio

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medulla

life support systems

reticular formation

arousal

pons

sleep and dreaming

cerebellum

motor coordination and learning

inferior calliculus

auditory tracking

superior calliculus

visual tracking

substantia nigra/basal ganglia

motor movement

ventral tegmental area (VTA)

reward system

basal ganglia

feedback to the cortex about motor movement

thalamus

sensory relay center to cortex

hypothalamus

motivation and emotion – ANS regulation

hippocampus

learning and memory

amygdala

organizes response patterns to fear

frontal lobe

planning; conscious motor movement; social behavior; attention; short term memory; speech production

occipital lobe

vision; motion and color perception

parietal lobe

spatial awareness; bodily sense perception

temporal lobe

language; speech comprehension; hearing

primary cortex

region where primary sensory or motor information is processed

secondary cortex

region adjoining primary cortex that elaborates primary information and integrates it with other sensory information

associational cortex

regions that are involved in conscious perception and abstract thought, including language

dualism

the mind and body are separate entities

monism

the mind and body are one

3 types of meninges

1)dura mater (protects CNS tissue from rubbing the bones of skull and spine) 2)arachnoid (filled with csf) 3)pia mater (filled with blood vessels; brain surface)

dendrite

receives info from axons

axons

send info to dendrites

myelin sheath

insulates the neuron

spinal cord

24 vertebrae 31 pais of nerves

hindbrain

-medulla -reticular formation -pons -cerebellum

midbrain

-inferior colliculus -superior colliculus -substantia nigra -ventral tegmental area (VTA)

forebrain

-basial ganglia -thalamus -hypothalamus -hippocampus -amygdala

The primary symptom shown by Kathryn D. was

muscle weakness Rationale: Muscle weakness associated with a muscle disorder was the primary symptom shown

_______ neurons gather information from the environment related to light, odors, and contact of our skin with objects.

Sensory Rationale: Sensory neurons gather information from the environment.

_______ neurons function to contract muscles.

Motor Rationale: Motor neurons function to contract body muscles.

_______ are located only within the central nervous system.

Relay interneurons Rationale: Relay interneurons are located only within the central nervous system.

Which of the following is correct regarding neurons?

The number of neurons in the human nervous system is estimated at more than 100 billion Rationale: The number of neurons in the human nervous system is estimated at more than 100 billion.

The _______ system is defined as comprised of the brain and spinal cord.

central nervous Rationale: The brain and spinal cord comprise the central nervous system.

The _______ system is that portion of the nervous system that lies outside of the brain and spinal cord.

peripheral nervous Rationale: The peripheral nervous system lies outside the brain and spinal cord.

The nucleus of the nerve cell is located within the

soma Rationale: The soma of the neuron contains the cell nucleus.

The most common neuron type in the central nervous system is the _______ neuron.

multipolar Rationale: The multipolar neuron is the most common neuron in the central nervous system.

The portion of a neuron that carries information toward the cell body is the

dendrite Rationale: The dendrite carries information from the synapse toward the cell body.

The physical gap that carries a neural message between two nerve cells is the

synapse Rationale: The synapse is the physical gap that carries a neural message between two nerve cells.

Synapses are most commonly formed between a(n) _______ and a(n) _______.

axon terminal; dendrite Rationale: Synapses are most commonly formed between an axon terminal and a dendrite.

A key function of the _______ nerve cell is to transmit sensory information.

bipolar Rationale: An important function of bipolar cells is to transmit sensory information to the brain.

Loss of dendritic branches on _______ would be expected to impair the ability to sense temperature and touch.

unipolar neurons Rationale: Damage to unipolar neurons would be expected to impair touch and temperature sensing.

. Neurotransmitter molecules are most commonly secreted from the

axon terminal Rationale: The axon terminal secretes neurotransmitter molecules into the synapse.

A key function of specialized lipid molecules located in the nerve cell is to

form the membrane Rationale: The neuron membrane is formed by specialized lipid molecules.

