Psych research final

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Occam’s razor states that the simplest solution is the best, all things being equal. This speaks to a theory’s:

Parsimony

According to the text, which of the scientific cycles is the most important cycle in science?

Theory-data cycle

Which aspect of the peer-review cycle allows for the greatest amount of honesty in reviews?

The anonymity of the peer reviewers

RESEARCH STUDY 1.1

Deci and Ryan (1985, 2001) have proposed that there are three fundamental needs that are required for human growth and fulfillment: relatedness, autonomy, and competence. Susan predicts that students who have these needs met in their psychology class feel happier and more satisfied with the class. She collects data and finds that students who feel more related and competent do feel happier but that feeling more autonomous does not seem to matter. Susan thinks that maybe autonomy is only necessary when people are in situations in which they are not being evaluated.

Refer to Research Study 1.1 above to answer the following question.
This scenario is an example of which scientific cycle?

Theory-data cycle

RESEARCH STUDY 1.1

Deci and Ryan (1985, 2001) have proposed that there are three fundamental needs that are required for human growth and fulfillment: relatedness, autonomy, and competence. Susan predicts that students who have these needs met in their psychology class feel happier and more satisfied with the class. She collects data and finds that students who feel more related and competent do feel happier but that feeling more autonomous does not seem to matter. Susan thinks that maybe autonomy is only necessary when people are in situations in which they are not being evaluated.

Refer to Research Study 1.1 above to answer the following question.
After Susan collects and analyzes her data, which of the following is the next logical step?

Altering or amending the theory to fit her data

Which of the following is the reason that scientific journals use peer review?

It ensures that the studies published are of the highest quality.

Which of the following is an example of being a producer of research?

-Administering a questionnaire of PTSD symptoms – Observing the behavior of rats who have been socially isolated -Measuring dopamine levels in patients with schizophrenia

RESEARCH STUDY 1.1

Deci and Ryan (1985, 2001) have proposed that there are three fundamental needs that are required for human growth and fulfillment: relatedness, autonomy, and competence. Susan predicts that students who have these needs met in their psychology class feel happier and more satisfied with the class. She collects data and finds that students who feel more related and competent do feel happier but that feeling more autonomous does not seem to matter. Susan thinks that maybe autonomy is only necessary when people are in situations in which they are not being evaluated.

Refer to Research Study 1.1 above to answer the following question.
Susan’s prediction that students who experience all of the three needs will experience greater satisfaction with their psychology class is an example of which of the following?

A hypothesis

RESEARCH STUDY 1.1

Deci and Ryan (1985, 2001) have proposed that there are three fundamental needs that are required for human growth and fulfillment: relatedness, autonomy, and competence. Susan predicts that students who have these needs met in their psychology class feel happier and more satisfied with the class. She collects data and finds that students who feel more related and competent do feel happier but that feeling more autonomous does not seem to matter. Susan thinks that maybe autonomy is only necessary when people are in situations in which they are not being evaluated.

Refer to Research Study 1.1 above to answer the following question.
Deci and Ryan’s general statement of how the three needs are related to growth and fulfillment is an example of which of the following?

A theory

According to the text, the bridge between basic and applied research is known as:

Translational research

Benjamin is a social psychologist who studies marriage. He believes that marital satisfaction has two components: the ability to trust one’s partner and a belief that one can be a good spouse. He conducts a study to test his ideas. Assuming that his data match his theory, which of the following statements should he make?

The data provide support for my theory

Dr. Gonzalez is a peer reviewer for a manuscript submitted to a journal. He is likely to provide comments on all of the following EXCEPT:

The prestige/reputation of the author

Research that is done specifically to solve a practical problem, like increasing memory ability or decreasing symptoms of depression, is known as:

Applied research

Which of the following is true of the relationship between hypotheses and theories?

Hypotheses are a step taken to determine if a theory is accurate.

Which of the following is an example of applied research?

An educational psychologist who looks for a way to increase math skills in 8-year-olds

Vinai learns that people with schizophrenia have a problem labeling their emotions. Using this information, he designs a research study to examine whether teaching schizophrenic patients to label the emotions of people they see in movie clips helps them to better label their own emotions. This is an example of:

On of these look up… Applied research Empirical research Practical research Translational research

Journals and magazines are similar in all the following ways EXCEPT:

Both tend to have their articles peer reviewed.

Which of the following is an example of basic research?

An experimental psychologist who examines peoples ability to perceive a sweet taste

Both James and Thomas have theories that explain why listening to classical music while reading is associated with increased recall of the material. James’s theory is much simpler than Thomas’s. Thomas created his theory a few months before James did. Which of the following is true?

James’s theory would be considered better because it is more parsimonious.

Which of the following is the first section of an empirical journal article?

Abstract

Sections of an Empirical journal article in order

Abstract Introduction Methods Results Discussion References

Diego is interested in examining the relationship between a person’s attachment style and his or her relationship satisfaction. He finds 65 studies that have examined this topic. He combines the results of all these studies and calculates an effect size. His research is most accurately described as:

A meta-analysis

Patrick is confident that his short-term memory is better than most people’s. He knows this because compared with his friends, he can remember more names than they do. Which of the following should we do?

Not believe that his short-term memory is better than most peoples because confidence does not ensure accuracy

Where do psychological scientists commonly publish their work?

Edited books and Scientific journals

Sasha believes that she is a nice person. To confirm this, she asks all her friends whether she is a nice person and they all agree that she is. Sasha concludes that she is a nice person and says she has evidence of it. However, she does not ask any of her enemies whether they think she is a nice person. This is an example of which of the following?

Cherry-picking of evidence

You and your friends go to see a speaker on campus, Dr. Darian, an "expert" on getting into graduate school. Which of the following should make you less skeptical about his advice?

His recommendations are based on research he conducted for his dissertation.

RESEARCH STUDY 2.1

Charlotte is studying subliminal messages and weight loss. She is curious whether people who hear in the music on their iPods subliminal messages that encourage weight loss ("don’t eat that food," "you want to be thin") lose more weight than people who do not have subliminal messages in their music. She studies 40 people and finds the following results:

Number Who Lost Weight Number Who Did Not Lose Weight
Exposed to Subliminal Messages (Cell A)
15 people (Cell C)
5 people
Not Exposed to Subliminal Messages (Cell B)
10 people (Cell D)
10 people

Refer to Research Study 2.1 above to answer the following question.
A change to which of the following cells will result in a different interpretation of the results of subliminal messages?

A change in any of the cells will affect the interpretation

The problem with the pop-up principle is which of the following?

We do not examine all of the evidence, only what we can quickly think of.

James is asked about what is the best way to study for an exam. He responds that the best way to study is by making flash cards. He easily thinks of all the times he used flash cards and he made A’s. However, he fails to take into consideration all the times he made A’s and did not use flash cards and the times he used flash cards and did not do well. His faulty thinking is an example of:

Present/present bias

An alternative explanation for an outcome is known as a/an:

Confound

When reading an empirical journal article "with purpose," which section should you read first?

Abstract

Compared with doing a generic Internet search, why is PsycINFO a superior way to find scientific sources?

It provides you with research abstracts.

Matthew is reading an empirical journal article and wants to know whether the authors used the Big Five Inventory (BFI-44) or the NEO-PI to measure extraversion. In which section would he find this information?

Method

When reading an empirical journal article "with purpose," why should you read the abstract first?

Because it provides an overview of the article

Which of the following is a downside to using a wiki to conduct psychological research?

-Their coverage of a topic is not necessarily comprehensive. – The page may not include references. – The page may include incorrect information. – A page may not have content that is specific to psychology.

Which of the following is NOT an example of "thinking what we want"?

Availability heuristic

Looking for which of the following in a trade book will give you a hint as to its scientific rigor?

The number of references

Angela reads about a study in which cell phone use is associated with migraine headaches. She says, "Well, that study is not valid because I use a cell phone more than anyone I know and I never get migraines." Based on her comment, Angela may be forgetting which of the following?

Science is probabilistic.

RESEARCH STUDY 2.1

Charlotte is studying subliminal messages and weight loss. She is curious whether people who hear in the music on their iPods subliminal messages that encourage weight loss ("don’t eat that food," "you want to be thin") lose more weight than people who do not have subliminal messages in their music. She studies 40 people and finds the following results:

Number Who Lost Weight Number Who Did Not Lose Weight
Exposed to Subliminal Messages (Cell A)
15 people (Cell C)
5 people
Not Exposed to Subliminal Messages (Cell B)
10 people (Cell D)
10 people

Refer to Research Study 2.1 above to answer the following question.
To understand whether the subliminal messages have an effect, Charlotte needs to consider all of the following cells in the chart above EXCEPT:

She must consider all of the cells

Dr. Ellison finds a relation between the amount of sleep and problem solving. Specifically, having a higher amount of sleep the night before an exam is associated with higher scores on two measures of problem solving. This is an example of which type of association?

Positive association

RESEARCH STUDY 3.3

Anton and his friends are discussing a study he read about in his developmental psychology class. In the study, the researcher made the claim that a majority of middle school students who are bullied have low self-esteem. Clarissa questions the study, saying, "I am not sure that I am convinced—I am not sure you can really measure being bullied." Quinn also questions the study, saying, "Which middle school students did they study? I am curious if they included both private and public school students."

Refer to Research Study 3.3 above to answer the following question.
Quinn’s concern is addressing which of the following?

The study’s external validity

A common finding in the study of aggression is that exposure to television is associated with increased aggressive behavior in children. You know this relationship may not be causal because you are not sure which occurred first—watching television or being aggressive. You are questioning which of the following rules of causation?

The rule of temporal precedence

A common finding in the study of aggression is that exposure to television is associated with increased aggressive behavior in children. You are curious as to whether peer pressure is really to blame (peer pressure encourages you to watch television and peer pressure encourages you to be aggressive). You are questioning which of the following rules of causation?

The third-variable rule

RESEARCH STUDY 3.1

Anderson is reading his morning paper and reads the following headline: "Female Engineering Majors’ Effort on Math Problems Depends on Sex of Role Model." (This headline is based on a study conducted by Stout, Dasgupta, Hunsinger, and McManus, 2011.) In the study, female students were asked to complete a math test by either a male math major or a female math major. Female students tried to solve more of the math problems when asked by a female math major compared with a male math major.

Refer to Research Study 3.1 above to answer the following question.
In this study, the authors were interested in students’ math effort. Which of the following would NOT be a reasonable operational definition of math effort?

-An earnest attempt to solve math problems -The number of math classes taken in college -A score on a standardized measure of math effort -The number of math problems students answered correctly

RESEARCH STUDY 3.4

Dr. Kang, a cognitive psychologist, conducts an experiment examining the effect of emotion on memory. He provides lists of 15 words to two groups of participants at his university. He puts the names of all the participants in a hat. The first 20 names he assigns to Group A and the last 20 he assigns to Group B. Group A is given a list of words that are very emotional in content (e.g., passion, murder). Group B is given a list of words that are neutral in content (e.g., houseplant, desk). He then measures how many words each group is able to remember after being distracted for 5 minutes by watching a video about the history of the university. He finds that Group A remembers 15% more words than Group B.

Refer to Research Study 3.4 above to answer the following question.
If Dr. Kang decided against using random assignment, which of the following would be threatened?

???? The covariance of the study The temporal precedence of the study The internal validity of the study The construct validity of the study

To evaluate how well a study supports a frequency claim, you need to focus on evaluating which of the following validities?

Construct validity and external validity

RESEARCH STUDY 3.4

Dr. Kang, a cognitive psychologist, conducts an experiment examining the effect of emotion on memory. He provides lists of 15 words to two groups of participants at his university. He puts the names of all the participants in a hat. The first 20 names he assigns to Group A and the last 20 he assigns to Group B. Group A is given a list of words that are very emotional in content (e.g., passion, murder). Group B is given a list of words that are neutral in content (e.g., houseplant, desk). He then measures how many words each group is able to remember after being distracted for 5 minutes by watching a video about the history of the university. He finds that Group A remembers 15% more words than Group B.

