Psych Unit 4

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Which of the following is true?

The absolute threshold for any stimulus varies somewhat

If you can just notice the difference between 10 and 11- pound weights, which of the following weights could you differentiate from a 100 pound?

110 pound weight

A decrease in sensory responsiveness accompanying an unchanging stimulus is called

sensory adaptation

The size of the pupil is controlled by the

iris

The process by which the lens changes its curvature is

accommodation

The receptor of the eye that functions best in dim light is the

rod

The Young-Helholtz theory proposes that

there are three different types of cool sensitive cones

Frequency is to pitch as ____ is to _____

amplitude;loudness

Our experience of pain when we are injured depends on

our physiology, experiences and attention, and surrounding culture

According to the gate-control theory, a way to alleviate chronic pain would be to stimulate the _____ nerve fibers that ______ the spinal gate

large;close

The transduction of light energy into nerve impulses take place in the

optic nerve

The brain breaks vision into separate dimensions such as color, depth, movement, and form and works on each aspect simultaneously. That is called

parallel processing

Kinesthesis involves

information from the bones, ears, tendons, and joints

One light may appear reddish and another greenish is they differ in

amplitude

Which of the following explains why a rose appears equally red in bright and dim light?

color constancy

Which of the following is an example of sensory adaptation?

finding the cold water of a swimming pool warmer after you have been in it for a while

Most color-deficeint people will probably

lack functioning red or green-sensative cones

The historical movement associated with the statement "The whole may exceed the sum of its parts" is

Gestalt psychology

Figures tend to be perceived as whole, complete objects, even if spaces of gaps exist in the representation, thus demonstrating the principle of

closure

The figure-ground relationship has demonstrated that

the same stimulus can trigger more than one perception

When we stare at an object, each eye receives a slightly different image, providing a depth cue known as

retinal disparity

As we move, viewed objects cast changing shapes on our retinas, although we do not perceive the objects as changing. This is part of the phenomenon of

perceptual constancy

A person claiming to be able to read another’s mind is claiming to have the ESP ability of

telepathy

Which philosopher maintained that knowledge comes from inborn ways of organizing our sensory experiences?

Immanual Kant

Kittens and monkeys reared seeing only diffuse, unpatterned light

later had difficulty perceiving the shape of objects

Adults who are born blind but later have their vision restored

typically fail to recognize familiar objects

________ processing refers to how the physical characteristics of stimuli influence their interpretation

Bottom – Up

Which of the following is NOT a monocular depth cue?

Retinal disparity

The Moon illusion occurs in part because distance cues at the horizon make the moon seem

farther away and therefore, larger

Figure is to ground as _______ is to ________

cloudy, sky

The study of perceptions is primarily concerned with how we

interpret sensory stimuli

Jack claims that he often has dreams that predict future events. He claims to have the power of

precognition

Researchers who investigated telepathy found that

over many studies, neither "senders" nor "receives" become more accurate

The frequent theory of hearing is better than place theory at explaining our sensation of

the lowest pitches

The perceptual error in which we fail to see an object when out attention is directed elsewhere is

inattentional blindness

accommodation

lens

controls pupil

iris

admits light

pupil

vision in dim light

rod

color vision

cones

amplifies sound

middle ear

transduction of sound

inner ear

closes pain gate

large nerve fiber

opens pain gate

small nerve fiber

vestibular sense

semicircular canals

sensors in joints

kinethesis

Which of the following is NOT true one of the basic tastes?

bland

Of the four distinct skin sense, the only one that has definable receptors is

pressure

The process by which sensory information is converted into neural energy is

transductions

The receptors for taste are located in

taste buds

The inner ear contains receptors for

audition and the vestibular sense

According to the opponent-process theory

neurons involved in color vision are stimulated by one color’s wavelength and inhibited by anothers

What enables you to feel yourself wiggling your toes even with your eyes closed

kinesthesis

Hubel and Wiesel discovered feature detectors in the visual

cortex

Weber’s law states

the jnd for any stimulus is a constant proportion

The principle that one sense may influence another is

sensory interactions

The correct order of the structures through with light passes after entering the eye is

cornea, pupil, lens, and retina

In the opponent-process theory, the three types of process are

red-green, blue-yellow, and black-white

Wave length is to _______ as ________ is to the brightness

hue; intensity

Concerning the evidence for subliminal stimulation, which of the following is the best answer?

all of these statements are true

Which of the following is the most accurate description of how we process color?

Color processing occurs in two stages – 1) a three color system in the retina and 2) opponent-process cells en route to the visual cortex

One reason that your ability to detect fine visual details os creates when scenes are focused on the fovea of your retina is that

many cones, which are cluster in the fovea, have individual bipolar cells to relay their information to the cortex

Given normal sensory ability, a person standing atop a mountain on a dark, clear night can see a candle flame atop a mountain 30 miles away, This is a description of vision’s

absolute threshold

The tendency to organize stimuli into smooth, uninterrupted patterns is called

continuity

Which of the following statements is consistent with the Gesalt theory of perception?