Match up the internal cell structure with the function most closely associated with that structure:

nucleolus; production of ribosomes Rationale: The nucleolus is involved in the production of ribosomes.

Which of the following structures is the site of production of proteins?

ribosomes Rationale: Ribosomes located outside of the nucleus cause protein production.

Which of the following represents a correct match between a neuronal organelle and its function?

mitochondria; extraction of energy Rationale: Mitochondria within the neuron soma are involved in the extraction of energy for the cell.

Match the correct function with the neuronal organelle:

microtubules; transport of molecules between the soma and the axon terminals Rationale: The transport of molecules between the soma and the axon terminals is handled by the microtubules.

Proteins are produced within the neuron cytoplasm by

ribosomes Rationale: Proteins are produced within the neuron cytoplasm by ribosomes.

Which of the following is true of the human genome?

Much of the genome contains "junk" DNA. Rationale: Much of the genome contains "junk" DNA that does not code for specific proteins.

Surplus substances within the cytoplasm are degraded by

lysosomes. Rationale: Lysosomes degrade surplus structures within the cell cytoplasm

A key function of lysosomes is to

degrade surplus cellular materials Rationale: Lysosomes degrade surplus cellular material within the neuron cytoplasm.

Which of the following is correct regarding axoplasmic transport?

Retrograde transport is half as fast as anterograde axoplasmic transport. Rationale: Retrograde transport is half as fast as anterograde axoplasmic transport for the movement of materials within the neuron

Which of the following is correct regarding axoplasmic transport?

The kinesin molecule is involved in anterograde transport. Rationale: The kinesin molecule is involved in anterograde transport for the movement of materials within the neuron.

Movement of cargo from one end of the axon to the other involves _______ along the _______ .

axoplasmic transport; microtubules Rationale: The axoplasmic transport of molecules between the soma and the axon terminals is handled by the microtubules.

Neurons of the central nervous system are provided nutrients, oxygen, and physical support by _______ cells.

glial or neuroglial Rationale: Neuroglial cells provide nutrients, oxygen, and physical support to neurons.

Which of the following is true of neurons?

Neurons have a high metabolic rate. Rationale: Neurons have a high metabolic rate, which requires a dedicated source of oxygen and nutrients.

Nerve cells are able to rapidly metabolize fuel because

neurons receive lactate from astrocytes. Rationale: Glial cells convert glucose to lactate, which is then supplied to the neuron.

The _______ are the key supply source of energy for neurons

astrocytes Rationale: Astrocyes are the key supply source of rapid energy for neurons

A drug that specifically killed the _______ cells would be expected to alter the physical and nutritional support of brain cells.

astrocyte Rationale: Damage to astrocytes would be expected to alter the physical and nutritional support of brain cells.

The process of phagocytosis involves

the removal of neuronal debris. Rationale: Phagocytosis refers to the removal and destruction of debris from a neuron.

Myelination of brain nerve axon membranes is accomplished by

oligodendrocytes. Rationale: Oligodendrocytes form the myelin sheath around axons in the brain.

A key feature for the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis in Dr. C. was

diverse neurological symptoms that appeared at different times. Rationale: The clue that allowed for the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis in Dr. C was her display of diverse neurological symptoms that appeared at different times.

The _______ mediates the inflammatory reaction that follows brain damage.

microglia Rationale: The inflammatory reaction that follows brain damage results from the action of microglia.

Regrowth of a damaged axon can occur more readily in the peripheral nervous system than in the brain because

Schwann cells form cylinders through which new axons can grow and reinnervate a target cell nerve cell. Rationale: Regrowth of a damaged axon can occur more readily in the peripheral nervous system than in the brain because Schwann cells form cylinders through which new axons can grow and reinnervate a target cell nerve cell.

The presence of a barrier between the bloodstream and the brain is suggested by the observation that

injection of dye into the bloodstream stains all cells but those of the brain and spinal cord. Rationale: The presence of a blood-brain barrier was inferred from the observation injection of dye into the bloodstream stains all cells except those of the brain and spinal cord.

