Psych test 3 pt. 2

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The Big Five factor of agreeableness is positively correlated with:

satisfying romantic relationships

The Big Five factors theory of personality is the view that personality is made up of:

openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism.

According to Erik Erikson, an adolescent’s crisis is based on the need to:

from an identity

Maria is experiencing identity confusion. Which of the following statements describes Maria?

All of these are possible descriptions of an adolescent with identity confusion: She is immersed in her friends and equates her identity with the crowd. She has a sense of self that is inconsistent and generally unacceptable to others. She is withdrawn and isolated from her family and friends.

For positive identity development, a family atmosphere should promote:

individuality and connectedness

According to Marcia, adolescents who are in the midst of a crisis and whose commitment levels are either absent or only vaguely defined are in a state of identity:

moratorium

Beverly spends as much time with her grandchildren as she can. She wants them to remember the fun times they have shared when she passes. According to Erikson, Beverly is striving to achieve:

generativity

The "MAMA" cycle is:

the possibility that an individual may work through crisis and commitment in any given area of identity more than once.

According to Levinson’s research on the midlife transition, most males:

found it to be a painful and difficult time.

In the Berkeley longitudinal studies, which of the following dimensions was considered LEAST stable in adult personality development?

nurturance

Letti allows her young son to try many different activities—sports, chess, music, and so on. She wants him to discover his natural abilities and interests in order to:

increase his self-esteem.

At what age do infants, relying on others for signals about acceptable behavior, begin to show compliance to caregivers’ demands?

12-18 mo

When describing herself, Cali says that she is the oldest child in her family, is president of the honor society at school, has a few close friends, and is on the student council. These aspects of Cali’s self-understanding are based on?

roles and membership categories

Most adolescents have _____ self-esteem.

low

Mariah identifies herself as a kind person, a girl scout, and the best soccer player on her team. Mariah is in:

middle to late childhood

Which of the following is NOT a strategy for increasing self-esteem?

Avoid problems to prevent failure or disappointment.

What individuals might become, what they would like to become, and what they dread they will become constitutes the:

possible self

Which of the following is the central aspect of an individual’s personality?

self

Scott realizes that his memory is not what it used to be. He carries a small notebook with him to write down important information that he will need to recall later. This is an example of:

compensation

The life-events approach to understanding adult development has been criticized because it focuses:

too much on change and too little on stability.

Low self-esteem is correlated to:

depression

What do most researchers believe regarding the concept of a midlife crisis?

The idea of midlife crisis has been exaggerated.

Erikson held that adolescence is a critical period for identity development and that unsuccessfully resolved crises during this time result in confusion about who one truly is. In contrast, contemporary theorists believe that identity is formed:

in a gradual process of discovery that occurs across the lifespan.

The author of the Mills College longitudinal study favors the concept of midlife _____ over midlife crisis.

consciousness

Erikson termed the gap between childhood security and adult autonomy:

psychosocial moratorium

When adults develop skills that are passed down to others, they are developing _____ of work.

generativity

Donna has congestive heart failure and is confined to a wheelchair. She remains active in the community by using email and teleconferencing software. Her 24-hour caregiver assists her with daily living tasks. Donna has learned how to effectively use _____ strategies to maintain an active, positive life.

compensation

According to Marcia, adolescents who have not explored meaningful alternatives or made any commitments are in a state of identity:

diffusion

Which of the following BEST summarizes the results of the major longitudinal studies of personality development?

The greatest amount of change happens from 20 to 40.

Juan is a college student who is reflecting on his ethnic identity and how he fits into mainstream culture. He has a diverse group of friends and is active in the campus Latino Club. Juan likely:

identifies both with the mainstream culture and his culture of origin.

Thirteen-year-old Cody does not understand or care about how his strengths and weaknesses will guide him into different roles in the future. According to Marcia, Cody is in a state of identity:

diffusion

Self-esteem is correlated most strongly with:

physical appearance

According to Marcia, adolescents that have made a commitment without exploring meaningful alternatives are in a state of identity:

foreclosure

Wayne’s parents insist that he become a lawyer, and he is planning to attend the law school that they have chosen for him. Marcia would say that Wayne is in a state of identity:

foreclosure

An assignment in Chad’s career development course has reopened the issue of choosing a major. According to Marcia, Chad is in a state of identity:

moratorium

In the individual variations view of middle adulthood development, it is important to recognize that:

some individuals may experience a midlife crisis in some contexts of their lives but not others.

Yves had a tumultuous adolescence. As a young adult, he isolates himself from peers and family. According to Erikson, Yves emerged from his adolescent crisis as:

identity confused.

