Psych Chapter 16- Therapy

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Psychotherapy

Treatment involving psychological techniques, consists of interactions between a trained therapist and someone seeking to overcome psychological difficulties or achieve personal growth

Biomedical Therapy

Prescribed medications or procedures that act directly on the person’s physiology

Eclectic Approach

An approach to psychotherapy that, depending on the clients problems, uses techniques from various forms of therapy

Psychoanalysis

Sigmund Freud’s therapeutic technique Freud believed the patients free associations, resistances, dreams, and transferences- and the therapist’s interpretations of the-released previously repressed feelings, allowing the patient to gain self-insight

Resistance

In psychoanalysis, the blocking from consciousness of anxiety-laden material

Interpretation

In psychoanalysis, the analyst’s noting supposed dream meanings, resistances, and other significant behaviors and events in order to promote insight

Transference

In psychoanalysis the patient’s transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships (such as love or hatred for a parent)

Psychodynamic Therapy

Therapy deriving from the psychoanalytic tradition that views individuals as responding to unconscious forces, and childhood experiences, and that seeks to enhance self-insight

Insight therapies

A variety of therapies that aim to improve psychological functioning, by increasing a person’s awareness of underlying motives and defenses

Client-centered therapy

-Non directive therapy

A humanistic therapy, developed by Carl Rogers In which the therapist uses techniques such as active listening within a genuine, accepting, empathetic environment to facilitate client growth (also called person centered therapy)

Active Listening

Empathetic listening in which the listener echoes, restates, and clarifies A feature of Roger’s client centered therapy

Unconditonal positive regard

A caring, accepting, nonjudgemental attitude, which Carl Rodgers believed would help clients to develop self awareness and self-acceptance

Behavior therapy

Therapy that applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviors

Counterconditioning

A behavior therapy procedure that uses classical conditioning to evoke new responses to stimuli that are triggering unwanted behaviors; includes exposure therapies, and aversive conditioning

Exposure therapies

Behavioral techniques, such as systematic desensitization and virtual reality exposure theraoy that treat anxieties by exposing people in immiagination or actual situations to the things they fear and avoid

Systematic decentiziation

A type of exposure therapy that associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli -Commonly used to treat phobias

Virtual reality exposure therapy

An anxiety treatment that progressively exposes people to electronic simulations of their greatest fears, such as airplane flying, spiders, or public speaking

Aversive Conditioning

A type of counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state (such as nausea) with an unwanted behavior (such as drinking alcohol)

Token Economy

An operant conditioning procedure in which people earn a token of some sort for exhibiting a desired behavior and can later exchange the tokens for various prizes or treats

Cognitive Therapy

Therapy that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking, based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events, and our emotional reactions

Rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT)

A confrontal cognitive therapy, developed by Albert Ellis, that vigorously challenges people’s illogical, self-defeating attitudes, and assumptions

Cognitive behavioral therapy

A popular interactive therapy that combines cognitive therapy (changing self defeating thinking) with behavior therapy (changing behavior)

group therapy

Therapy conducted with groups rather than individuals, permitting therapeutic benefits from group interaction

Family therpay

Therapy that treats the family as a system Views an individuals unwanted behaviors as influenced by, or directed at, other family members

Meta-Anlaysis

A procedure for statistically combining the results of many different research studies

Evidence Based practice

Clinical decision making that integrates the best available research with clinical expertise and patient characteristics and preferences

Therapeutic Alliance

A bond of trust and mutual understanding between a therapist and client, who work together constructively to overcome the client’s problem

Psychopharmacology

The study of the effects of drugs on mind and behavior

Antipsychotic Drugs

Drugs used to treat schizophrenia and other forms of severe thought disorder

Anti anxiety drugs

Drugs used to control anxiety and agitation

Antidepressant drugs

Drugs used to treat depression and some anxiety disorders Different types work by altering the availability of various neurotransmitters

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)

A biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient

repetitive transcrainial magnetic stimulation

The application of repeated pulses of magnetic energy to the brain, used to stimulate or suppress brain activity

Psychosurgery

Surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue in an effort to change behavior

Lobotomy

A psychosurgical procedure used to calm uncontrollably emotional or violent patients The procedure cut the nerves connecting the frontal lobes to the emotion-controlling centers of the inner brain

Resilience

The personal strength that helps most people cope with stress and recover from adversity and even trauma

Which of the following is a procedure for statistically combining the results of many different studies?

meta-analysis

EMDR is most similar to a technique known as
a. stress inoculation training.
b. aversive conditioning.
c. exposure therapy.
d. electroconvulsive therapy. Incorrect

Repeatedly pairing a conditioned stimulus that triggers distress with an unconditioned stimulus that triggers pleasure best illustrates

b. counterconditioning.

Psychoanalytic interpretation is designed to promote

insight

If therapy clients repeatedly imbibe an alcoholic drink mixed with a nausea-producing drug, an alcoholic drink without the drug is likely to become aNo ________ for feelings of nausea.