The mind organizes sensations into meaningful perceptions

Experiments with distorted visual environments demonstrates that

humans adapt readily, while lower animals typically do not

The phenomenon that refers to the ways in which an individuals expectations influence perception is called

perceptual set

According to the philosopher, _______we learn to perceive the world.

John Locke

The phenomenon of size constancy is based on the close connection between an object’s perceived ______ and its perceived _______.

size; distance

Which of the following best describes the effects of sensory restriction?

It has more damaging effects when experienced during infancy

Selective attention is most accurately defined as

the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus

Psychologists who study ESP are called

parapsychologists

The depth cue that occurs when we watch stable objects at different distances as we are moving is

relative motion

Which of the following statements concerning ESP is not true?

Most research psychologists are skeptical of the claims of defenders of ESP

Each time you see a car, it projects a different image on the retinas of your eyes, yet you do not perceive it as changing. This is because of

perceptual constancy

The term gestalt means

whole

Studies of the visual cliff have provided evidence that much of depth perception is

innate

All of the following are laws of perceptual organization EXCEPT

retinal disparity

You probably perceive the diagram above as three separate objects due to the principle of

connectdness

________ processing refers to how out knowledge and expectations influence perceptions

Top-down

The place theory of pitch perception cannot account for how we hear

low pitched sounds

Sensorineural hearing loss is caused by

damage to the cochlea

In shopping for a new stereo, you discoed that you cannot differentiate between the sounds of models X and Y. The difference between X and Y is below your

difference threshold

To maximize your sensitivity to fine visual detail you should

stare directly at the object

When admiring the texture of a piece of fabric, Calvin usually runs his fingertips over the cloth’s surface. He does this because

if the cloth were held motionless, sensory adaption to its fell would quirky occur

Superman’s eyes used _______, while his brain used _________.

bottom up processing; top down processing

Tamiko hates the bitter taste of her cough syrup. Which of the following would she find most helpful in minimizing the syrup’s bad taste?

holding her nose while taking the cough syrup

Although carpenter Smith perceived a beifely viwed object as a screwdriver, police officer Wesson received the object as a knife, This illustrates that perception is guided by

perceptual set

The fact that a white object under a dim illumination appears lighter than a gray object under bright illumination is called

lightness constancy

When two familiar objects of equal size cast unequal retinal images, the object that cases the small retinal image will be perceived as being

more distant than the other object

Concluding her presentation on sensation and perception, kelly notes that

sensation and perception blend into one continuous pattern

As her friend Milo walks toward her, Noriko perceives his size as remaining constancy because his perceived distance _______ at the same time that her retinal image of him ________.

decreases; increases

In the absence of perceptual constancy

objects would appear to change size as their distance from us changed

How do we perceive a pole that partially covers a wall?

as nearer

An artist paints a tree orchard so that the parallel rows of threes converge at the top of the canvas. What cue has the artist used to convey distance?

linear perspective

Objects higher on our field of vision are perceived as ______ due to the principal of _______,

farther away; relative height

Your friend tosses you a frisbee. You know that is is getting closer instead of larger because of the

shape constancy

Regina claims that she can bend spoon, levitate furniture, and perform many other "mind over matter" feats. Regina apparently believes she has the power of

psychokinesis

Studying the road map before her trip, Colleen had no trouble find the route of the high way she planned to travel. Colleen’s ability illustrates the principle of

continuity

The phantom limb sensation indicated that

pain involves the brain’s interpretation of neural activity

While competing in the Olympic trials, marathoner Kirsten O’Brien suffered a stress factrue in her left leg. That she did not feel pain until after attributes to the fact that during the race

the pain gate in her spinal cord was closed by information coming from her brain.

Which of the following is an example of sensory interaction?

all of these are examples

In comparing the human eye to a camera, the film would be located in the eye’s

retina

Sensation is to _______ as perception is to _______.

detecting a stimulus; recognizing a stimulus

I am a cell in the thalamus that is excited by red and inhibited by green. I am an

opponent – processing cell

The correct order of structures through which sound travels after entering the ear is

auditory canal, eardrum, middle ear, cochlea.

Dr. Frankestin

basilar membrane

Assuming that the vital systems of humans and other mammals function similarly, you would expect that the retina of a nocturnal mammal (one active only at night) would contain

mostly rods

Foot ball game

cones, higher

After staring at a very intense red stimulus for a few muneuts, Carrie shifted her gaze to a beige wall and "saw" the color ______. Carrie’s experience provides support for the ___ theory.

green; opponent-process

70 year old Martiez

Being 70, probably has fewer taste buds than her son.

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