Refer to Research Study 3.4 above to answer the following question.
Dr. Kang’s decision to assign participants randomly to Group A and Group B increases which of the following?

The covariance of the study

RESEARCH STUDY 3.3

Anton and his friends are discussing a study he read about in his developmental psychology class. In the study, the researcher made the claim that a majority of middle school students who are bullied have low self-esteem. Clarissa questions the study, saying, "I am not sure that I am convinced—I am not sure you can really measure being bullied." Quinn also questions the study, saying, "Which middle school students did they study? I am curious if they included both private and public school students."

Refer to Research Study 3.3 above to answer the following question.
Clarissa’s concern is addressing which of the following?

The study’s construct validity

RESEARCH STUDY 3.1

Anderson is reading his morning paper and reads the following headline: "Female Engineering Majors’ Effort on Math Problems Depends on Sex of Role Model." (This headline is based on a study conducted by Stout, Dasgupta, Hunsinger, and McManus, 2011.) In the study, female students were asked to complete a math test by either a male math major or a female math major. Female students tried to solve more of the math problems when asked by a female math major compared with a male math major.

Refer to Research Study 3.1 above to answer the following question.
Which of the following is a constant in this study/headline?

The sex of the participants

Dr. Hadden wants to conduct a study that will allow him to make claims that apply to all college students. Which of the following validities is he prioritizing?

The external validity of the study

One problem with reading about psychological studies in the popular press is that the popular press often fails to provide information that allows you to interrogate the study’s ______________ validity.

????? Statistical Internal Construct External

A dependent variable is one that:

Is measured

RESEARCH STUDY 3.2

Dr. Ramon makes the following claim: "Watching television leads people to spend less time communicating with their spouses, study says." Dr. LaSalle makes the claim: "Research shows that making more money correlates with spending less time talking with your spouse."

Refer to Research Study 3.2 above to answer the following question.
Which type of claim is Dr. Ramon making?

Causal claim

An independent variable is one that:

Is manipulated

Why do we normally consider statistical validity when interrogating association claims but not when interrogating frequency claims?

????? Because association claims involve numbers Because association claims involve more participants Because researchers use statistical techniques to analyze association claims All of the above

RESEARCH STUDY 3.4

Dr. Kang, a cognitive psychologist, conducts an experiment examining the effect of emotion on memory. He provides lists of 15 words to two groups of participants at his university. He puts the names of all the participants in a hat. The first 20 names he assigns to Group A and the last 20 he assigns to Group B. Group A is given a list of words that are very emotional in content (e.g., passion, murder). Group B is given a list of words that are neutral in content (e.g., houseplant, desk). He then measures how many words each group is able to remember after being distracted for 5 minutes by watching a video about the history of the university. He finds that Group A remembers 15% more words than Group B.

Refer to Research Study 3.4 above to answer the following question.
Dr. Kang sends his study to a journal to be published. One of the peer reviewers questions the way Dr. Kang manipulated emotion, arguing that being exposed to emotional words does not make one emotional. The reviewer is questioning which of the following?

The construct validity of the study

RESEARCH STUDY 3.1

Anderson is reading his morning paper and reads the following headline: "Female Engineering Majors’ Effort on Math Problems Depends on Sex of Role Model." (This headline is based on a study conducted by Stout, Dasgupta, Hunsinger, and McManus, 2011.) In the study, female students were asked to complete a math test by either a male math major or a female math major. Female students tried to solve more of the math problems when asked by a female math major compared with a male math major.

Refer to Research Study 3.1 above to answer the following question.
How many variables are mentioned in this study/headline?

Two variables

RESEARCH STUDY 3.4

Dr. Kang, a cognitive psychologist, conducts an experiment examining the effect of emotion on memory. He provides lists of 15 words to two groups of participants at his university. He puts the names of all the participants in a hat. The first 20 names he assigns to Group A and the last 20 he assigns to Group B. Group A is given a list of words that are very emotional in content (e.g., passion, murder). Group B is given a list of words that are neutral in content (e.g., houseplant, desk). He then measures how many words each group is able to remember after being distracted for 5 minutes by watching a video about the history of the university. He finds that Group A remembers 15% more words than Group B.

Refer to Research Study 3.4 above to answer the following question.
Which of the following is the dependent variable in Dr. Kang’s study?

The number of words remembered

Who is responsible for deciding which validity is prioritized in a study?

The researcher

When conducting animal research, which guideline states that alternatives to animal research should be considered?

Replacement

RESEARCH STUDY 4.1

Dr. Kline is planning on conducting a study next semester. He is curious as to whether sleep deprivation is associated with poorer cognitive performance. For example, if you sleep poorly the night before a big exam, will you do worse? Dr. Kline is especially curious about selective sleep deprivation, where people are kept from entering R.E.M. (rapid eye movement) sleep. Using an electroencephalograph (EEG) to monitor brain waves, he plans to let participants sleep until they enter R.E.M. sleep and then he will wake them. After 1 minute of being awake, he plans to let them return to sleep. As they enter R.E.M. sleep again, he wakes them up again and follows the same procedure. He plans to do this through the entire 8-hour sleep session. The following morning, participants will be asked to take a sample SAT test.

Refer to Research Study 4.1 above to answer the following question.
Imagine that Dr. Kline is a clinical psychologist who volunteers his time at a local prison counseling several inmates. Because of his connections there, he is considering using prisoners as his participants. The institutional review board (IRB) that reviews his committee must have which of the following as a member?

A prisoner advocate

RESEARCH STUDY 4.1

Dr. Kline is planning on conducting a study next semester. He is curious as to whether sleep deprivation is associated with poorer cognitive performance. For example, if you sleep poorly the night before a big exam, will you do worse? Dr. Kline is especially curious about selective sleep deprivation, where people are kept from entering R.E.M. (rapid eye movement) sleep. Using an electroencephalograph (EEG) to monitor brain waves, he plans to let participants sleep until they enter R.E.M. sleep and then he will wake them. After 1 minute of being awake, he plans to let them return to sleep. As they enter R.E.M. sleep again, he wakes them up again and follows the same procedure. He plans to do this through the entire 8-hour sleep session. The following morning, participants will be asked to take a sample SAT test.

Refer to Research Study 4.1 above to answer the following question.
Dr. Kline suspects that the people who will most benefit from his study are high school and college students, who are asked to perform cognitive functions in various states of sleep deprivation. Given this information, what type of participants should Dr. Kline recruit for his study?

Students from a community college

Which of the following is an example of coercion?

A researcher hinting to participants that their employer will be told if they do not participate A researcher offering homeless participants $1,000 to participate in a study Not coercion- A researcher offering 3 points of extra credit to college students to participate in a study

In which of the following situations would written informed consent not necessarily be required?

An observational study that measures walking speed of people entering and exiting buildings An anonymous study that measures the relationship between time spent grocery shopping and money spent on groceries Neither would require written consent

Prior to research being conducted, a research proposal must be submitted for IRB approval in all of the following cases:

-An anonymous survey about attitudes toward college athletics -An anonymous study looking at gang behavior in recent parolees -A confidential study examining sleep patterns in newborns -A confidential study examining sexual behavior in mentally handicapped individuals

The American Psychological Association’s ethical guidelines have _________ principles and __________ standards.

5 principles and 10 standards.

A local committee that reviews research that is conducted on animals is known as __________.

An IACUC

Why is plagiarism a violation of ethics?

Because it is akin to stealing, and because it violates an APA standard

RESEARCH STUDY 4.1

Dr. Kline is planning on conducting a study next semester. He is curious as to whether sleep deprivation is associated with poorer cognitive performance. For example, if you sleep poorly the night before a big exam, will you do worse? Dr. Kline is especially curious about selective sleep deprivation, where people are kept from entering R.E.M. (rapid eye movement) sleep. Using an electroencephalograph (EEG) to monitor brain waves, he plans to let participants sleep until they enter R.E.M. sleep and then he will wake them. After 1 minute of being awake, he plans to let them return to sleep. As they enter R.E.M. sleep again, he wakes them up again and follows the same procedure. He plans to do this through the entire 8-hour sleep session. The following morning, participants will be asked to take a sample SAT test.

Refer to Research Study 4.1 above to answer the following question.
To address the Belmont Principle of Beneficence, Dr. Kline would need to ask which of the following questions?

What can I do to decrease the potential harm experienced by my participants?

Asking many similar questions when trying to measure a concept is done to:

Cancel out random errors

Establishing construct validity would probably be most important for which of the following?

A measure of religiosity

Which of the following is possible in regards to measures and validity?

A measure is neither reliable nor valid. A measure is both valid and reliable. A measure is reliable but not very valid.

Which of the following is true of scatterplots?

They can be used to examine interrater reliability. They can be used to examine internal reliability.

RESEARCH STUDY 5.2

Dr. Sheffield is a clinical psychologist who specializes in treating pathological gambling. Pathological gambling is defined as being unable to resist impulses to gamble. Bothered by not having a good measure that he can give to clients to determine whether they are suffering from this condition, he creates a new measure of pathological gambling. The measure has 15 questions and it takes 20 minutes to complete.

Refer to Research Study 5.2 above to answer the following question.
Dr. Sheffield has now decided that he wants to test his measure on some university students (who some estimates say have a 6% prevalence rate of compulsive gambling). He has a group of 100 university students complete his measure. He also has them complete two other measures (one that measures addictive behavior in general and one that measures general attitudes toward gambling). He finds that his new measure is positively associated with each of these other measures. This procedure has provided evidence for the _______________ of Dr. Sheffield’s measure.

Convergent validity

RESEARCH STUDY 5.2

Dr. Sheffield is a clinical psychologist who specializes in treating pathological gambling. Pathological gambling is defined as being unable to resist impulses to gamble. Bothered by not having a good measure that he can give to clients to determine whether they are suffering from this condition, he creates a new measure of pathological gambling. The measure has 15 questions and it takes 20 minutes to complete.

Refer to Research Study 5.2 above to answer the following question.
Dr. Sheffield has decided to test the discriminant validity of his new measure. He has a group of first-time GA attendants complete his measure, and finds that they score higher than a group of people who do not attend the group. Which of the following results would provide evidence for discriminant validity?

He finds that the GA attendees score higher on his measure than the non-GA attendees, and they also score higher than a group of people attending Alcoholics Anonymous meetings (who are addicted to something different).

RESEARCH STUDY 5.2

Dr. Sheffield is a clinical psychologist who specializes in treating pathological gambling. Pathological gambling is defined as being unable to resist impulses to gamble. Bothered by not having a good measure that he can give to clients to determine whether they are suffering from this condition, he creates a new measure of pathological gambling. The measure has 15 questions and it takes 20 minutes to complete.

Refer to Research Study 5.2 above to answer the following question.
To test his measure, Dr. Sheffield gives his measure to a group of people in GA and another group in AA. He finds that people in the GA group have higher scores on his new measure than people in the AA group. This procedure is known as a:

Known-groups paradigm

Naomi is studying the effect of popularity on academic success for her research methods project. To do this, she has elementary school students rate how popular each member of their class is. She then uses this information to rank the students on popularity (e.g., John is the most popular, Vanessa is the second-most popular). Which of the following best describes this variable?

An ordinal scale of measurement

How many subcategories of quantitative variables exist?

Three

Which of the following is a reason that psychologists might fabricate or falsify their data?

They feel pressure to publish findings. They are convinced of the correctness of their own hypotheses. Research success has implications for promotion within their department.

Which of the following ethical violations proposed by the Belmont Report was committed in the Tuskegee Study?

Participants were harmed. Participants were not treated respectfully. Participants were from a disadvantaged social group.

Which of the following events did NOT occur in the Tuskegee Study?

Participants in the study were given/infected with the disease.

All of the following are true of IRBs in the United States EXCEPT:

They must have a psychologist as a member

What is the difference between data that is collected anonymously and data that is collected confidentially?

