psych exam (chapter 6)

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A child’s cognitive understanding of sex differences would be his or her:

gender schema

Psychological control as a means of discipline relies on a child’s:

feelings of shame, guilt, and gratitude.

Which scenario best illustrates prosocial behavior?

Bethany feeds her baby brother because her mother is sick.

Jared, age 5, describes himself as a good soccer player with black hair who laughs a lot. His description demonstrates his developing:

self concept

Developmentalists who focus on children’s thinking about sex roles as opposed to the children’s observable behaviors are _____ theorists.

cognitive

_____ is a discipline technique that involves the parent talking to the child and helping the child to understand what he or she did wrong.

induction

Which is NOT one of the types of play identified by Mildred Parten?

personal play

_____ are marked by excessive guilt, withdrawal, or fearfulness.

Internalizing problems

Aggression used to obtain a toy or other object is:

instrumental

Sociodramatic play helps children to develop _____ when they act out fear, bravery, and fury.

emotional regulation

Which factor helps a young child to demonstrate initiative as Erikson details it in his third stage of psychosocial development?

neurological maturity and a longer attention span

Two-year-old Julia repeatedly exclaims, "Me do it!" when her mother tries to help her. Although this behavior is frustrating, her mother understands that doing things independently will develop Julia’s sense of:

initiative

In which country is physical punishment of a child illegal?

finland

Regulation of which emotion is MOST emphasized in the United States?

fear

As a father, Aahil rates low on nurturance and communication and high on maturity demands. He exhibits the _____ style of parenting.

authoritarian

A child having an imaginary friend is an example of:

intrinsic motivation

To understand a child’s development of gender attitudes and roles, behaviorists stress:

reinforcement and punishment.

According to Freud’s psychoanalytic theory, little boys cope with the guilt of wanting to kill their fathers by:

identifying with their fathers

The four dimensions of a parenting style are warmth, discipline, communication, and:

expectations for maturity.

A parenting style characterized by high parent-to-child communication, low warmth, and high expectations of maturity is:

authoritarian

______ differences are biological and ______ differences are culturally prescribed.

sex, gender

Jaspreet frequently plays the piano whenever her family has guests because she enjoys the praise and attention that she receives. When alone, however, Jaspreet rarely plays the piano. Jaspreet’s motivation:

is mostly extrinsic

Which theory focuses on how children learn acceptable behaviors for their gender?

behavorial theory

Today’s children, especially those living in urban areas, spend more time _____ than playing outdoors.

using electronic media

Girls usually develop emotional regulation _____ boys.

earlier than

Compared to parents in the United States, ______ as many Canadian parents use slapping, pinching, or smacking as a form of punishment.

one half

Which is NOT a form of play engaged in by young children in all cultures?

flying kites

Which illustrates tertiary prevention for child maltreatment?

providing psychotherapy to a child who has been abused

Erikson called the psychosocial developmental stage that occurs between 3 and 6 years of age:

initiative vs guilt

Freud would say that a typical 5-year-old child is in the _____ psychoanalytic stage of development.

phallic

Roderick hits or kicks Edwin on the playground nearly every day. He also encourages other children to laugh at Edwin’s attempts to kick a ball. Roderick is using _____ aggression against Edwin.

bullying

Jose demonstrates warmth and nurturance towards his children. He does not believe in punishment of any sort and does not have any rules for his children. His parenting style is:

permissive

By the age of ______, children are convinced certain toys are appropriate for one gender but not the other.

4

What is one of the functions peers provide in active play?

competition

According to the text, people in _____ believe that preschoolers do not need instruction. As a result, their 3-year-old children spend little time engaged in structured learning activities.

brazil

When 4-year-old Karen is angry, she lashes out by hitting. This is an example of:

externalizing problem

The most common discipline technique for a child’s misbehavior that North American parents use with preschool children is:

use time outs

A detailed 2010 study of Mexican-American mothers of preschoolers found that their parenting style was:

not identified by Baumrind.

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