CS

Which of the following therapies is more concerned with removing specific troubling symptoms than with facilitating new ways of thinking?

behavior therapy

The study of the effect of drugs on mind and behavior is called

psychopharmacology.

By examining the actual consequences associated with anxiety-provoking situations, cognitive therapy patients usually find that the consequences are not as bad as they had imagined. This most directly helps to

decatastrophize thinking.

Immigrants from Asia would most likely experience difficulty as clients of American psychotherapists who emphasize the value of

individualism.

The use of antipsychotic drugs for the treatment of schizophrenia best illustrates

biomedical therapy.

Many self-help groups have emulated the use of ________ by Alcoholics Anonymous.

a 12-step program

Clients’ perceptions of the effectiveness of psychotherapy are often misleading because clients

often need to convince themselves that they didn’t waste their money on therapy.

Using implanted electrodes to inhibit activity in an area of the brain that triggers negative emotions is called

deep-brain stimulation.

Counteracting self-blame by reattributing responsibility for past negative outcomes is a cognitive therapy technique designed to

modify beliefs.

Selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors are prescribed to

elevate arousal and mood.

Principles derived from psychologists’ understanding of classical conditioning have most directly influenced the development of

behavior therapies.

Free association involves the

uncensored reporting of any thoughts that come to mind.

Cognitive therapists are most likely to emphasize that emotional disturbances result from

self-blaming and overgeneralized explanations of bad events.

Antidepressant drugs, a fresh perspective on his problems, and a strong therapeutic alliance all contributed to helping David recover from a major depressive disorder. An integrated understanding of David’s recovery process is best provided by

biopsychosocial approach.

Psychodynamic goal

To get people to understand their current symptoms -Focus on themes -Face to face -Once or twice a week

Psychodynamic therapists

"are in a position to introduce them to themselves

Interpersonal Psychotherapy

Treated depression symptom relief in the here and now Helping improve current relationships and skills

Humanistic Therapies

Insight therapies -Help grow in self awareness and self-acceptance "clients" "persons" not patients -Conscious more important than the unconscious -the path to growth is taking responsibility for ones own actions -Present/ future more important than the past

Carl Rodgers: Client Centered

"Unconditionally accepted"

Genuineness, acceptance, empathy -Refrain from directing toward certain insights Cannot be totally non directive,

Active listening steps

1. Paraphrase don’t say "I know how you feel" 2. Invite clarification 3. Reflect feellings

Insight therapies assume

That many psychological problems diminish as self-awareness grows

Behavior therpay

Doubt the healing power of self-awareness -Problem behaviors are the problem

Counterconditioning techniques

Exposure theory Aversive conditioning

To help Mrs. Otsuki lose weight, her therapist first attempted to assess whether her weight loss might be personally threatening to her husband. The therapist’s concern is most characteristic of a

Family therapist

Many clinical psychologists have a Ph.D. degree, which indicates that they

underwent research training.

Dr. Volz is a researcher who wants to distinguish between the direct effects of a new antianxiety medication and effects arising from expectations of the drug’s effectiveness. Dr. Volz is most likely to use a method known as

the double-blind procedure.

Klaus is a psychology graduate student who wants to determine whether electroconvulsive therapy is an effective treatment for schizophrenia. To combine the results of numerous published studies on this issue, Klaus should use a technique called

meta-analysis

Influencing patients by therapeutically controlling the consequences of their actions illustrates an application of

operant conditioning.

Operant Conditioning

Operant conditioning is a type of learning where behavior is controlled by consequences. Key concepts in operant conditioning are positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, positive punishment and negative punishment.

Psychotherapy is MOST likely to be effective in freeing

Jim from an excessive fear of giving speeches in public.

Albert Ellis emphasized that emotional disturbances result from

irrational thinking.

The psychotherapeutic value of hope is best illustrated by

the placebo effect.

Carl Rogers is known for the development of

client-centered therapy.

Though not performed today, lobotomies provide a historical example of

psychosurgery.

A psychodynamic therapist is most likely to

suggest interpretive insights regarding patients’ difficulties.

Which of the following therapists introduced the use of free association?

Sigmund Freud

Principles derived from psychologists’ understanding of operant conditioning have most directly influenced the development of

behavior therapies.

As a psychotherapist, Dr. Buist does not analyze people’s motives or diagnose the nature of their difficulties because he believes that they are in the best position to diagnose and solve their own problems. Dr. Buist’s position is most characteristic of ________ therapy.

client-centered

Using implanted electrodes to inhibit activity in an area of the brain that triggers negative emotions is called

deep-brain stimulation.

Humanistic therapists aim to boost people’s self-fulfillment by helping them to grow in

self-acceptance.

Psychoanalytic interpretation is designed to promote

insight

Which of the following treatment approaches has received little or no scientific support?

energy therapies

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