Confidential research collects participants names but separates them from the data; anonymous research does not collect participants names.

RESEARCH STUDY 5.1

Dr. Valencia is considering conducting a study examining whether narcissistic people have poorer social interactions than those who are not narcissistic. One of her first tasks is to determine which of her participants are narcissistic and which are not. She decides to use the scale created by a colleague, the Mayo scale. Question 1 reads, "I tend not to think about other people as much as myself." Question 2 reads, "I do not have a high opinion of myself." Question 3 reads, "I think other people think I am really special."

Refer to Research Study 5.1 above to answer the following question.
Dr. Valencia is concerned about the validity of the measure of narcissism recommended by her colleague. She sends a copy of the measure to the faculty members in her psychology department to look at and they all tell her it looks like it will measure narcissism. She now has evidence of which of the following?

Face validity

Another word for discriminant validity is ___________ validity.

?????? Convergent Asymmetrical Predictive Multiple Correct Answer X None of the above

Serena plans to interview several teachers about their attitude toward teaching children who have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) for her research methods class. This is an example of what type of measurement?

Self-report measurement

RESEARCH STUDY 5.2

Dr. Sheffield is a clinical psychologist who specializes in treating pathological gambling. Pathological gambling is defined as being unable to resist impulses to gamble. Bothered by not having a good measure that he can give to clients to determine whether they are suffering from this condition, he creates a new measure of pathological gambling. The measure has 15 questions and it takes 20 minutes to complete.

Refer to Research Study 5.2 above to answer the following question.
To test his measure, Dr. Sheffield gives his measure to a group of his clients and at the same time measures how many times they have been gambling in the past month. He predicts that clients who score higher on his measure will also report gambling more times in the past month. This procedure is meant to provide evidence for which of the following?

Concurrent validity

Hosea is studying the relationship between caffeine consumption and problem-solving ability. Which of the following is a categorical way to operationalize caffeine consumption?

Whether the participant drank a soda in the 24 hours prior to the study

Which of the following is true of probability sampling?

It is the best way to obtain a representative sample.

Dr. Jackson is a personality psychologist who is interested in studying the characteristics of people who report being abducted by UFOs. She finds several people in a support group to research and asks them if they can provide the names and contact information of other people who have also been abducted. Upon contacting these new participants, she asks them to refer her to even more people they may know who have been abducted. This is an example of what kind of sampling?

Snowball sampling

Forced-choice question formats are especially good at dealing with which of the following issues?

Fence sitting

Why are double-barreled questions problematic?

????? They may have poor construct validity. They may have poor internal reliability. They are leading questions. They are too conceptual.

Dr. Gore is conducting a survey examining people’s opinions toward funding for collegiate athletics on his campus. He notices that several participants agree with all 12 questions. This is an example of which of the following?

A response set Acquiescence Yea-saying

All of the following can decrease accurate responses EXCEPT:

Reverse-worded questions

RESEARCH STUDY 6.2

Dr. Ewell, a developmental psychologist, is planning on conducting a study that involves watching children play together to determine how sharing behavior occurs in same-sex friend pairs compared with opposite-sex friend pairs.

Refer to Research Study 6.2 above to answer the following question.
Given the scenario above, Dr. Ewell decides to collect his data at a neighborhood park. He has his two research assistants pose as a married couple having a picnic. While having their picnic, they take detailed records of the sharing behavior of the children and note whether the pairs are same sex or opposite sex. Given his use of two research assistants, he must establish the _______________ of their measures.

Interrater reliability

If researchers measure every tenth member of a population, they have:

Collected a sample

A study by Rosenthal and Jacobson (1968) involved telling teachers that some of their students were "bloomers" and would achieve rapid academic success within the next year. In fact, these students were no different than any of the other students in the class. At the end of the year, the "bloomers" showed more gains in IQ than the other students. It appeared that the teacher had inadvertently treated the "bloomers" in special ways. This is an example of which of the following?

Observer effects

RESEARCH STUDY 6.2

Dr. Ewell, a developmental psychologist, is planning on conducting a study that involves watching children play together to determine how sharing behavior occurs in same-sex friend pairs compared with opposite-sex friend pairs.

Refer to Research Study 6.2 above to answer the following question.
Given the scenario above, Dr. Ewell decides to collect his data at a neighborhood park. He has his two research assistants pose as a married couple having a picnic. While having their picnic, they take detailed records of the sharing behavior of the children and note whether the pairs are same sex or opposite sex. This technique is known as:

Unobtrusive observation

How do reverse-worded items address shortcuts?

They slow down readers, making them answer more carefully. They distinguish between yea-sayers and people that are true believers.

RESEARCH STUDY 6.1

Professor Kramer has decided to measure how happy his students are with his teaching this semester. He is teaching two classes this semester—Psychology and Law class and Introduction to Neuroscience class. His survey has the following questions.

A. What was your favorite part of this class?
B. Please rate how much you agree with the following statement using the scale
below: This was one of my favorite classes all semester.
1 2 3 4 5
Strongly agree Agree Neither agree Disagree Strongly nor disagree disagree
C. Which of the following is most true of you?
a. I am a very serious student.
b. I try only as hard as I have to.
D. How easy did you feel this class was?
1 2 3 4 5
Easy Hard

Refer to Research Study 6.1 above to answer the following question.
Which of the questions above is an example of a question that uses a semantic differential scale?

Question D

RESEARCH STUDY 6.1

Professor Kramer has decided to measure how happy his students are with his teaching this semester. He is teaching two classes this semester—Psychology and Law class and Introduction to Neuroscience class. His survey has the following questions.

A. What was your favorite part of this class?
B. Please rate how much you agree with the following statement using the scale
below: This was one of my favorite classes all semester.
1 2 3 4 5
Strongly agree Agree Neither agree Disagree Strongly nor disagree disagree
C. Which of the following is most true of you?
a. I am a very serious student.
b. I try only as hard as I have to.
D. How easy did you feel this class was?
1 2 3 4 5
Easy Hard

Refer to Research Study 6.1 above to answer the following question.
In the above scenario, Dr. Kramer plans to give his survey only to his Psychology and Law students because he sees them on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays and he can spare the class time (unlike his Tuesday/Thursday Introduction to Neuroscience class). Which of the following is true?

??????? This will lead to a biased sample because the type of students who take Psychology and Law may be different from the type of students who take Introduction to Neuroscience. This will lead to a biased sample because the Research Methods students have a lot of time to complete the survey. The will lead to a sample that is representative of both of his classes. None of the above are true.

Masked, or blind, study designs are designed to deal with:

Observer bias

Another word for observer effects is:

Reactivity

RESEARCH STUDY 6.1

Professor Kramer has decided to measure how happy his students are with his teaching this semester. He is teaching two classes this semester—Psychology and Law class and Introduction to Neuroscience class. His survey has the following questions.

A. What was your favorite part of this class?
B. Please rate how much you agree with the following statement using the scale
below: This was one of my favorite classes all semester.
1 2 3 4 5
Strongly agree Agree Neither agree Disagree Strongly nor disagree disagree
C. Which of the following is most true of you?
a. I am a very serious student.
b. I try only as hard as I have to.
D. How easy did you feel this class was?
1 2 3 4 5
Easy Hard

Refer to Research Study 6.1 above to answer the following question.
Which of the questions above is an example of an open-ended question?

Question A

Having a representative sample is most important in which of the following example claims?

??????? Fifty-nine percent of college athletes feel that playing professionally is an attainable goal. Expressing uncertainty about relationship commitment prior to marriage is associated with greater marital happiness. Having a boss compliment you at work causes you to work more efficiently. People who have religious experiences report feeling more comfortable with the idea of death.

Which of the following is the most direct way to control for question order effects?

Prepare different versions of the survey, varying the order of the questions.

Dr. Oishi is an educational psychologist interested in students’ attitudes toward math and their effect on performance on standardized tests. He chooses his local school district to study. There are 15 middle schools and he randomly chooses five. Then, of the 1,500 students in each of those five schools, he randomly recruits 250 students. This is an example of which of the following sampling techniques?

Multistage sample

A sample is always _________ a population.

Smaller than

RESEARCH STUDY 7.1

Dr. Oswald conducts a study examining the relationship between the number of friends one has and the experience of daily stress and life satisfaction. She randomly samples 1,500 elderly men and women in the Memphis, Tennessee, area in the southern United States. Below are her findings.
< Life satisfaction and experience of daily stress: r = -.57 (p = .01)
< Number of friends one has and experience of daily stress: r = .09, not sig.
< Number of friends one has and life satisfaction: r = .36 (p = .04)

Refer to Research Study 7.1 above to answer the following question.
Dr. Oswald creates a scatterplot of the relationship between the experience of daily stress and life satisfaction. In doing so, she realizes there are three scores that seem to be very extreme and are nowhere near the other points on the scatterplot. Specifically, it appears that three people report very high levels of daily stress and very low levels of life satisfaction. Dr. Oswald should probably consider these scores _________________.
Random

Outliers

Which of the following is true of statistical significance testing?

??? It is a process of inference. It can lead to an incorrect conclusion about the population. Both a and b are true. All of the above are true.

RESEARCH STUDY 7.1

Dr. Oswald conducts a study examining the relationship between the number of friends one has and the experience of daily stress and life satisfaction. She randomly samples 1,500 elderly men and women in the Memphis, Tennessee, area in the southern United States. Below are her findings.
< Life satisfaction and experience of daily stress: r = -.57 (p = .01)
< Number of friends one has and experience of daily stress: r = .09, not sig.
< Number of friends one has and life satisfaction: r = .36 (p = .04)

Refer to Research Study 7.1 above to answer the following question.
The "not sig." in Dr. Oswald’s findings indicates all of the following EXCEPT:

???? It is likely that the association between number of friends one has and experience of daily stress is from a zero association population Effect size could not be calculated There is not a statistically significant association between the two variables She cannot reliably predict the experience of daily stress from the number of friends one has

RESEARCH STUDY 7.1

Dr. Oswald conducts a study examining the relationship between the number of friends one has and the experience of daily stress and life satisfaction. She randomly samples 1,500 elderly men and women in the Memphis, Tennessee, area in the southern United States. Below are her findings.
< Life satisfaction and experience of daily stress: r = -.57 (p = .01)
< Number of friends one has and experience of daily stress: r = .09, not sig.
< Number of friends one has and life satisfaction: r = .36 (p = .04)

Refer to Research Study 7.1 above to answer the following question.
According to the benchmarks established by Cohen, what type of effect size has Dr. Oswald found for the association between number of friends people have and life satisfaction?

Medium

Which of the following is NOT a question you should ask about the statistical validity of an association claim?

Is random assignment affecting the findings?

If an association study did not select people for the study by using random sampling, which of the following statements is true?

???? The association should be rejected as inconclusive. The variables should be measured more than once. Moderators should be looked for. None of the above statements are true.

In which of the following cases might a small effect still be important?

When the study has life-or-death implications

Which of the following is true of moderators?

They can inform external validity.

A study finds a correlation coefficient of r = .22. According to Cohen’s benchmarks, the magnitude of this effect is:

Negative Large Multiply determined Categorical X None of the above

RESEARCH STUDY 7.1

Dr. Oswald conducts a study examining the relationship between the number of friends one has and the experience of daily stress and life satisfaction. She randomly samples 1,500 elderly men and women in the Memphis, Tennessee, area in the southern United States. Below are her findings.
< Life satisfaction and experience of daily stress: r = -.57 (p = .01)
< Number of friends one has and experience of daily stress: r = .09, not sig.
< Number of friends one has and life satisfaction: r = .36 (p = .04)

Refer to Research Study 7.1 above to answer the following question.
Dr. Oswald finds that the relationship between the number of friends one has and life satisfaction is stronger for men than for women. In this study, sex (male or female) is considered a/an:

Moderator

In understanding "controlling for" a third variable, which of the following is a similar concept?

