Psych Final Practice

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Research on adolescent brain development has shown that the _____ is involved with emotional reactions, whereas the _____ is involved with reasoning and decision making.

amygdala / prefrontal cortex

Infants who display secure attachment _____.
Answer

use their caregiver as a secure base from which to explore the environment

Which is not a component of Bonanno’s theory of grieving?

Determination

Chloe is a baby who cries a lot. She does not eat or sleep on a regular schedule and she often has difficulty adapting to new experiences. Psychologists would say that Chloe’s temperament can be described as _____.

difficult

A preterm infant is one born prior to _______ after conception

37

Accumulated information and verbal skills are components of _____, whereas the ability to reason abstractly is a component of _____.

crystallized intelligence / fluid intelligence

By the end of the _____ period, the heart begins to beat, the arms and legs become more differentiated, the face starts to form, and the intestinal tract appears in human beings.

embryonic

Which of the following characterizes pubertal change in adolescents?

The peak of pubertal change occurs at an average age of 11½ for girls and 13½ for boys.

According to Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, formal operational thought is _____.

logical, systematic, abstract, and idealistic

Janet has maintained her composure in the face of the death of her mother. Her brother, Joe, has gone into a deep depression and is unable to face work or family obligations. These two siblings appear to differ significantly in terms of what characteristic, which reflects our ability to adapt to difficulties?
Answer

Resiliency

Four-year-old Jennifer mistakenly believes that her mother would like to receive an Elmo doll for Christmas. This best illustrates Piaget’s concept of _____.

egocentrism

Developmental psychologists use the term _____ to refer to a person’s genes or biological inheritance.

nature

What infant perception research technique involves giving an infant a choice at what to look at and then looking for a reliable preference for one stimulus over the other?

Preferential looking

Kohlberg’s model is based on the ________ perspective, wheras Carol Gilligan’s is based on the ________ perspective.

Justice; care

Sam is a participant in a study of moral development. In response to the Heinz moral dilemma story, Sam says that "Heinz shouldn’t steal the drug because if he steals he will go to jail. Jail is a bad place so Heinz shouldn’t take the risk of such harsh punishment." Sam appears to be operating at which of the following stages of moral development?

Preconventional

According to _____, as we age our cells become less capable of dividing.

cellular-clock theory

Although _____ did not believe that culture and education play important roles in children’s cognitive development, _____ believed that cognitive development is very much an interpersonal process that happens in a cultural context

Jean Piaget / Lev Vygotsky

Children of permissive parents tend to _____.

expect to get their own way and often show difficulties respecting others and controlling their behavior

Bill believes that his culture expects men to be aggressive leaders who provide the sole income for the family and do not participate actively in child care. Taken together, these are components of Bill’s _______.

gender schema

Which of the following statements about brain development is false?

Aside from growing larger, the brain does not undergo any anatomical change after birth.

Nicotine and rubella are examples of:

teratogens

You tried to play peek-a-boo with your 6-month-old nephew, but whenever you hid your face, he would cry. You try it again three months later, and now he laughs and enjoys the game, trying to uncover your face with his hands. Your nephew has begun to develop _____.

object permanence

According to Piaget, accommodation occurs when individuals _____.

adjust their schemas to new information

Sucking, swallowing, coughing, blinking, and yawning are all examples of:

Reflexes

The broaden-and-build model begins with _____.

the influence of positive emotions on cognitive processing

The concept of _____ pertains to a psychological state, whereas _____ involves a physiological state.

drive / need

Professor Rothbaum surveys students about their motivation for attending college. Which of the following responses is the best example of strong intrinsic motivation?

"I’m in college because I love learning. Education satisfies my curiosity and makes me feel like a confident well-informed person."

William has volunteered to work in a war-torn country to try to improve the lives of the residents there. The citizens currently have enough to eat and drink. According

Safety

Which of the following statements about instincts is false?