Todd explains that he is different from Davion because he is tall and has blonde hair and Davion is short and has brown hair. Todd is a(n):

preschooler

Bill believes that he should persevere and keep trying until he reaches his goals. Bill is using a(n) _____ strategy.

optimzation

When minority youth identify in some ways with their ethnic culture and in other ways with the dominant culture, they are developing a(n):

bicultural idenity

An adolescent who is experimenting with different vocational possibilities is experiencing what psychologist James Marcia terms an identity:

crisis

The Big Five factor of conscientiousness has emerged as a key predictor of:

academic success

Self-esteem is linked to many different factors. It is important to remember that the research is not _____, but is largely _____.

experimental; correlational

The seventh stage of Erikson’s life-span theory takes place during middle age and is termed:

generativity versus stagnation.

The extent to which an individual recognizes his or her personal psychological makeup is that person’s:

level of self-awareness.

What theory emphasizes the influence of life experiences on personality development?

contemporary life-events theory

According to Erik Erikson, the adolescent identity crisis is:

a natural and healthy part of development.

According to Marcia, adolescents who have explored alternatives and have made a commitment are in a state of identity:

achievement.

According to the cumulative personality model of personality development, as people age, they become more adept at:

interacting with their environment in ways that support personality stability.

Today, most personality psychologists believe that personality is a product of:

trait-situation interaction.

Which of the following is an enduring aspect of the self that includes a sense of membership in an ethnic group, along with the attitudes and feelings related to that membership?

ethnic identity

Kristina is looking forward to participating in the mock election debate at school. She has strong opinions on school issues and feels confident that she can communicate her stance to others. Kristina has a sense of:

individuality

Kelsy wants to become a teacher, lawyer, or singer. She is a talented, intelligent girl who vows not to be satisfied in a dead end job. Kelsy is considering her:

possible self

As individuals get older, they describe _____ possible selves and portray them in more _____ ways.

fewer; concrete

According to Cooper, mutuality and permeability are two dimensions of:

connectedness

For most children, the ability to recognize oneself in the mirror occurs around _____ year(s) of age.

2

In a recent cross-cultural study, older children showed increased skepticism of others’ self-reports concerning value-laden traits. Which of the following would a 10- to 11-year-old most likely reject?

claims that one never lies

According to Marcia, the part of identity development in which individuals show personal investment in what they are going to do is known as:

commitment

Which of the following is a finding of Helson’s Mills College study?

Women in their 40s experience many of the same concerns of men in midlife.

Which of Marcia’s identity statuses is a minority youth likely to adopt in the face of restricted occupational opportunities in a discriminating dominant culture?

identity foreclosure

As Stephanie considers the future, her mother explains that few decisions are permanent, and that Stephanie will continue to reevaluate her choices for the rest of her life. This is a description of:

the "MAMA" cycle.

Which of the following is likely to improve a child’s self-esteem?

Find out what a child values and help develop skills and competence in this area.

oann is an older adult who attends a group that shares its past experiences, familiar objects, and photographs with each other. This kind of therapy is known as _____ therapy.

reminisce

All of the following are possible reasons why older adults don’t have lower self-esteem than young or middle-aged adults EXCEPT

their knowledge-related goals have increased.

What did Levinson conclude about females in midlife transition?

Like males, females also suffer a crisis.

Mary Ann wants to help her young daughter better understand what other people are feeling. What should Mary Ann say to help her daughter understand others?

"How do you think your friend feels because you took her toy?"

The Berkeley longitudinal studies indicated that life-span personality development is marked by:

neither extreme change nor extreme stability.

Paul Baltes and colleagues believe that successful self-regulation in aging is linked with which of the following factors?

selection, optimization, and compensation

American-born youth of ethnic descent have to learn how to adapt and mesh many different worlds. This task requires considerable:

self-integration

After considerable debate, Drew proposed to his girlfriend. As the wedding date approached, he was overcome with doubt and considered calling it off. He did not cancel the wedding and is happily married today. Drew’s experience is an example of:

the "MAMA" cycle of identity development.

In general terms, the preschool child’s understanding of self is:

physical or active

In the Berkeley longitudinal studies, which of the following dimensions was considered MOST stable in adult personality development?

self-confidence

Twenty-month-old Michael is placed in front of a mirror with a spot of rouge on his nose. Michael will MOST likely:

touch his nose in attempt to wipe off the spot.

One way researchers examine identity changes in depth is by using a technique where you ask the individual to tell their life story and evaluate how integrated that story is, this approach is known as:

the narrative approach.