Identifying subgroups

RESEARCH STUDY 8.1

Dr. Farah is an educational psychologist who is interested in studying the link between homework and academic achievement. Over the years, several researchers have found a link between the two, suggesting that doing homework is associated with higher grades. However, Dr. Farah is curious about the possible causal link between the two variables. She conducts the following study. At the beginning of the spring semester, Dr. Farah measures the number of hours her students spend doing homework during the preceding week and their fall GPA (a measure of academic achievement). At the end of the semester, Dr. Farah measures the same variables again (the hours spent doing homework the preceding week and their spring GPA). She finds the following correlations.

Variable A Variable B
Correlation Coefficient

Correlation A Fall Number of Hours of Homework Fall Semester GPA
.83*

Correlation B Spring Number of Hours of Homework Spring Semester GPA
.80*

Correlation C Fall Number of Hours of Homework Spring Semester GPA
.69*

Correlation D Fall Number of Hours of Homework Spring Number of Hours of Homework
.36*

Correlation E Fall Semester GPA Spring Number of Hours of Homework .18
Correlation F Fall Semester GPA Spring Semester GPA
.45*

* Indicates a statistically significant relationship.

Refer to Research Study 8.1 above to answer the following question.
Of the correlations listed in the table, how many are autocorrelations?

????? Two Four Five Six

In a multiple regression design, ___________ is to independent variable as _____________ is to dependent variable.

None of the above are possible answers

According to the text, when researchers conduct longitudinal research, the type of correlation they are most interested in is which of the following?

Cross-lag correlation

Cross-lag correlations are important for answering/addressing which of the following rules of causation?

????? Rule of covariance: Is there covariance? Are there third variables that could explain the relationship? Both a and c

RESEARCH STUDY 8.1

Dr. Farah is an educational psychologist who is interested in studying the link between homework and academic achievement. Over the years, several researchers have found a link between the two, suggesting that doing homework is associated with higher grades. However, Dr. Farah is curious about the possible causal link between the two variables. She conducts the following study. At the beginning of the spring semester, Dr. Farah measures the number of hours her students spend doing homework during the preceding week and their fall GPA (a measure of academic achievement). At the end of the semester, Dr. Farah measures the same variables again (the hours spent doing homework the preceding week and their spring GPA). She finds the following correlations.

Variable A Variable B
Correlation Coefficient

Correlation A Fall Number of Hours of Homework Fall Semester GPA
.83*

Correlation B Spring Number of Hours of Homework Spring Semester GPA
.80*

Correlation C Fall Number of Hours of Homework Spring Semester GPA
.69*

Correlation D Fall Number of Hours of Homework Spring Number of Hours of Homework
.36*

Correlation E Fall Semester GPA Spring Number of Hours of Homework .18
Correlation F Fall Semester GPA Spring Semester GPA
.45*

* Indicates a statistically significant relationship.

Refer to Research Study 8.1 above to answer the following question.
Which of the following correlations is a cross-lag correlation?

???? Correlation C Correlation D Correlation E Both Correlations C and D

The pattern and parsimony approach to causation is a good example of which cycle in research?

???? Basic-applied cycle Theory-data cycle Peer-review cycle They are all equally important

RESEARCH STUDY 8.1

Dr. Farah is an educational psychologist who is interested in studying the link between homework and academic achievement. Over the years, several researchers have found a link between the two, suggesting that doing homework is associated with higher grades. However, Dr. Farah is curious about the possible causal link between the two variables. She conducts the following study. At the beginning of the spring semester, Dr. Farah measures the number of hours her students spend doing homework during the preceding week and their fall GPA (a measure of academic achievement). At the end of the semester, Dr. Farah measures the same variables again (the hours spent doing homework the preceding week and their spring GPA). She finds the following correlations.

Variable A Variable B
Correlation Coefficient

Correlation A Fall Number of Hours of Homework Fall Semester GPA
.83*

Correlation B Spring Number of Hours of Homework Spring Semester GPA
.80*

Correlation C Fall Number of Hours of Homework Spring Semester GPA
.69*

Correlation D Fall Number of Hours of Homework Spring Number of Hours of Homework
.36*

Correlation E Fall Semester GPA Spring Number of Hours of Homework .18
Correlation F Fall Semester GPA Spring Semester GPA
.45*

* Indicates a statistically significant relationship.

Refer to Research Study 8.1 above to answer the following question.
Which of the following correlations is a cross-sectional correlation?

???? Correlation C Correlation D Correlation E Correlation F

RESEARCH STUDY 8.3

Dr. Uchida is a clinical psychologist who is curious about how people deal with natural disasters (e.g., hurricanes, tornados, earthquakes). His previous research suggests that there is a relationship between how much people feel their emotional well-being was affected by the natural disaster and their likelihood of developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. However, he is curious as to whether the effect of emotional well-being goes through another variable, that of social support. He conducts a study in which he asks 174 men and women affected by the 2011 tsunami in Japan to report on how their well-being was affected by the tsunami, the social support felt after the storm, and the number of PTSD symptoms. Dr. Uchida finds support for his proposed relationship. However, in examining his data more closely, he finds that the relationship between emotional well-being and PTSD symptoms is stronger for men than for women.

Refer to Research Study 8.3 above to answer the following question.
Which of the following is the mediating variable in Dr. Uchida’s hypothesis?

Social support

Order effects can be controlled by using which of the following techniques?

Counterbalancing

Dr. Kline, an environmental psychologist, conducts a study to examine whether visiting zoos causes people to have more positive attitudes toward environmental conservation. He asks a group of 45 people attending the zoo on a Saturday morning about their attitudes. He finds that 69% of the people report having a positive attitude after their visit. Which of the following is true for Dr. Kline’s study?

He is lacking a control group. He did not manipulate an independent variable. He cannot make a causal statement. He is unable to determine covariance.

Experiments use random assignment to avoid which of the following?

Selection effects

RESEARCH STUDY 9.1

Dr. Lonsbary is a cognitive psychologist who is curious about how mood affects memory. She recruited 60 high school students and divided them into three groups. One group (A) listened to a 5-minute piece of music intended to make them feel happy (a song entitled "Don’t Worry, Be Happy"). One group (B) listened to a 5-minute piece of music intended to make them feel sad (a song entitled "Alone Again"). One group (C) listened to no music and instead was asked to sit quietly for 5 minutes (thought to make them feel neutral).
When a participant would come to her laboratory, she would greet the participant and then ask him or her to draw a card. If the participant drew a 1, 2, or 3, he or she was assigned to Group A. If the participant drew a 4, 5, or 6, he or she was assigned to Group B. If a participant drew a 7, 8, or 9, he or she was assigned to Group C. The participants were then given a CD to listen to based on their group assignment. The CD contained the song selection or 5 minutes of silence. There were no identifying marks on the CD indicating what was contained on the disc. They were then escorted into a different room, where they were greeted by a research assistant who conducted the experiment. The research assistant sat the participants in front of a computer screen and told them that a list of 25 words would be displayed on the screen. They were instructed to put the CD in the computer, put on the headphones, and listen to the CD while trying to memorize the list of words.
When 5 minutes had passed, the screen displayed a question asking them whether they felt happy, sad, or neutral. After the participant responded, a new screen was displayed asking them to type in all the words they could remember from the list of 25 words. All participants were given 3 minutes to type the words they remembered. In addition, all participants were given the same list of 25 words to remember. Afterward, the participant was thanked and dismissed. In response to the mood question, a majority of Group A participants said they were happy, a majority of Group B participants said they were sad, and a majority of Group C participants said they were neutral in their mood. Dr. Lonsbary found the following results in response to the number of words remembered.

Group A (Happy) Group B (Sad) Group C (Neutral)
Number of Words Remembered
16
14
9

Groups A and B vs. Group C Statistically significant difference
d = .36
Group A vs. Group C Statistically significant difference
d = .30
Group B vs. Group C Statistically significant difference
d = .41
Group A vs. Group B No statistically significant difference
d = .09

Refer to Research Study 9.1 above to answer the following question.
Which of the following allows Dr. Lonsbary to conclude that she met the covariance rule for causality?

Noting that there is a difference between the number of words recalled by the happy and neutral people

RESEARCH STUDY 9.2

Dr. Acitelli studies sleep and sleep disorders. She is curious as to whether falling asleep in front of a television set causes people to fall asleep more slowly than falling asleep regularly. She recruits a sample of 60 middle-aged women from a local church who reported no history of sleep problems. She creates three conditions. All participants come to the sleep lab for three nights in a row and experience all three conditions. In the first condition (A), participants fall asleep in front of a television that is off. In the second condition (B), participants fall asleep in front of a television that is turned on to the same 24-hour news channel. In the third condition (C), participants fall asleep in front of a television that is turned on to the same 24-hour news channel but is muted. With the use of an electroencephalograph (EEG), the researcher measures how long it takes participants to fall asleep.

Refer to Research Study 9.2 above to answer the following question.
Dr. Acitelli was concerned that asking participants how long it took them to fall asleep would lead them to suspect that was the purpose of the study. Her decision to measure how long it took participants to go to sleep using the EEG instead of self-report was meant to decrease which of the following?

???? Selection effects Demand characteristics Counterbalancing effects None of the above

Which of the following is true of selection effects?

????? They can occur when experimenters allow participants to choose their own treatment group. They can occur when researchers assign one type of person to one treatment group and another type of person to another treatment group. All of the above are true of selection effects. None of the above are true of selection effects.

RESEARCH STUDY 9.1

Dr. Lonsbary is a cognitive psychologist who is curious about how mood affects memory. She recruited 60 high school students and divided them into three groups. One group (A) listened to a 5-minute piece of music intended to make them feel happy (a song entitled "Don’t Worry, Be Happy"). One group (B) listened to a 5-minute piece of music intended to make them feel sad (a song entitled "Alone Again"). One group (C) listened to no music and instead was asked to sit quietly for 5 minutes (thought to make them feel neutral).
When a participant would come to her laboratory, she would greet the participant and then ask him or her to draw a card. If the participant drew a 1, 2, or 3, he or she was assigned to Group A. If the participant drew a 4, 5, or 6, he or she was assigned to Group B. If a participant drew a 7, 8, or 9, he or she was assigned to Group C. The participants were then given a CD to listen to based on their group assignment. The CD contained the song selection or 5 minutes of silence. There were no identifying marks on the CD indicating what was contained on the disc. They were then escorted into a different room, where they were greeted by a research assistant who conducted the experiment. The research assistant sat the participants in front of a computer screen and told them that a list of 25 words would be displayed on the screen. They were instructed to put the CD in the computer, put on the headphones, and listen to the CD while trying to memorize the list of words.
When 5 minutes had passed, the screen displayed a question asking them whether they felt happy, sad, or neutral. After the participant responded, a new screen was displayed asking them to type in all the words they could remember from the list of 25 words. All participants were given 3 minutes to type the words they remembered. In addition, all participants were given the same list of 25 words to remember. Afterward, the participant was thanked and dismissed. In response to the mood question, a majority of Group A participants said they were happy, a majority of Group B participants said they were sad, and a majority of Group C participants said they were neutral in their mood. Dr. Lonsbary found the following results in response to the number of words remembered.

Group A (Happy) Group B (Sad) Group C (Neutral)
Number of Words Remembered
16
14
9

Groups A and B vs. Group C Statistically significant difference
d = .36
Group A vs. Group C Statistically significant difference
d = .30
Group B vs. Group C Statistically significant difference
d = .41
Group A vs. Group B No statistically significant difference
d = .09

Refer to Research Study 9.1 above to answer the following question.
Dr. Lonsbary’s study contains which of the following techniques designed to address a threat to construct validity?