Activation of cells within the _______ by a poison in the blood would be predicted to produce _______.

area postrema; vomiting Rationale: Cells within the area postrema control emesis; blood-borne poisons can thus trigger vomiting which can evacuate the stomach.

The normal order of activation during neuronal transmission is

dendrite –> cell body –> axon –> terminal button. Rationale: Neuronal transmission starts with the dendrite and in turn involves the cell body, the axon, and then finally the axon terminal button.

The simplest version of a withdrawal from pain reflex is a

pain receptor that synapses onto an interneuron, which in turn activates a motor neuron in the spinal cord. Rationale: The simplest reflex involves a pain receptor that synapses onto an interneuron, which in turn activates a motor neuron within the spinal cord.

A key function of the giant squid axon is the

contraction of the squid mantle, which propels the squid away from danger. Rationale: The giant squid axon controls the contraction of the squid mantle, which moves the squid away from sources of danger.

The function of a _______ in a giant squid physiology experiment is to _______.

voltmeter; compare the electric charge of the interior with that of the exterior Rationale: The voltmeter compares the electric charge of the interior with that of the exterior.

The difference in electrical charge between the inside and the outside of the axon membrane is defined as the _______ potential.

membrane Rationale: The membrane potential is defined as the difference in electrical charge between the inside and the outside of the axon membrane.

The _______ potential is defined as the difference in electrical charge between the inside and the outside of an undisturbed axon membrane.

resting membrane Rationale: The resting membrane potential is defined as the difference in electrical charge between the inside and the outside of an undisturbed axon membrane.

A change in the axon membrane potential from -70 mV to -90 mV would be termed a(n)

hyperpolarization. Rationale: A hyperpolarization refers to a movement of the resting membrane potential in a more negative direction.

A neuron membrane potential moves from -90 mV to -80 mV in response to a brief stimulation. We would term this change in potential as a(n)

depolarization. Rationale: A depolarization refers to a movement of the resting membrane potential in a more positive direction (towards 0 mV).

A(n) _______ will be recorded from a nerve cell whose membrane potential rises above threshold.

action potential Rationale: An action potential is initiated when the resting membrane potential reaches threshold.

The _______ is the voltage level at which an action potential is triggered in a patch of axon membrane.

threshold of excitation Rationale: The threshold of excitation is that value of membrane potential at which an action potential is triggered.

A cup of sugar is dumped into a gallon of hot water. After 30 minutes, we will expect that the process of _______ will ensure that the sugar molecules are evenly distributed throughout the water.

diffusion Rationale: Molecules are distributed evenly throughout a medium via the process of diffusion.

A substance that forms oppositely charged particles when dissolved into water would be termed a(n)

electrolyte. Rationale: An ion is a charged particle.

_______ are charged particles formed when an electrolyte dissolves in water.

Ions Rationale: A charged particle is known as an ion.

_______ are positively charged ionic particles.

Cations Rationale: A positively charged particle is defined as a cation

_______ are negatively charged particles.

Anions Rationale: A negatively charged particle is defined as a cation.

Which of the following is true of ion distribution across the axon membrane?

Sodium ions are more concentrated outside the axon membrane. Rationale: Sodium ions are more concentrated outside the axon membrane

Movement of _______ ions _______ the axon would be induced by the force of diffusion.

sodium; into Rationale: The force of diffusion would tend to force sodium ions into the axon.

Sodium ions move out of the axon because of

the sodium-potassium transporter. Rationale: The sodium-potassium transporter acts to move sodium ions out of the axon.

Which of the following is true regarding the action potential (AP)?

The AP is an all-or-none electrical event Rationale: The action potential is an all-or-none event.

The specialized protein molecules located in the axon membrane that can open or close are termed

ion channels. Rationale: Ion channels are proteins located in the axon membrane that open or close thus allowing ions to enter or leave the neuron

Which of the following is true of the action potential?

More sodium channels are opened at a lower voltage level than are the potassium channels. Rationale: The upswing of the action potential occurs because more sodium channels are opened at a lower voltage level than are the potassium channels.