Leigh understands that she upset her brother when she lost his favorite ball and wants to replace it to make him happy. Leigh is displaying

perspective taking

According to Marcia, _____ is defined as a period of identity development during which the individual is exploring alternatives.

crisis

Being attentive and positive toward one’s image in a mirror appears as early as _____ month(s) old.

3

Ted is popular because he displays an understanding of his friends’ needs and communicates well. He is adept at:

perspecitive taking

Thora loves to paint but realizes her fine-motor movement is not what it used to be. She now paints in the morning when she experiences fewer tremors and makes sure to go slowly working on her projects. This is an example of:

optimization.

Nine-year-old Calvin’s self-esteem is MOST likely:

realistic

Compared to older adults, younger adults are more likely to assess their well-being in terms of:

their careers

Judy reminisces about when her children were young. She reveals to her daughter that she often felt tired and discouraged during those times. Seeing her children as parents helps Judy to realize that she was and is a good mother. This is an aspect of Judy’s:

life review

According to Levinson, the midlife crisis requires men to come to grips with all of the following EXCEPT:

being generative vs. stagnant.

The selective optimization with compensation model is based on the idea that older adults fare better when they:

develop positive and creative coping strategies to deal with their limitations.

Self-regulation is positively correlated to:

high achievement and high life satisfaction.

Which of the following is an example of how a 5-year-old child might perceive a friend in terms of psychological traits?

my friend is funny

Costa and McCrae have found that all of the following personality traits peak around 40 to 60 years of age EXCEPT:

social dominance

Dewey comprehends that he is a 10-year-old boy who is: on the chess team, a member of a family, loves computer games, and hates peanut butter. This is Dewey’s:

self-understanding.

Sometimes Kianna is angry that her parents will not let her date who she pleases. Other times she is upset because they do not coddle her like they do her younger siblings. Kianna’s mixed feelings are an example of Erikson’s:

psychological moratorium.

Diane was shy and lacked confidence as a teenager. At age 62, she is still unlikely to initiate a conversation but feels confident in her abilities and life choices. In explaining Diane’s personality development, Costa and McCrae’s Baltimore study would most likely emphasize _____, whereas the Berkeley longitudinal studies would emphasize __________.

stability;change

Jana is discovering her likes and dislikes, talents and abilities. It seems that her persona changes frequently. In the last month, she has characterized herself as a tomboy, dancer, and honor student. This is an example of Jana’s:

fluctuating self

Leslie recalls her painful divorce. At the time, she felt like a failure but now realizes that many aspects of her life improved as a result of this challenge. She is participating in a(n):

life review.

At almost all ages, self-esteem is highest in:

males

According to the contemporary life-events theory of development, a divorce is likely to affect an individual in a:

unique way dependent on mediating factors, interpretation, and context.

Which of the following might interfere with the development of self-regulation in adolescence?

feelings of invincibility and social comparison

Emily pondered her major for a long time. Now, at graduation, she feels a strong sense of having made the right decision and looks forward to a long career in her chosen area. According to Marcia, Emily is in a state of identity:

acheivment

Which of the following explains why young children have unrealistically positive self-descriptions?

all of these

Which of the following is an example of how a young child might make a self-evaluation using an unrealistically positive overestimation?

i am never scared

What is the charge of the novice phase in Levinson’s theory?

development of a dream and free experimentation and testing this dream in the real world

Sal is 75 years old. He is most likely to personally invest in his:

family.

Which of the following includes awareness and assessment?

identity

The ability to manage one’s behavior without help from others is known as:

self-regulation.

According to Cooper, self-assertion and separateness are two dimensions of:

individuality

Cross-cultural research shows which of the following about adolescents around the world?

Almost three-fourths of the adolescents had a healthy self-image.

Curtis loves to garden, but his arthritis makes it difficult. Now he limits the plants he tends to those that do not require much maintenance. This is an example of:

selection

Middle-aged Jeff regrets his earlier over-focus on work and mourns the poor relationship he has with his children. According to Erikson, Jeff is experiencing:

stagnation

What type of personality theories are based on the notion that people can be described in terms of the basic ways they act?

trait

Self-esteem refers to global self-evaluation, while self-concept refers to:

domain-specific evaluations of the self.

Maria is a family therapist. She encourages her clients to recognize and respect other’s points of view and be open to different ideas. Maria is fostering a sense of:

connectedness

According to Marcia, the extent of an individual’s crisis or commitment in the process of developing a self is called:

identity status

Some psychologists believe that trait theories of personality give too little attention to _____ and put too much emphasis on _____.

enviornment;stability

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