A manipulation check

RESEARCH STUDY 9.1

Dr. Lonsbary is a cognitive psychologist who is curious about how mood affects memory. She recruited 60 high school students and divided them into three groups. One group (A) listened to a 5-minute piece of music intended to make them feel happy (a song entitled "Don’t Worry, Be Happy"). One group (B) listened to a 5-minute piece of music intended to make them feel sad (a song entitled "Alone Again"). One group (C) listened to no music and instead was asked to sit quietly for 5 minutes (thought to make them feel neutral).
When a participant would come to her laboratory, she would greet the participant and then ask him or her to draw a card. If the participant drew a 1, 2, or 3, he or she was assigned to Group A. If the participant drew a 4, 5, or 6, he or she was assigned to Group B. If a participant drew a 7, 8, or 9, he or she was assigned to Group C. The participants were then given a CD to listen to based on their group assignment. The CD contained the song selection or 5 minutes of silence. There were no identifying marks on the CD indicating what was contained on the disc. They were then escorted into a different room, where they were greeted by a research assistant who conducted the experiment. The research assistant sat the participants in front of a computer screen and told them that a list of 25 words would be displayed on the screen. They were instructed to put the CD in the computer, put on the headphones, and listen to the CD while trying to memorize the list of words.
When 5 minutes had passed, the screen displayed a question asking them whether they felt happy, sad, or neutral. After the participant responded, a new screen was displayed asking them to type in all the words they could remember from the list of 25 words. All participants were given 3 minutes to type the words they remembered. In addition, all participants were given the same list of 25 words to remember. Afterward, the participant was thanked and dismissed. In response to the mood question, a majority of Group A participants said they were happy, a majority of Group B participants said they were sad, and a majority of Group C participants said they were neutral in their mood. Dr. Lonsbary found the following results in response to the number of words remembered.

Group A (Happy) Group B (Sad) Group C (Neutral)
Number of Words Remembered
16
14
9

Groups A and B vs. Group C Statistically significant difference
d = .36
Group A vs. Group C Statistically significant difference
d = .30
Group B vs. Group C Statistically significant difference
d = .41
Group A vs. Group B No statistically significant difference
d = .09

Refer to Research Study 9.1 above to answer the following question.
Which of the following is a dependent variable in Dr. Lonsbary’s study?

Number of words remembered

RESEARCH STUDY 9.1

Dr. Lonsbary is a cognitive psychologist who is curious about how mood affects memory. She recruited 60 high school students and divided them into three groups. One group (A) listened to a 5-minute piece of music intended to make them feel happy (a song entitled "Don’t Worry, Be Happy"). One group (B) listened to a 5-minute piece of music intended to make them feel sad (a song entitled "Alone Again"). One group (C) listened to no music and instead was asked to sit quietly for 5 minutes (thought to make them feel neutral).
When a participant would come to her laboratory, she would greet the participant and then ask him or her to draw a card. If the participant drew a 1, 2, or 3, he or she was assigned to Group A. If the participant drew a 4, 5, or 6, he or she was assigned to Group B. If a participant drew a 7, 8, or 9, he or she was assigned to Group C. The participants were then given a CD to listen to based on their group assignment. The CD contained the song selection or 5 minutes of silence. There were no identifying marks on the CD indicating what was contained on the disc. They were then escorted into a different room, where they were greeted by a research assistant who conducted the experiment. The research assistant sat the participants in front of a computer screen and told them that a list of 25 words would be displayed on the screen. They were instructed to put the CD in the computer, put on the headphones, and listen to the CD while trying to memorize the list of words.
When 5 minutes had passed, the screen displayed a question asking them whether they felt happy, sad, or neutral. After the participant responded, a new screen was displayed asking them to type in all the words they could remember from the list of 25 words. All participants were given 3 minutes to type the words they remembered. In addition, all participants were given the same list of 25 words to remember. Afterward, the participant was thanked and dismissed. In response to the mood question, a majority of Group A participants said they were happy, a majority of Group B participants said they were sad, and a majority of Group C participants said they were neutral in their mood. Dr. Lonsbary found the following results in response to the number of words remembered.

Group A (Happy) Group B (Sad) Group C (Neutral)
Number of Words Remembered
16
14
9

Groups A and B vs. Group C Statistically significant difference
d = .36
Group A vs. Group C Statistically significant difference
d = .30
Group B vs. Group C Statistically significant difference
d = .41
Group A vs. Group B No statistically significant difference
d = .09

Refer to Research Study 9.1 above to answer the following question.
Prior to conducting the current study, Dr. Lonsbary asked her research assistant to use the same mood manipulation with a sample of 30 college students to determine if people’s moods really did change after listening to the music. Running this preliminary study helps establish which of the following?

Construct validity

Which of the following is true of control variables?

They help establish internal validity. They are essential in experimental designs. They are not really variables. They are kept the same for all participants.

RESEARCH STUDY 9.1

Dr. Lonsbary is a cognitive psychologist who is curious about how mood affects memory. She recruited 60 high school students and divided them into three groups. One group (A) listened to a 5-minute piece of music intended to make them feel happy (a song entitled "Don’t Worry, Be Happy"). One group (B) listened to a 5-minute piece of music intended to make them feel sad (a song entitled "Alone Again"). One group (C) listened to no music and instead was asked to sit quietly for 5 minutes (thought to make them feel neutral).
When a participant would come to her laboratory, she would greet the participant and then ask him or her to draw a card. If the participant drew a 1, 2, or 3, he or she was assigned to Group A. If the participant drew a 4, 5, or 6, he or she was assigned to Group B. If a participant drew a 7, 8, or 9, he or she was assigned to Group C. The participants were then given a CD to listen to based on their group assignment. The CD contained the song selection or 5 minutes of silence. There were no identifying marks on the CD indicating what was contained on the disc. They were then escorted into a different room, where they were greeted by a research assistant who conducted the experiment. The research assistant sat the participants in front of a computer screen and told them that a list of 25 words would be displayed on the screen. They were instructed to put the CD in the computer, put on the headphones, and listen to the CD while trying to memorize the list of words.
When 5 minutes had passed, the screen displayed a question asking them whether they felt happy, sad, or neutral. After the participant responded, a new screen was displayed asking them to type in all the words they could remember from the list of 25 words. All participants were given 3 minutes to type the words they remembered. In addition, all participants were given the same list of 25 words to remember. Afterward, the participant was thanked and dismissed. In response to the mood question, a majority of Group A participants said they were happy, a majority of Group B participants said they were sad, and a majority of Group C participants said they were neutral in their mood. Dr. Lonsbary found the following results in response to the number of words remembered.

Group A (Happy) Group B (Sad) Group C (Neutral)
Number of Words Remembered
16
14
9

Groups A and B vs. Group C Statistically significant difference
d = .36
Group A vs. Group C Statistically significant difference
d = .30
Group B vs. Group C Statistically significant difference
d = .41
Group A vs. Group B No statistically significant difference
d = .09

Refer to Research Study 9.1 above to answer the following question.
Which of the following is a control variable in Dr. Lonsbary’s study?

The number of words on the word list The amount of time allowed for remembering/writing the words The amount of time allowed for memorizing the words

RESEARCH STUDY 9.1

Dr. Lonsbary is a cognitive psychologist who is curious about how mood affects memory. She recruited 60 high school students and divided them into three groups. One group (A) listened to a 5-minute piece of music intended to make them feel happy (a song entitled "Don’t Worry, Be Happy"). One group (B) listened to a 5-minute piece of music intended to make them feel sad (a song entitled "Alone Again"). One group (C) listened to no music and instead was asked to sit quietly for 5 minutes (thought to make them feel neutral).
When a participant would come to her laboratory, she would greet the participant and then ask him or her to draw a card. If the participant drew a 1, 2, or 3, he or she was assigned to Group A. If the participant drew a 4, 5, or 6, he or she was assigned to Group B. If a participant drew a 7, 8, or 9, he or she was assigned to Group C. The participants were then given a CD to listen to based on their group assignment. The CD contained the song selection or 5 minutes of silence. There were no identifying marks on the CD indicating what was contained on the disc. They were then escorted into a different room, where they were greeted by a research assistant who conducted the experiment. The research assistant sat the participants in front of a computer screen and told them that a list of 25 words would be displayed on the screen. They were instructed to put the CD in the computer, put on the headphones, and listen to the CD while trying to memorize the list of words.
When 5 minutes had passed, the screen displayed a question asking them whether they felt happy, sad, or neutral. After the participant responded, a new screen was displayed asking them to type in all the words they could remember from the list of 25 words. All participants were given 3 minutes to type the words they remembered. In addition, all participants were given the same list of 25 words to remember. Afterward, the participant was thanked and dismissed. In response to the mood question, a majority of Group A participants said they were happy, a majority of Group B participants said they were sad, and a majority of Group C participants said they were neutral in their mood. Dr. Lonsbary found the following results in response to the number of words remembered.

Group A (Happy) Group B (Sad) Group C (Neutral)
Number of Words Remembered
16
14
9

Groups A and B vs. Group C Statistically significant difference
d = .36
Group A vs. Group C Statistically significant difference
d = .30
Group B vs. Group C Statistically significant difference
d = .41
Group A vs. Group B No statistically significant difference
d = .09

Refer to Research Study 9.1 above to answer the following question.
Dr. Lonsbary’s study asked participants to report on their mood before completing the memory test. Dr. Lonsbary’s decision to include this step was done to address the study’s:

Construct validity

RESEARCH STUDY 9.2

Dr. Acitelli studies sleep and sleep disorders. She is curious as to whether falling asleep in front of a television set causes people to fall asleep more slowly than falling asleep regularly. She recruits a sample of 60 middle-aged women from a local church who reported no history of sleep problems. She creates three conditions. All participants come to the sleep lab for three nights in a row and experience all three conditions. In the first condition (A), participants fall asleep in front of a television that is off. In the second condition (B), participants fall asleep in front of a television that is turned on to the same 24-hour news channel. In the third condition (C), participants fall asleep in front of a television that is turned on to the same 24-hour news channel but is muted. With the use of an electroencephalograph (EEG), the researcher measures how long it takes participants to fall asleep.

Refer to Research Study 9.2 above to answer the following question.
Given that there are three conditions/levels of the independent variable, how many orders of the conditions are possible in Dr. Acitelli’s study?

???? Three Six Nine Twelve

RESEARCH STUDY 9.1

Dr. Lonsbary is a cognitive psychologist who is curious about how mood affects memory. She recruited 60 high school students and divided them into three groups. One group (A) listened to a 5-minute piece of music intended to make them feel happy (a song entitled "Don’t Worry, Be Happy"). One group (B) listened to a 5-minute piece of music intended to make them feel sad (a song entitled "Alone Again"). One group (C) listened to no music and instead was asked to sit quietly for 5 minutes (thought to make them feel neutral).
When a participant would come to her laboratory, she would greet the participant and then ask him or her to draw a card. If the participant drew a 1, 2, or 3, he or she was assigned to Group A. If the participant drew a 4, 5, or 6, he or she was assigned to Group B. If a participant drew a 7, 8, or 9, he or she was assigned to Group C. The participants were then given a CD to listen to based on their group assignment. The CD contained the song selection or 5 minutes of silence. There were no identifying marks on the CD indicating what was contained on the disc. They were then escorted into a different room, where they were greeted by a research assistant who conducted the experiment. The research assistant sat the participants in front of a computer screen and told them that a list of 25 words would be displayed on the screen. They were instructed to put the CD in the computer, put on the headphones, and listen to the CD while trying to memorize the list of words.
When 5 minutes had passed, the screen displayed a question asking them whether they felt happy, sad, or neutral. After the participant responded, a new screen was displayed asking them to type in all the words they could remember from the list of 25 words. All participants were given 3 minutes to type the words they remembered. In addition, all participants were given the same list of 25 words to remember. Afterward, the participant was thanked and dismissed. In response to the mood question, a majority of Group A participants said they were happy, a majority of Group B participants said they were sad, and a majority of Group C participants said they were neutral in their mood. Dr. Lonsbary found the following results in response to the number of words remembered.