Sodium ions will be pushed into a resting neuron by the forces of

diffusion; electrostatic pressure. Rationale: The forces of diffusion and electrostatic pressure push sodium ions into the axon interior.

Match the ion channel action with its resulting change in membrane potential:

entry of a negative ion; hyperpolarization Rationale: Hyperpolarization is produced by the entry of a negative ion into the axon.

Which of the following events restores the membrane potential from the peak of the action potential back down to the resting level?

Potassium ions move out of the cell. Rationale: The movement of potassium ions out of the axon moves the membrane potential back to resting levels.

Which of the following sets of terms do NOT belong together?

saltatory conduction; slower conduction speeds in smaller neurons Rationale: Saltatory conduction results in more rapid conduction speeds in smaller neurons

Which of the following is consistent with the "all-or-none" law?

The action potential is produced whenever the membrane potential reaches threshold. Rationale: The fact that an AP occurs when threshold is reached but not below the threshold is consistent with the notion of all-or-none.

The nervous system codes for variation in the intensity of incoming sensory stimuli by variations in the _______ of a neuron

firing rate Rationale: More intense stimuli produce a faster rate of firing in a given sensory neuron.

Depolarizations of the axon membrane that are below the threshold of activation

decrease in size as they sweep along the membrane. Rationale: Local potentials decrease in size as they sweep along the membrane.

Among the cable properties of axons are the fact that

subthreshold signals degrade with distance from the point of stimulation. Rationale: Subthreshold local potentials degrade with distance from the point of stimulation.

In a myelinated axon, ions can enter and leave the axonal membrane only at

the nodes of Ranvier. Rationale: Ions enter/leave the myelinated axon only at the nodes of Ranvier

Which of the following is an important advantage associated with saltatory conduction?

Myelin speeds up the velocity at which an axon can conduct an action potential. Rationale: Myelin and saltatory conduction speed up the velocity at which an axon can conduct an action potential.

Which of the following was suggested as an advantage associated with myelination?

Myelin speeds up axon conduction speed. Rationale: Myelin makes for more rapid communication of nerve signals

Saltatory conduction is rapid because

cable properties carry the signal under the myelin sheath. Rationale: Saltatory conduction is rapid because the membrane potential does not have to depolarize each successive patch of membrane.

The term _______ is derived from the word meaning "little bladder."

vesicle Rationale: The term vesicle means "little bladder."

Which of the following is true of receptors?

Neurotransmitters act on binding sites on receptors to exert their effects. Rationale: Neurotransmitter molecules act on binding sites on receptors to exert their effects on the postsynaptic membrane.

Signals are carried across the synapse by

the secretion of transmitter molecules into the synapse. Rationale: The signal from the presynaptic axon terminal is carried across the synapse by secretion of a transmitter into the synapse.

Communication of neural signals across the synapse involves

the binding of transmitter at postsynaptic receptors triggering membrane potentials. Rationale: Communication of neural signals across the synapse involves the release of a transmitter from the axon terminal, which binds to receptors on the postsynaptic membrane.

The largest number of small vesicles would be expected to be located within the _______ of a neuron.

release zone Rationale: The largest number of small vesicles would be expected to be located within the release zone of a neuron.

A large, dense-core vesicle found in the axon terminal is likely to contain

peptide neurotransmitters Rationale: Peptide transmitters are located within large dense-core vesicles of the axon terminal.

Synaptic vesicles are produced in the _______.

neuron soma Rationale: Synaptic vesicles are manufactured in the soma of the nerve cell.

Placing neurons and their synaptic contacts into a medium containing no calcium ions would be expected to

prevent the release of neurotransmitter into the synapse. Rationale: Maintaining a neuron is a low calcium medium would be expected to prevent the release of neurotransmitter into the synapse.

In order to produce a depolarization or hyperpolarization of the postsynaptic membrane, neurotransmitters

open ion channels in the postsynaptic membrane. Rationale: Neurotransmitters act to produce postsynaptic membrane potentials by opening or closing ion channels.

