Psych Chapter 6

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is greatest just after learning.

Ebbinghaus found that forgetting:

a memory trace.

Decay is the fading of:

continued everyday learning.

Brain-derived neurotrophic factors (BDNF), a key protein involved in the formation of memories, is stimulated by:

begin to form at birth.

Autobiographical memories:

Chris learns her vocabulary words while listening to upbeat, happy music, and is then better able to remember them later if she is happy. This is called:

requires little or no effort to retrieve.

Information that enters long-term memory by automatic encoding:

a word-search puzzle

Which is an example of a recognition task?

the primacy effect.

Carl is able to remember the names of the first three presidents before he begins to have difficulty. This is:

a false positive.

Juana was certain that the man she saw in the police photograph was the man who stole her purse. Later, another man confessed to the crime. This is an example of:

makes it easier to create false memories.

While hypnosis may make it easier to recall some memories, it also:

it may be altered or revised in some way.

The constructive processing view says that every time a memory is retrieved:

symptoms of depression.

Higher false recall and recognition response can be predicted by:

still formed new procedural memories.

The Tower of Hanoi study found that people with anterograde amnesia:

working memory

Research on _______ has implications for understanding learning and attention disorders as well as various dementia-related memory problems.

Long-term

________ memory is like a giant filing system in which the "files" are individual bits and pieces of memories stored in a highly organized and interconnected fashion

iconic sensory

Eduardo is watching people walk down the street, and all of a sudden, he thinks, "Was that man wearing a bright purple suit?" As a result of this thought, he looks back at the man to see if it is true. Which type of memory is responsible for Eduardo’s behavior?

from five to nine bits of information

George Miller concluded that the capacity of the short-term memory (STM) is:

found its way into her long-term memory.

After she had used "maintenance rehearsal" many times, Eve’s Social Security number:

a quarter of a second

In real life, information that has just entered iconic memory will be pushed out very quickly by new information. Research suggests that after ________, old information is replaced by new information.

eidetic imagery.

Jamie has the ability to look quickly at a page in a book, then focus on a blank piece of paper and "read" the words from the image of the page in the book that still linger in his sensory memory. Jamie’s ability is an example of:

encoding

On the first day of school, all of the students in Mrs. Randall’s class shared with her their names. Mrs. Randall’s students were engaging in the process of ________.

a retrieval cue

Pedro was able to recall his new friend’s phone number by reminding himself that the last four digits were the same as his own, just in a different order. Pedro was able to use _______ to help him remember his friend’s phone number.

information-processing model

The _________ assumes that how long a memory will be remembered depends on the stage of memory in which it is stored.

parallel distributed processing model

The idea that memory formation is a simultaneous process is reflected in the:

holding information just long enough to work with it

Which of the following is a feature of the storage stage of memory?

Memory

an active system that receives information from the senses, organizes and alters that information as it stores it away, and then retrieves the information from storage

Encoding (putting it in)

process of transforming information into a form that can be stored in memory

Storage (keeping it in

holding onto information for some period of time

Retrieval (getting it out)

getting information that is in storage into a form that can be used

Visual

iconic memory (about 1 sec.)

Auditory

echoic memory (about 4 secs.)

Selective attention

ability to focus on only one stimulus (or a narrowed range of stimuli) from among all sensory input present – information gets into STM through selective attention

maintenance rehearsal

content can be held (or stored) in STM

Long‐term memory (LTM):

the memory system into which all the information is placed to be kept more or less permanently

Nondeclarative (implicit) memory

type of long‐term memory including memory for skills, procedures, habits, and conditioned responses

Declarative (explicit) memory

type of long‐term memory containing information that is conscious and known

Semantic memory

declarative memory containing general knowledge

Episodic memory

declarative memory containing personal information not readily available to others

• Recal

memory retrieval in which the information to be retrieved must be "pulled" from memory with very few external cues

Recognition

ability to match a piece of information or a stimulus to a stored image or fact

Space

Encode place or location of things

Time

Note the events that take place in a day (allowing you to retrace your steps)

Frequency

Keep track of things that happened to you

Chunking

BUT TER EDP OPC ORN Like your SSN, grouping fam

Elaborative Rehearsal

making that information meaningful in some way

Memory trace

physical change in the brain that occurs when a memory is formed

Proactive interference

memory retrieval problem that occurs when older information prevents or interferes with the retrieval of newer information

Retroactive interference

memory retrieval problem that occurs when newer information prevents or interferes with the retrieval of older information

• Retrograde amnesia

: loss of memory from the point of some injury or trauma backwards, or loss of memory for the past.

• Anterograde amnesia

loss of memory from the point of injury or trauma forward, or the inability to form new long‐term memories

Consolidation

changes that take place in the structure and functioning of neurons when a memory is formed

Hippocampus

area of brain responsible for the formation of LTMs

cerebellum

After being processed in the motor cortex, procedural memories appear to be stored in the

anterograde

Primary memory difficulty in Alzheimer’s is ________ amnesia

autobiographical memory

the memory for events and facts related to one’s personal life story (usually after age three)

Hindsight Bias

The tendency to falsely believe, through revision of older memories to include newer information, that one could have correctly predicted the outcome of an event

Constructive processing

memory retrieval process in which memories are "built," or reconstructed, from information stored during encoding

Source monitoring error

when a memory derived from one source is misattributed to another – might be a contributor to misinformation effect

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