Group A (Happy) Group B (Sad) Group C (Neutral)
Number of Words Remembered
16
14
9

Groups A and B vs. Group C Statistically significant difference
d = .36
Group A vs. Group C Statistically significant difference
d = .30
Group B vs. Group C Statistically significant difference
d = .41
Group A vs. Group B No statistically significant difference
d = .09

Refer to Research Study 9.1 above to answer the following question.
Which of the following is an independent variable in Dr. Lonsbary’s study?

Participants mood

For which of the following reasons might a researcher choose a pretest/posttest design?

To ensure that random assignment made the treatment/comparison groups equal To determine how groups change over the course of the experiment

RESEARCH STUDY 9.2

Dr. Acitelli studies sleep and sleep disorders. She is curious as to whether falling asleep in front of a television set causes people to fall asleep more slowly than falling asleep regularly. She recruits a sample of 60 middle-aged women from a local church who reported no history of sleep problems. She creates three conditions. All participants come to the sleep lab for three nights in a row and experience all three conditions. In the first condition (A), participants fall asleep in front of a television that is off. In the second condition (B), participants fall asleep in front of a television that is turned on to the same 24-hour news channel. In the third condition (C), participants fall asleep in front of a television that is turned on to the same 24-hour news channel but is muted. With the use of an electroencephalograph (EEG), the researcher measures how long it takes participants to fall asleep.

Refer to Research Study 9.2 above to answer the following question.
Which of the following designs is Dr. Acitelli using?

Repeated-measures design

Which of the following research designs is used to address possible selection effects?

???? Posttest-only designs Matched-groups designs All of the above address selection effects None of the above address selection effects

All of the following are advantages of within-groups designs EXCEPT:

It is less time-consuming for the participants

Dr. Alfonse, a developmental psychologist, conducts a study to determine whether children prefer books with drawn illustrations or with photographs. A group of 45 first graders are given two copies of a book (Little Red Riding Hood). Although the story is the same, one book is illustrated with drawings and the other is illustrated with photos. Students are then asked to indicate which book they prefer. This is an example of which of the following designs?

Concurrent-measures design

RESEARCH STUDY 9.1

Dr. Lonsbary is a cognitive psychologist who is curious about how mood affects memory. She recruited 60 high school students and divided them into three groups. One group (A) listened to a 5-minute piece of music intended to make them feel happy (a song entitled "Don’t Worry, Be Happy"). One group (B) listened to a 5-minute piece of music intended to make them feel sad (a song entitled "Alone Again"). One group (C) listened to no music and instead was asked to sit quietly for 5 minutes (thought to make them feel neutral).
When a participant would come to her laboratory, she would greet the participant and then ask him or her to draw a card. If the participant drew a 1, 2, or 3, he or she was assigned to Group A. If the participant drew a 4, 5, or 6, he or she was assigned to Group B. If a participant drew a 7, 8, or 9, he or she was assigned to Group C. The participants were then given a CD to listen to based on their group assignment. The CD contained the song selection or 5 minutes of silence. There were no identifying marks on the CD indicating what was contained on the disc. They were then escorted into a different room, where they were greeted by a research assistant who conducted the experiment. The research assistant sat the participants in front of a computer screen and told them that a list of 25 words would be displayed on the screen. They were instructed to put the CD in the computer, put on the headphones, and listen to the CD while trying to memorize the list of words.
When 5 minutes had passed, the screen displayed a question asking them whether they felt happy, sad, or neutral. After the participant responded, a new screen was displayed asking them to type in all the words they could remember from the list of 25 words. All participants were given 3 minutes to type the words they remembered. In addition, all participants were given the same list of 25 words to remember. Afterward, the participant was thanked and dismissed. In response to the mood question, a majority of Group A participants said they were happy, a majority of Group B participants said they were sad, and a majority of Group C participants said they were neutral in their mood. Dr. Lonsbary found the following results in response to the number of words remembered.

Group A (Happy) Group B (Sad) Group C (Neutral)
Number of Words Remembered
16
14
9

Groups A and B vs. Group C Statistically significant difference
d = .36
Group A vs. Group C Statistically significant difference
d = .30
Group B vs. Group C Statistically significant difference
d = .41
Group A vs. Group B No statistically significant difference
d = .09

Refer to Research Study 9.1 above to answer the following question.
Which of the following provides information about the statistical validity of Dr. Lonsbary’s study?

The d coefficient

Dr. Morimoto is curious as to whether exposing people to violent video games causes them to be more aggressive. He assigns half his participants to play a video game for 5 minutes and the other half to play for 7 minutes. He finds that there is no relationship between playing the game longer and being more aggressive. What might be to blame for this null effect?

A weak manipulation

Which of the following is NOT a reason that a study must yield a null result?

???? A lack of between-group variance Too much within-group variance A true null result

Spontaneous remission in clinical studies is an example of which of the following threats to internal validity?

??? Attrition Observer bias Placebo effects None of the above

All of the following are true of ceiling and floor effects EXCEPT:

???? They can be detected by manipulation checks They are only problematic in pretest/posttest designs They can be caused by poorly designed dependent variables They can be caused by poorly designed independent variables

RESEARCH STUDY 10.2

Dr. Bloedorn is a health psychologist who researches nutrition. She is curious as to whether a new drink additive will help people consume fewer calories during a meal. The drink additive is a white, odorless, tasteless powder that a person can add to any drink. She collects a random sample of 63 overweight students on campus and measures the calories they eat during lunch, using a bomb calorimeter. She then gives this additive to the same 63 participants to use at dinner and measures how many calories they eat (again, using the bomb calorimeter).

Refer to Research Study 10.2 above to answer the following question.
Imagine that Dr. Bloedorn finds no difference between the calories consumed with the drink additive and without. This is known as:

A null effect

When interrogating experiments, on which of the big validities should a person focus?

????? Internal validity Construct validity Statistical validity No one validity is more important than another when interrogating experiments

Which of the following studies would NOT have a possible threat of observer bias?

A study looking at the relationship between college GPA and SAT scores

Which of the following things can be done to reduce the effect of individual differences?

All of the above can be done to reduce the effect of individual differences

Dr. Sanderson is curious as to whether exposing people to violent video games causes them to be more aggressive. She assigns half her participants to play a violent video game for 5 minutes and the other half to play the same game for 25 minutes. Afterward, she has them play a board game and has a well-trained coder determine whether they are very aggressive in their playing style, barely aggressive, or not at all aggressive. She finds that a vast majority of her participants, regardless of group assignment, are rated as very aggressive. This outcome would be known as a/an:

Ceiling effect

RESEARCH STUDY 10.2

Dr. Bloedorn is a health psychologist who researches nutrition. She is curious as to whether a new drink additive will help people consume fewer calories during a meal. The drink additive is a white, odorless, tasteless powder that a person can add to any drink. She collects a random sample of 63 overweight students on campus and measures the calories they eat during lunch, using a bomb calorimeter. She then gives this additive to the same 63 participants to use at dinner and measures how many calories they eat (again, using the bomb calorimeter).

Refer to Research Study 10.2 above to answer the following question.
Which of the following threats to internal validity will Dr. Bloedorn NOT be worried about?

History Attrition Instrumentation Placebo effects X She should be worried about all of the above

Imagine that you are reading a journal article and you see the following sentence: "The study used a 2 x 2 x 4 design." Where are you likely to have encountered this sentence?

The Method section

Which of the following phrases might a person encounter in a popular press article that indicates an interaction?

It depends

RESEARCH STUDY 11.1

Dr. Elder was interested in the way people recognize objects as members of categories. For example, what makes us recognize a dog as being a dog and not a cat? More specifically, he was curious as to whether people think about categories in a more complex way if they contemplate an "opposite" category first. For example, does a person think differently about the category of "southern" if they are also thinking about the category of "northern"? He is also curious as to whether people categorize differently if they are exposed to category members compared with generating category members. Dr. Elder has four groups of participants (with 30 people in each group). In Group A, participants were told to cut out pictures of dogs and cats from magazines. In Group B, participants were told to cut out pictures of just dogs from magazines. In Group C, participants were told to draw pictures of cats and dogs. In Group D, participants were told to draw pictures of just dogs. After doing this for 30 minutes, participants in all groups were asked to list the attributes that define the "dog" category. Having a higher number of attributes listed was considered to be an indication of thinking about the category in a more complex way. The results of his study are below.

Type of Activity
Cutting out Pictures Drawing Pictures
Focus of the activity Dogs and cats
15
9
Dogs only
7
6

Refer to Research Study 11.1 above to answer the following question.
To make his study a 2 x 2 x 3 factorial design, which of the following would Dr. Elder need to do?

Add a new manipulated variable (time to complete the task: 5 minutes versus 10 minutes versus 15 minutes)

A "difference in the difference between the differences" would indicate which of the following?

????? An overall effect A main effect A two-way interaction None of the above

Which of the following is NOT necessary for a study to be a crossed factorial design?

???? There are at least two independent variables. The study examines every possible combination of independent variables. The data result in a crossover interaction. None of the above are necessary.

According to the textbook, why is it important to study interactions?

Because many outcomes in life are interactions

RESEARCH STUDY 11.1

Dr. Elder was interested in the way people recognize objects as members of categories. For example, what makes us recognize a dog as being a dog and not a cat? More specifically, he was curious as to whether people think about categories in a more complex way if they contemplate an "opposite" category first. For example, does a person think differently about the category of "southern" if they are also thinking about the category of "northern"? He is also curious as to whether people categorize differently if they are exposed to category members compared with generating category members. Dr. Elder has four groups of participants (with 30 people in each group). In Group A, participants were told to cut out pictures of dogs and cats from magazines. In Group B, participants were told to cut out pictures of just dogs from magazines. In Group C, participants were told to draw pictures of cats and dogs. In Group D, participants were told to draw pictures of just dogs. After doing this for 30 minutes, participants in all groups were asked to list the attributes that define the "dog" category. Having a higher number of attributes listed was considered to be an indication of thinking about the category in a more complex way. The results of his study are below.

Type of Activity
Cutting out Pictures Drawing Pictures
Focus of the activity Dogs and cats
15
9
Dogs only
7
6

Refer to Research Study 11.1 above to answer the following question.
In graphing the results of his study, which of the following would be true for Dr. Elder?

Dr. Elder would see a crossover interaction. Dr. Elder would reach different conclusions based on which independent variable he put on the x-axis. Dr. Elder would have to use a line graph. Dr. Elder would see a difference between the differences for one variable but not the other variable. X None of the above are true.

Dr. Gavin is conducting a 2 x 4 independent-groups factorial design. How many main effects will Dr. Gavin need to examine?

2 main effects

The number of main effects that need to be examined is __________ the number of independent variables.

equal to

An author might use all of the following methods to indicate statistical significance EXCEPT:

Using the word significant Including an asterisk in a table Using the notation p 0.05

Why do quasi-experiments tend to have very good construct validity for the independent variable?

Because they use real-world manipulations/experiences

Which of the following designs has elements of both a within-group design and an independent-groups design?

???? Interrupted time-series design Nonequivalent control group design Nonequivalent groups interrupted time-series design All of the above

If a researcher is concerned about external validity, which of the following would you recommend with regard to conducting small-N designs?

Compare the results of a small-N design with other studies.

RESEARCH STUDY 12.1

Dr. Fletcher is interested in whether joining a fraternity/sorority causes people to become more concerned about their attractiveness and appearance. He recruits a group of 55 freshmen (25 males, 30 females) who are planning to go through fraternity/sorority recruitment on his campus. After they join, he gives them a measure of attractiveness/appearance concern (the Body Concern Scale).

Refer to Research Study 12.1 above to answer the following question.
What would Dr. Fletcher need to do to his current study design to make it a nonequivalent groups interrupted time-series design?