After a vesicle fuses with the presynaptic membrane and releases its contents into the synaptic cleft, the membrane is

recycled to form new vesicles. Rationale: The membrane of vesicles are recycled.

Match up the correct receptor type and effect

metabotropic; G protein activation leads to activation of a second-messenger Rationale: Metabotropic receptors act via G proteins which in turn act via activation/inactivation of a second-messenger molecule.

With regard to release of neurotransmitter in the brain, "kiss and run" refers to the situation in which the vesicle

releases most of its contents into the cleft after which the vesicle breaks away from the presynaptic membrane and is refilled. Rationale: "Kiss and run" refers to the situation in which a released vesicle releases most of its contents into the cleft after which the vesicle breaks away from the presynaptic membrane and is refilled.

Match up the correct receptor type and effect

ionotropic; direct opening of an ion channel Rationale: Activation of an ionotropic receptor results in the direct opening of a single ion channel.

Which of the following is true of metabotropic receptors?

Metabotropic receptors are slower than ionotropic receptors. Rationale: Metabotropic receptors are slower than ionotropic receptors because these involve the action of second messengers.

An EPSP will be produced when a ligand

opens a sodium channel. Rationale: Opening a sodium channel will produce an EPSP.

An IPSP will be produced when a ligand

opens a potassium channel. Rationale: Opening a chloride channel will produce an IPSP

Which of the following will "neutralize" an EPSP?

opening a chloride channel Rationale: Opening a chloride channel will neutralize an EPSP.

The postsynaptic potentials induced by most neurotransmitters are ended by

reuptake of the molecule into the axon terminal. Rationale: The reuptake process is the most common means of terminating a postsynaptic potential.

The postsynaptic potentials induced by acetylcholine are ended via

enzymatic degradation via acetylcholinesterase. Rationale: The postsynaptic action of ACh is ended by enzymatic degradation via acetylcholinesterase.

A drug that inactivates the enzyme acetylcholinesterase would be expected to

prolong the effects of acetylcholine in the synapse. Rationale: The effects of acetylcholine in the synapse would be prolonged by a drug that inactivates the enzyme acetylcholinesterase

Dr. Mary Walker used _______ to treat the muscle weakness associated with the disease _______.

physostigmine; myasthenia gravis Rationale: Physostigmine is used to treat the muscle weakness associated with the disease myasthenia gravis.

Autoreceptors are located on the _______ and detect _______.

presynaptic membrane; the transmitter released by that neuron Rationale: Autoreceptors located on the presynaptic membrane detect the transmitter released by that neuron and in turn dampen the release of that transmitter.

Autoreceptors

are metabotropic. Rationale: Autoreceptors are of the metabotropic type.

Presynaptic facilitation is associated with _______ synapses and involves a(n) _______ in the amount of transmitter released per action potential.

axoaxonic; increase Rationale: Presynaptic facilitation is associated with axoaxonic synapses and involves an increase in the amount of transmitter released per action potential

Action potentials are generated at the _______ and are conducted along the _______.

axon hillock; axon Rationale: Actions potentials are conducted along the axon after initiation at the axon hillock.

Neuromodulators

diffuse widely to affect many neurons. Rationale: Neuromodulators diffuse widely to affect many neurons in brain

Neuromodulators are

secreted from neurons, but dispersed widely in the brain. Rationale: Neuromodulators are secreted from neurons, but dispersed widely in the brain.38

Most _______ are secreted into the extracellular fluid from endocrine glands or tissues.

hormones Rationale: Most hormones are secreted into the extracellular fluid from endocrine glands or tissues.