Instincts are learned behavioral responses

Darrin is a good piano player. When he is alone and bored his arousal is low and he often gets distracted and makes mistakes. When he is in a recital with strangers, he sometimes gets too nervous and aroused and also makes mistakes. His best performances are typically at home when family and friends are nearby, and his arousal level is moderate. The variations in Darrin’s performance can be best explained by the _____.

Yerkes-Dodson law

According to the circumplex model of mood, a wheel of mood states can be created from the two independent dimensions of _____.

valence and arousal level

Which of the following is true of the sympathetic nervous system?

It prepares the individual for fighting or running away

You are feeling upset when your mother turns toward you and says "turn that frown upside down." You turn your frown into a smile and realize that you now feel happy. This experience can be best described by the _____.

facial feedback hypothesis

Setting goals, planning for the implementation of goals, and monitoring progress are all aspects of _____.

self-regulation

According to self-determination theory, people are most fulfilled when they satisfy which three fundamental needs?

Competence, autonomy, and relatedness

The Cannon-Bard theory predicts that after witnessing a shocking event, a person will
_____.

experience physical and emotional reactions simultaneously

According to Schachter and Singer’s two-factor theory, emotion is determined by two factors: _____.

physiological arousal and cognitive labeling

Evan received an ugly pair of pajamas for his birthday. Even though he didn’t like the gift, he smiled and thanked his grandmother for the present because that was the expected behavior for that situation. Evan’s behavior can be explained in terms of _____.

a display rule

Marsha does a good job because she knows her performance will result in a bonus if she meets her goals. Georgia does a good job because she feels a sense of accomplishment when she meets her goals. Both women do the same kind of work. Who is most likely to perform better?

Georgia is most likely to perform better

Freud believed that the prime motive in human existence is _____, Karen Horney believed that the prime motive in human existence is _____.

sex / security

Which statement best describes the relationship between neuroticism and emotion?

Neuroticism is related to feeling more negative emotion

Mischel nearly derailed the scientific study of personality by challenging the assumption that personality traits are _____.

consistent

You are a personality researcher and want to continue after the tradition of Henry Murray. This means you will be more interested in _____.

the whole person rather than specific traits

Dr. Crane is looking for a test that he can use to understand more about his clients’ unconscious motivations. He would be very likely to use a(n) _____.

projective measure

Which of the following neurotransmitters is associated with neuroticism?

Serotonin

What has behavioral genetic research found in the domain of autobiographical memory?

Among twins reared in different households, memories of early life were quite similar

Gordon Allport believed that healthy, well-adjusted individuals _____.

show a positive but objective sense of self and others, and have a sense of humor, common sense, and a unifying philosophy of life

According to Gray’s reinforcement sensitivity theory, the behavioral inhibition system is _____.

sensitive to punishments in the environment

Brittney is a counselor who believes that her clients have the innate ability to make good choices. She accepts each individual as they are and as a person in the process of change. It is important to her that her clients learn to evaluate themselves and not depend on the opinion of others. Brittney is practicing _____.

humanistic counseling

Mischel developed his CAPS theory in part through research in which domain?

Delayed gratification

According to Jung, the collective unconscious contains _____.

archetypes

Freud considered _____ to be the primary motivating force of human behavior.

the unconscious

According to Eysenck’s theory, introversion and extraversion are characteristic patterns of behavior that _____.

aim to regulate arousal around baseline

Face validity refers to whether _____.

the content of test items appears to be a good indicator of personality traits

Results of cross-cultural and animal studies on the big five model of personality _____.

support the fundamental predictions of the big five model

Shawn graduated from college with honors and approaches most aspects of life with the expectation that he will be successful. He expects a great deal of himself and sets his goals high. After his interview for a job in the most prestigious company in his state, he was convinced that he would get the job. You could say that he _____.

displays high self-efficacy

The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) is an example of _____ test of personality

an empirically keyed

Which of the following is NOT a method proposed by Rogers to develop a more positive self-concept?

Defense mechanisms

According to Dan McAdams, our _____ are our identities

life stories

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