Recruit a group of participants who did not join a fraternity/sorority Take measurements of body concern before and after joining a fraternity/sorority

large-N experiments

small-N experiments

RESEARCH STUDY 12.1

Dr. Fletcher is interested in whether joining a fraternity/sorority causes people to become more concerned about their attractiveness and appearance. He recruits a group of 55 freshmen (25 males, 30 females) who are planning to go through fraternity/sorority recruitment on his campus. After they join, he gives them a measure of attractiveness/appearance concern (the Body Concern Scale).

Refer to Research Study 12.1 above to answer the following question.
If Dr. Fletcher is interested in a causal relationship between joining a fraternity/sorority and attractiveness/appearance concern, why doesn’t he conduct a true experiment?

Because he was unable to randomly assign participants to join a fraternity/sorority

According to the textbook, which of the following ethical questions might be posed specifically in reference to a reversal design?

Is it ethical to remove an effective treatment? Is it ethical to treat someone with an ineffective treatment?

Seeing stability in a stable-baseline design can help rule out which of the following threats to internal validity?

Regression and Maturation

RESEARCH STUDY 12.1

Dr. Fletcher is interested in whether joining a fraternity/sorority causes people to become more concerned about their attractiveness and appearance. He recruits a group of 55 freshmen (25 males, 30 females) who are planning to go through fraternity/sorority recruitment on his campus. After they join, he gives them a measure of attractiveness/appearance concern (the Body Concern Scale).

Refer to Research Study 12.1 above to answer the following question.
In addition to measuring the group of participants who joined a fraternity/sorority, Dr. Fletcher decides to give the same measure to another group of 55 participants who decided to not join a fraternity/sorority. This type of design is known as a/an:

Nonequivalent control group design

RESEARCH STUDY 12.2

Dr. LaGuardia is a cognitive neuroscientist who is interested in the effect of brain concussions on the ability to recognize faces. He conducts a quasi-experimental study in which he examines football players before and after the regular season, using the Benton Facial Recognition Test (a published, widely used measure of one’s ability to recognize faces) to compare those who received concussions to those who did not. He finds that players who had concussions during the regular season performed worse on the Benton Facial Recognition Test than did players who did not experience concussions.

Refer to Research Study 12.2 above to answer the following question.
In interrogating the construct validity of Dr. LaGuardia’s study, which of the following statements is accurate?

Because Dr. LaGuardias participants actually experienced concussions, his independent variable appears to have construct validity. Because Dr. LaGuardia did not use a true experiment, it is impossible to determine if his independent variable has construct validity. Because Dr. LaGuardia studied real football players, his dependent variable appears to have construct validity.

In small-N designs, each participant is treated:

As a separate experiment

Which of the following is a difference between true experiments and quasi-experiments?

???? Quasi-experiments do not use random assignment. Quasi-experiments do not involve manipulated variables. Quasi-experiments cannot have comparison groups. Quasi-experiments cannot have pretest measures.

Which of the following CANNOT typically be applied to a small-N experiment?

Inferential statistics

RESEARCH STUDY 12.1

Dr. Fletcher is interested in whether joining a fraternity/sorority causes people to become more concerned about their attractiveness and appearance. He recruits a group of 55 freshmen (25 males, 30 females) who are planning to go through fraternity/sorority recruitment on his campus. After they join, he gives them a measure of attractiveness/appearance concern (the Body Concern Scale).

Refer to Research Study 12.1 above to answer the following question.
In addition to measuring the group of participants who joined a fraternity/sorority, Dr. Fletcher decides to give the same measure to another group of 55 participants who decided to not join a fraternity/sorority. Doing this would help Dr. Fletcher address all of the following threats to internal validity EXCEPT:

Experimenter bias

A wait-list design is helpful in dealing with which of the following threats to internal validity?

Selection

Which of the following is NOT a small-N design?

Interrupted time-series design

The degree to which a quasi-experiment supports a causal claim depends on which of the following:

Its design and its results

RESEARCH STUDY 12.1

Dr. Fletcher is interested in whether joining a fraternity/sorority causes people to become more concerned about their attractiveness and appearance. He recruits a group of 55 freshmen (25 males, 30 females) who are planning to go through fraternity/sorority recruitment on his campus. After they join, he gives them a measure of attractiveness/appearance concern (the Body Concern Scale).

Refer to Research Study 12.1 above to answer the following question.
In addition to measuring the body concern of the participants who joined a fraternity/sorority both immediately before and immediately after they join, Dr. Fletcher measures them for the three weeks before and the three weeks after. This type of design would be able to better address which of the following threats to internal validity?

????? Placebo effect History Experimenter bias None of the above

RESEARCH STUDY 12.2

Dr. LaGuardia is a cognitive neuroscientist who is interested in the effect of brain concussions on the ability to recognize faces. He conducts a quasi-experimental study in which he examines football players before and after the regular season, using the Benton Facial Recognition Test (a published, widely used measure of one’s ability to recognize faces) to compare those who received concussions to those who did not. He finds that players who had concussions during the regular season performed worse on the Benton Facial Recognition Test than did players who did not experience concussions.

Refer to Research Study 12.2 above to answer the following question.
Which of the following makes Dr. LaGuardia’s quasi-experimental study different from a correlational study?

?????? He used a validated measure of the dependent variable. He was able to confirm the occurrence of a concussion rather than relying on self-report. He used a naturally occurring comparison group (i.e., players who did not suffer a concussion). There is no difference between Dr. LaGuardias quasi-experimental study and a correlational study.

Association claim

when a claim suggests that the two variables are related this is a ____ claim

frequency claim

this claim simply give a percent of how many people/things the claim is affecting ex " 8 million Americans consider suicide each year"

Causal claim

This type of claim is when the researcher is indicating that one variable is the cause of the other.

construct validity

external validity

3 criteria necessary for making a causal claim, why each are important

Covariance- Internal validity- test should o what it is supposed to do. Temporal Prcedence- A comes before B

In considering whether the research is ethical which of the following are balanced against each other?

Risk to patients vs value of knowledge gained.

When examining an association in which on variable is categorical and one is quantitative, which of the following statistical test is likely to be used?

t-test

Martin has found a correlation of r=.18 between two variables of caffeine consumption and frontal lobe activity. This correlation is more likely to be statistically significant if:

If Martin used a large number of participants.

The relationship between moderators and external validity

Moderators suggests that associations may not generalize to all sub groups of people; explains the association, somethings look like a positive correlation but really aren’t once subgroups are isolated

Cross-lag correlational

may be looking at two different somethings over time; ex binge eating and depression, and than see how they match up, sets up temporal procedence

Which of the following popular press headlines suggest that multiple regression has been used?

Multiple regression looks at association claims with more than two variables, think were there mediators involved?

Experiments use random sampling to random assignment to avoid each of the following

selection effects

An Independent groups design is also known as:

between groups (subjects) design

Which of the following is a threat to internal validity found in within-groups (same people)design but not independent groups designs?

Testing effects. If they take the tests more than once they can get better at the tests

Observer effects can threaten which of the following big validities

Internal Validity and Construct Validity

The mathematical way to describe an interaction is

a difference in difference

Dr Rhodes notices an interaction in his factorial study. In describing this, which statement might he use to explain the link between independent variable A and independent variable Bin predicting the dependent variable?

The effect of the variable A depends on the Variable B (temporal precedence) trying to determine of something is depending on something else

Downside of Quasi-design experiments

….

Which if the following cannot be typically applies to a small N?

A small N design that involves providing treatment and removing treatment

….

The first step in establishing a study’s importance is :

if it is replicable

also called empirical research or the empirical method this is the approach of collecting data and using it to develop, support, or challenge a theory.

empiricism

Falsifiable – can be proved wrong
parsimonious- ( the simplest solution is the best)
they are supported by the data

What makes a good theory?

When we accept a conclusion just because it makes sense is :

The good story

When it is hard to look for absences, and it is easier to look for what is there this is known as:

Present/present bias

Also known as the availability heuristic this is when things come easily to mind and tend to guide thinking

pop-up principle

seeking and accepting evidence that supports what we think and what we want to think

Cherry picking evidence

3 kinds of claims

frequency Association Causal

the degree to which a theory provides the simplest explanation of some phenomenon

parsimony

a conclusion drawn from reviewing scientific literature and considering the proportion of studies that is consistent with a theory.

weight of the evidence

studies that use knowledge derived from basic research to develop and test solutions to real-world problems

translational research

a group in an experiment whose levels on the independent variable differ from those of the treatment group in some intended and meaningful way.

comparison group

the tendency to ask only the questions that will lead to the expected answer.

confirmatory hypothesis testing

a potential alternative explanation for a research finding (a threat to internal validity).

confounds

a description of the empirical method, stating that science is intended to explain a certain proportion (but not necessarily all) of the possible cases.

probabilistic

a measure of how well a variable was measured or manipulated in a study.

construct validity

to occur or vary together systematically (as two variables).

correlate

one of the three rules for establishing causation, stating that the proposed causal variable must vary systematically with changes in the proposed outcome variable.

covariance

an association in which, as one variable increases, the level of the other variable changes its pattern (such as increasing and then decreasing).

curvilinear association

in an experiment, the variable that is measured, or the outcome variable. In a regression analysis, the single outcome, or criterion variable, that the researchers are most interested in understanding or predicting

dependent variable

a study in which one variable is manipulated and the other is measured.

experiment

a measure how well the results of a study generalize to, or represent, individuals or contexts besides those in the study itself

external validity

a claim that describes a particular rate or level of a single variable.

frequency claim

the extent to which the subjects in a study represent the populations they are intended to represent; how well the settings in a study represent other settings or contexts.

generalizability

a variable that is manipulated in an experiment. In a regression analysis, it is the variable used to explain variance in the criterion variable.

independent variable

the ability to rule out alternative explanations for a causal relationship between two variables.

internal validity

a variable in an experiment that researchers control by assigning participants to its different levels.

manipulated variables

a variable in a study whose levels are observed and recorded.

measured variables

an association in which high levels of one variable go with low levels of the other variable.

negative association

the specific way in which a concept of interest is measured or manipulated as a variable in a study

operational definitions

an association in which high levels of one variable go with high levels of the other variable, and low levels of one variable go with low levels of the other variable.

positive association

the use of a random method (e.g., flipping a coin) to assign participants into different experimental groups.

random assignment

a graphical representation of an association, in which each dot represents one participant in the study measured on two variables.

scatterplot

the extent to which statistical conclusions derived from a study are accurate and reasonable.

statistical validity

one of the three rules for establishing causation, stating that the proposed causal variable comes first in time, before the proposed outcome variable.

temporal precedence

one of the possible variations, or levels, of a variable.

value

an attribute that varies, having at least two levels, or values.

variable

a lack of systematic association between two variables.

zero association

an ethical principle from the Belmont Report stating that researchers must take precautions to protect participants from harm and to promote participants’ well-being.

beneficence

an ethical problem that occurs when researchers invent data that fit their hypotheses.

data fabrication

an ethical problem that occurs when researchers influence a study’s results, perhaps by deleting observations from a data set or by influencing their research subjects to act in the hypothesized way.

data falsification

to inform participants afterward about a study’s true nature, details, and hypotheses.

debriefed

the withholding of some details of a study from participants (deception through omission) or the act of actively lying to them (deception through commission).

deception

research participants’ right to learn about a research project, know its risks and benefits, and decide whether to participate.

informed consent

a committee responsible for ensuring that research on humans is conducted ethically.

institutional review board (IRB)

an ethical principle from the Belmont Report calling for a fair balance between the kinds of people who participate in research and the kinds of people who benefit from it.

justice

the representation of the ideas or words of others as one’s own.

plagiarism

an ethical principle from the Belmont Report stating that research participants should be treated as autonomous agents and that certain groups deserve special protections.

respect for persons

a set of observations that contains all members of the population of interest.

census

a sampling method in which researchers randomly select clusters of participants within the population of interest and then collect data from all of the participants in each selected cluster.

cluster sampling

choosing a sample based on those who are easiest to access.

convenience sampling

a situation that occurs when survey respondents give answers that make them look worse than they really are.