________ was the primary symptom shown by Kathryn D

Muscle weakness

Motor neurons control the activity of the ________.

muscles

The central nervous system consists of the ________ and the ________.

brain; spinal cord

________ neurons are the most common type in the central nervous system.

multipolar

The cell membrane is formed by a dual layer of ________ molecules.

lipid

________ are bead-like structures that extract energy from nutrients.

Mitochondria

The myelin sheath surrounding axons in brain is formed by ________.

oligodendrocytes or oligodendroglia

Some chemicals are excluded from the brain due to selective permeability of the ________ barrier.

blood-brain

In a neuron at rest, the interior of the cell is more ________ charged than is the exterior of the cell.

negatively

The process of ________ ensures that ions will distribute themselves evenly through a solvent.

diffusion

As it conducts along the axon membrane toward the terminal buttons, a subthreshold depolarization ________ in size.

decreases

In a myelinated axon, ions enter or leave the axon membrane only at the ________.

node of Ranvier

________ speeds up the velocity at which an axon can conduct an action potential.

Myelin

The term ________ is derived from the word meaning "little bladder."

vesicle

A large, dense-core vesicle is most likely to contain a ________.

neuropeptide

The ion ________ is required for the release of neurotransmitter from the presynaptic terminal.

calcium

________ receptors involve the direct opening of an ion channel, whereas metabotropic receptors involve the action of second messenger molecules inside the postsynaptic cell.

Ionotropic

A ________ myelinated fiber will conduct action potentials more rapidly than will a thin myelinated fiber.

large

The effects of acetylcholine are prolonged by drugs that inactivate the enzyme ________.

ACHe or acetylcholinesterase

________ are metabotropic receptors located in the presynaptic membrane that provide negative feedback onto transmitter release.

Autoreceptors

Describe the organelles that comprise the neuron soma

The organelles lie within the cytoplasm of the neuron. The soma organelles include Ribosomes produce proteins. Endoplasmic reticulum: Rough ER contains the ribosomes (produces proteins). Smooth ER synthesizes lipids. Microtubules: Responsible for transport around the interior of the neuron. Mitochondria: Provide energy to the neuron. Lysosomes: Degrade surplus cellular materials. Golgi apparatus: Package the products of a secretory cell.

Compare and contrast the general functions of the three glial cell types in the brain.

Oligodendrocytes form CNS myelin, which speeds up neural conduction speed. Astroglia provide support and nutrition for neurons. Microglia are involved in brain immune function.

Explain how changes in ion movements can result in an action potential

At rest, the interior of the axon membrane has more negative charges relative to the exterior. Movement of positive charges (sodium) into the axon results in the action potential (a rapid reversal of the membrane potential).

Explain what is meant by decremental conduction.

: A subthreshold local potential degrades in size as it sweeps along the axon membrane(non-myelinated).

Explain how the presence of myelin on an axon speeds up conduction velocity.

: In saltatory conduction, the axon is wrapped in a fatty membrane called myelin, which insulates the membrane from the extracellular fluid. In this case, the action potential does not have to depolarize every segment of membrane, only those at the widely separated nodes of Ranvier (gaps between the myelin segments).

Contrast ionotropic and metabotropic receptors

Ionotropic receptors directly control ion channels, whereas metabotropic receptors use a series of intermediate steps, involving G-proteins, to modulate distant ion channels.

What would you expect to happen if the enzyme AChE were to be disabled in your body?

The ACh activity in your body would greatly increase, because AChE normally serves to degrade ACh. Later, this would lead to overstimulation of cholinergic receptors.

Explain why the termination step of the neural communication process is a key target for therapeutic drugs.

The postsynaptic action of many neurotransmitters is terminated via reuptake of the molecule through the membrane transporter or through enzymatic inactivation. A drug that blocks such a transporter would be expected to raise the synaptic levels of that neurotransmitter, as would a drug that blocks the enzymatic degradation step. For a disease or disorder that is thought to result from a low synaptic activity of that transmitter, blockade of the reuptake or enzymatic process would generate a beneficial effect.

. Explain how autoreceptors dampen neuronal activity

Autoreceptors are sensitive to the transmitter released by a particular neuron. Activation of the autoreceptor produces negative feedback — either reduced cell firing or reduced synthesis/release of the transmitter. The net effect is to modulate the amount of transmitter in the synapse (and at the postsynaptic receptors).

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