psych chapter 7 quizzes

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Learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it is called:

latent learning

Respondent behavior is defined as a ________ response to some stimulus.

automatic

In classical conditioning, the conditioned stimulus signals the impending occurrence of:

an unconditioned stimulus.

Voluntary behaviors that produce rewarding or punishing outcomes are called:

operant behaviors.

Our ability to learn by witnessing the behavior of others best illustrates:

observational learning.

Extinction occurs when a ________ is no longer paired with a ________.

CS; US

Learning that some responses, but not others, will be punished is called:

discrimination

A fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement is one in which a response is reinforced only after a

specified number of responses have been made.

Dogs conditioned to salivate to stimulation of the thigh also begin to salivate when stimulated on other body parts. This best illustrates:

generalization

Positive reinforcers ________ the rate of operant responding, and negative reinforcers ________ the rate of operant responding.

increase; increase

The ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus is called:

discrimination

Any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response is called a

positive reinforcer.

A partial reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses is a ________ schedule.

variable-ratio

Conditioning is the process of:

learning associations.

A partial reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response that occurs after an unpredictable period of time is a ________ schedule.

variable-interval

In classical conditioning, generalization refers to the tendency for the conditioned response to be evoked by stimuli that are similar to the:

conditioned stimulus

The desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment involves:

extrinsic motivation.

Intrinsic motivation refers to a desire to perform an activity:

for the sake of its own enjoyment.

Resistance to extinction is most strongly encouraged by ________ reinforcement.

intermittent

A fixed-interval schedule of reinforcement is one in which a response is reinforced only after a

specified time period has elapsed.

Shaping is a procedure in which reinforcers are:

used to guide actions closer and closer to a desired behavior.

Primary reinforcers could best be described as:

innately satisfying stimuli.

Administering an aversive stimulus following an operant response is:

positive punishment.

An event or situation signaling that an operant response will be reinforced is called a

discriminative stimulus.

Learning specific behaviors simply by watching others perform them is known as:

observational learning.

A dog salivates to the sound of a tone because the tone has regularly been associated with the delivery of food. In this case, the tone is called a

conditioned stimulus.

Psychologists define learning as the process of:

acquiring through experience new information or relatively enduring behaviors.

The type of learning in which one comes to associate two stimuli and thereby anticipate events is called:

classical conditioning

In classical conditioning, a stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning is called a

neutral stimulus.

The reappearance, after a time lapse, of an extinguished CR is called:

spontaneous recovery.

A stimulus that acquires reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer is called a ________ reinforcer.

conditioned

An event that strengthens the behavior it follows is a

reinforcement

Any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response is called a

negative reinforcer

Evidence that organisms most readily learn behaviors favored by natural selection best illustrates the importance of:

biological constraints.

Animals tend to revert from newly learned habits to their biologically predisposed behaviors. This is an example of:

instinctive drift.

In classical conditioning, the NS becomes a ________ after it reliably signals the impending occurrence of the ________.

CS; US

If rats are allowed to wander through a maze, they will subsequently run the maze with few errors when a food reward is placed in the maze’s goal box. Their good performance demonstrates:

latent learning.

Voluntary behaviors that become more frequent when followed by reinforcers are called:

operant behaviors.

In classical conditioning a stimulus is any event or situation that:

evokes a response.

In which form of learning is behavior influenced by its consequences?

operant conditioning

Behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely. This principle is called:

the law of effect.

The use of physical punishment may:
A. lead to the suppression but not the forgetting of undesirable behavior.
B. model aggression as a way of coping with problems.
C. lead people to fear and avoid the punishing agent.
D. have all of these results.

D

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