faking bad

a situation that occurs when respondents play it safe by answering in the middle of the scale for every question in a questionnaire or interview.

fence sitting

a question type in which respondents give their opinion by picking the best of two or more options.

forced-choice format

a scale containing multiple response options that are anchored by the terms strongly agree, agree, neither agree nor disagree, disagree, and strongly disagree. A scale that does not follow this format exactly may be called a :

Likert scale

a method of sampling in which two random samples are taken from some population: a random sample of clusters and then a random sample of people within those clusters.

multistage sampling

answering "no" or "strongly disagree" to every item in a questionnaire or interview.

nay-saying

the process of watching people or animals and systematically recording what they are doing.

observational research

a bias that occurs when observers’ expectations influence their interpretation of the subjects’ behaviors or the outcome of the study.

observer bias

a term referring to people or animals changing their behavior (reacting) because they know another person is watching.

observer effects

a question that allows respondents to answer in any way they see fit.

open-ended questions

a variation of stratified random sampling in which the researcher intentionally over-represents one or more groups.

oversampling

some larger group from which a sample is drawn, which the sample is intended to represent.

population

the process of drawing a sample from a population of interest in such a way that each member of the population has an equal probability of being included in the sample (e.g., randomly).

probability sampling

the inclusion of only certain kinds of people in a sample.

purposive sampling

a shortcut respondents may use to answer the items in a self-report measure with multiple items, rather than responding to the content of each item.

response sets

the group of people, animals, or cases used in a study.

sample

a form of sampling bias that occurs when a sample contains only people who volunteer to participate.

self-selection

a self-report response scale whose numbers are anchored with contrasting adjectives (e.g., easy and hard).

semantic differential format

the most basic form of probability sampling, in which the sample is chosen completely at random from the population, perhaps by drawing names out of a hat.

simple random sampling

a variation on purposive sampling in which participants are asked to recommend acquaintances for the study.

snowball sampling

giving answers to a self-report measure that make one look better than one really is.

socially desirable responding

a sampling method in which the researcher identifies particular demographic categories of interest and then randomly selects individuals within each of the categories.

stratified random sampling

a method of random sampling in which the researcher counts off to achieve a sample (e.g., choosing every nth person in a population, where n is a randomly chosen number).

systematic sampling

an observation made indirectly, through physical traces of behavior, or made by someone who is hidden or is posing as a bystander.

unobtrusive observations

an association that involves exactly two variables.

bivariate associations

a situation in which it is unclear which variable in an association came first.

directionality problem

a third variable that, depending on its level, changes the relationship between two other variables.

moderator

one or a few cases that stand out as either much higher or much lower than most of the other scores in a sample.

outlier

a statistical test designed to evaluate the association between two categorical variables.

phi coefficient

a statistical test used for evaluating the association between one categorical variable and one quantitative variable.

point-biserial correlation

an association that is attributable only to systematic mean differences on subgroups within the sample.

spurious

a conclusion that a result is extreme enough that it is unlikely to have happened by chance if the null hypothesis is true.

statistically significant

a statistical test used to evaluate the size and significance of the difference between two means.

t test

a situation in which plausible alternative explanations exist for the association between two variables.

third-variable problem

an experimental design in which different groups of participants are exposed to different levels of the independent variable such that each participant experiences only one level of the independent variable.

between-subjects designs (AKA independent groups)

a threat to internal validity that occurs when being exposed to one condition changes how people react to a later condition.

carryover effects

an experiment using a within-groups design in which participants are exposed to all the levels of an independent variable at roughly the same time, and a single attitudinal or behavioral preference is the dependent variable.

concurrent-measures design

one of the levels of the independent variable in an experiment.

conditions

a level of an independent variable that is intended to represent "no treatment" or a neutral condition.

control group

a potential variable that an experimenter holds constant on purpose.

control variable

presenting the levels of the independent variable to participants in different orders to control for order effects.

counterbalancing

in an experiment, the variable that is measured, or the outcome variable. In a regression analysis, the single outcome, or criterion variable, that the researchers are most interested in understanding or predicting.

dependent variable

a second variable that happens to vary systematically along with the independent variable and therefore is an alternative explanation for the results ( dirty dozen).

design confound

a variable that is manipulated in an experiment. In a regression analysis, it is the variable used to explain variance in the criterion variable.

independent variable

an experimental design in which different groups of participants are exposed to different levels of the independent variable such that each participant experiences only one level of the independent variable.

independent-groups design

a formal system of partial counterbalancing that ensures that each condition appears in each position at least once.

Latin square

an extra dependent variable that researchers can include in an experiment to determine how well an experimental manipulation worked.

manipulation checks

an experimental design in which participants who are similar on some measured variable are grouped into sets and the members of each matched set are then randomly assigned to different experimental conditions.

matched-groups design

a threat to internal validity that occurs when being exposed to one condition changes how people react to a later condition (dirty dozen).

order effects

a method of counterbalancing in which some, but not all, of the possible condition orders are represented.

partial counterbalancing

a study completed before (or sometimes after) the study of primary interest, usually to test the effectiveness or characteristics of the manipulations.

pilot study

a control group that is exposed to an inert treatment (e.g., a sugar pill).

placebo group

an experiment with an independent-groups design in which participants are tested on the dependent variable only once.

posttest-only design

the probability that a study will show a statistically significant result when some effect is truly present in the population.

power

a type of order effect in which people’s performance improves over time because they become practiced at the dependent measure (not because of the manipulation or treatment).

practice effects

an experiment with an independent-groups design in which participants are tested on the key dependent variable twice—once before and once after exposure to the independent variable.

pretest/posttest design

the use of a random method (e.g., flipping a coin) to assign participants into different experimental groups.

random assignment

an experiment with a within-groups design in which participants respond to a dependent variable more than once, after exposure to each level of the independent variable.

repeated-measures designs

a threat to internal validity that occurs when the kinds of participants at one level of the independent variable are systematically different from those at the other level of the independent variable ( dirty dozen).

selection effect

in an experiment, the situation that occurs when the levels of a variable coincide in some predictable way with experimental group membership, creating a potential confound.

systematic variability

the participants in an experiment who are exposed to the level of the independent variable that involves a drug, therapy, or intervention.

treatment group

in an experiment, the levels of a variable occurring independently of experimental group membership, contributing to variability within groups. (See also systematic variability.)

unsystematic variability

a study design in which each participant is presented with all levels of the independent variable.

within-groups designs

threat in a repeated-measures experiment or quasi-experiment, a threat to internal validity that occurs when a systematic type of participant drops out of a study before it ends (dirty dozen).

attrition

an experimental design problem in which independent variable groups score almost the same on a dependent variable, such that all scores fall at the high end of their possible distribution.

ceiling effects

a study that uses a treatment group and a placebo group and in which neither the research assistant nor the participants know who is in which group.

double-blind placebo control studies

a study in which neither the participants nor the researchers who evaluate them know who is in the treatment group and who is in the comparison group.

double-blind study

an experimental design problem in which independent variable groups score almost the same on a dependent variable, such that all scores fall at the low end of

floor effects

a threat to internal validity that occurs when it is unclear whether a change in the treatment group is caused by the treatment or by a historical event that affects everyone or almost everyone in the group (dirty dozen).

history threats

a threat to internal validity that occurs when a measuring instrument changes over time from having been used before (dirty dozen).

instrumentation threats

a threat to internal validity that occurs when an observed change in an experimental group could have emerged more or less spontaneously over time (dirty dozen).

maturation

the unsystematic variability among the members of a group in an experiment.

noise

a finding that an independent variable did not make a difference in the dependent variable—that there is no significant covariance between the two.

null effect

a study in which a researcher recruits one group of participants; measures them on a pretest; exposes them to a treatment, intervention, or change; and then measures them on a posttest.

"one-group, pretest/posttest design"

an effect that occurs when people receiving an experimental treatment experience a change only because they believe they are receiving a valid treatment (dirty dozen).

placebo effect

a threat to internal validity by which any extreme finding is likely to be closer to its own typical, or mean, level the next time it is measured(dirty dozen) (with or without the experimental treatment or intervention).

regression to the mean

irrelevant events, sounds, or distractions in the external situation that create unsystematic variability within groups in an experiment.

situation noise

in a repeated-measures experiment or quasi-experiment, a kind of order effect in which scores change over time just because participants have taken the test more than once. (dirty dozen)

testing threat

a study in which researchers cross two or more independent variables, or factors, and study each possible combination of the levels of the variables.

crossed factorial design

a study in which there are two or more independent variables, or factors. denoted to numbers
"2X2" means that there are two IV and each has two levels
"2X3 means that there are two IV and has two levels and the other has three levels
in a "2X2" design there would be 4 district groups or cells when researchers cross the independent variables which means that they study each combination of the two independent variables

factorial design

in a factorial design, a situation that occurs when the effect of one independent variable differs depending on the level of the other independent variable.

interaction

in a factorial design, the overall effect of one independent variable on the dependent variable, averaging over the levels of the other independent variable.

main effect

in a factorial design, the means for each level of an independent variable, averaging over the levels of another independent variable. masked design see blind design.

marginal means

a study with more than one independent variable, in which levels of one independent variable are nested under, and unique to, the levels of another, higher-order independent variable.

nested factorial design

a variable such as age, gender, or ethnicity whose levels are selected (or measured), not manipulated.

participant variable

a quasi-experiment in which people are measured repeatedly on a dependent variable before, during, and after the "interruption" caused by some event.

interrupted time-series design

a small-N design in which researchers stagger their introduction of an intervention across a variety of contexts, times, or situations.

multiple-baseline design

a quasi-experiment that has at least one treatment group and one comparison group, but participants have not been randomly assigned to the two groups.

nonequivalent control group design

a study that is similar to an experiment except that the researchers do not have full experimental control (e.g., they may not be able to randomly assign participants to the independent variable conditions).

quasi-experiments

a study in which a researcher observes a problem behavior both before and during treatment and then discontinues the treatment for a while to see if the problem behavior returns.

reversal design

a threat to internal validity in which a historical or seasonal event systematically affects only the subjects in the treatment group or only those in the comparison group—not both.

selection-history threat

a study in which researchers gather information from only one animal or one person.

single-N design

a study in which researchers gather information from just a few cases.

small-N design

a study in which a researcher observes behavior for an extended baseline period before beginning a treatment or other intervention; if behavior during the baseline is stable, the researcher is more certain of the treatment’s effectiveness.

stable-baseline design

a replication study in which researchers examine the same research question (the same concepts) but use different procedures for operationalizing the variables.

conceptual replication

a subdiscipline of psychology concerned with how cultural settings shape a person’s thoughts, feelings, and behavior and how these in turn shape cultural settings.

cultural psychology

a replication study in which researchers repeat the original study as closely as possible to see whether the original effect shows up in the newly collected data.

direct replication

the extent to which the tasks and manipulations of a study are similar to real-world contexts.

ecological validity

the extent to which a laboratory experiment is designed so that participants experience authentic emotions, motivations, and behaviors.

experimental realism

demand characteristics

participants respond as they believe the researcher expects them to respond due to their beliefs about the researcher’s expectations (dirty dozen)

a real-world setting for a research study.

field setting

the idea that studies finding null effects are less likely to be published than studies finding significant results.

file drawer problem

the intent of researchers to generalize the findings from the samples and procedures in their study to other populations or contexts.

generalization mode

a set of techniques that uses chance and probability to help researchers make decisions about what their data mean and what inferences they can make from them.

inferential statistics

a way of mathematically averaging the results of all the studies that have tested the same variables to see what conclusion that whole body of evidence supports.

meta-analysis

pertaining to a study whose results are obtained again when the study is repeated.

replicable

a replication study in which researchers replicate their original study but add variables to test additional questions.

replication-plus-extension

what are the many threats to internal validity? (also known as the dirty dozen)

-design confounds -selection effects -order effects -maturation -history -regression to the mean -attrition -testing -instrumentation -observer bias -demand characteristics -placebo effects

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