Psych Chapter 14 Vocab

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psychopathology

the study of abnormal behavior and psychological dysfunction

situational context

the social or environmental setting of a person’s behavior

subjective discomfort

emotional distress or emotional pain

maladaptive

anything that does not allow a person to function within or adapt to the stresses and everyday demands of life

psychological disorder

any pattern of behavior or thinking that causes people significant distress, causes them to harm others, or harms their ability to function in daily life

biological model

model of explaining behavior as caused by biological changes in the chemical, structural, or genetic systems of the body

cognitive psychologist

psychologists who study the way people think, remember, and mentally organize information

sociocultural perspective

perspective that focuses on the relationship between social behavior and culture; in psychopathology, perspective in which abnormal thinking and behavior (as well as normal) is seen as the product of learning and shaping within the context of the family, the social group to which one belongs, and the culture within which the family and social group exist

cultural relativity

the need to consider the unique characteristics of the culture in which behavior takes place

cultural syndromes

sets of particular symptoms of distress found in particular cultures, which may or may not be recognized as an illness within the culture

biopsychosocial model

perspective in which abnormal behavior is seen as the result of the combined and interacting forces of biological, psychological, social, and cultural influences

anxiety disorders

class of disorders in which the primary symptom is excessive or unrealistic anxiety

free-floating anxiety

anxiety that is unrelated to any specific and known cause

phobia

an irrational, persistent fear of an object, situation, or social activity

social anxiety disorder (social phobia)

fear of interacting with others or being in social situations that might lead to a negative evaluation

specific phobia

fear of objects or specific situations or events

claustrophobia

fear of being in small, enclosed space

acrophobia

fear of heights

agoraphobia

fear of being in a place or situation from which escape is difficult or impossible

panic attack

sudden onset of intense panic in which multiple physical symptoms of stress occur, often with feelings that one is dying

panic disorder

disorder in which panic attacks occur more than once or repeatedly, and cause persistent worry or changes in behavior

generalized anxiety disorder

disorder in which a person has feelings of dread and impending doom along with physical symptoms of stress, which lasts 6 months or more

obsessive-compulsive disorder

disorder in which intruding, recurring thoughts or obsessions create anxiety that is relieved by performing a repetitive, ritualistic behavior or mental act (compulsion)

acute stress disorder (ASD)

a disorder resulting from exposure to major stressor, with symptoms of anxiety, dissociation, recurring nightmares, sleep disturbances, problems in concentration, and moments in which people seem to "relive" the event in dreams and flashbacks for as long as 1 month following the event

posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

a disorder resulting from exposure to a major stressor, with symptoms of anxiety, dissociation, nightmares, poor sleep, reliving the event , and concentration problems, lasting for more than 1 month; symptoms may appear immediately, or not occur until 6 months or later after the traumatic event

magnification

the tendency to interpret situations as far more dangerous, harmful, or important than they actually are

all-or-nothing thinking

the tendency to believe that one’s performance must be perfect or the result will be a total failure

overgeneralization

distortion of thinking ni which a person draws sweeping conclusions based on only one incident or event and applies those conclusions to events that are unrelated to the original; the tendency to interpret a single negative event as a neverending pattern of defeat and failure

minimization

the tendency to give little to no importance to one’s successes or positive events and traits

affect

in psychology, a term indicating "emotion" or "mood"

mood disorders

disorders in which mood is severely disturbed

major depressive disorder

severe depression that comes on suddenly and seems to have no external cause, or is too severe for current circumstances

manic

having the quality of excessive excitement, energy, and elation or irritability

bipolar disorder

periods of mood that may range from normal to manic, with or without episodes of depression (bipolar I disorder), or spans of normal mood interspersed with episodes of major depression and episodes of hypomania (bipolar II disorder)

anorexia nervosa (anorexia)

a condition in which a person reduces eating to the point that their body weight is significantly low, or less than minimally expected. In adults, this is likely associated with a BMI < 18.5

bulimia nervosa (bulimia)

a condition in which a person develops a cycle of "binging" or overeating enormous amounts of food at one sitting, and then using unhealthy methods to avoid weight gain

binge-eating disorder

a condition in which a person overeats, or binges, on enormous amounts of food at one sitting, but unlike bulimia nervosa, the individual does not then purge or use other unhealthy methods to avoid weight gain

dissociative disorder

disorders in which there is a break in conscious awareness, memory, the sense of identity, or some combination

dissociative identity disorder (DID)

disorder occurring when a person seems to have two or more distinct personalities within one body

schizophrenia

severe disorder in which the person suffers from disordered thinking, bizarre behavior, hallucinations, and inability to distinguish between fantasy and reality

psychotic

refers to an individual’s inability to separate what is real and what is fantasy

delusions

false beliefs held by a person who refuses to accept evidence of their falseness

hallucinations

false sensory perceptions, such as hearing voices that do not really exist

flat affect

a lack of emotional responsiveness

cataonia

disturbed behavior ranging from statue-like immobility to bursts of energetic, frantic movement, and talking

positive symptoms

symptoms of schizophrenia that are excesses of behavior or occur in addition to normal behavior; hallucinations, delusions, and distorted thinking

negative symptoms

symptoms of schizophrenia that are less than normal behavior or an absence of normal behavior; poor attention, flat affect, and poor speech production

stress-vulnerability model

explanation of disorder that assumes a biological sensitivity, or vulnerability, to a certain disorder will result in the development of that disorder under the right conditions of environmental or emotional stress

personality disorders

disorders in which a person adopts a persistent, rigid, and maladaptive pattern of behavior that interferes with normal social interactoins

anti-social personality disorder (ASPD)

disorder in which a person uses other people without worrying about their rights or feelings and often behaves in an impulsive or reckless manner without regard for the consequences of their behavior

borderline personality disorder (BLPD)

maladaptive personality pattern in which the person is moody, unstable, lacks a clear sense of identity, and often clings to others with a pattern of self-destructiveness, chronic loneliness, and disruptive anger in close relationships

The term ____ means that the person is unable to distinguish between reality and fantasy and experiences disturbances in thinking, emotions, and behavior.

psychotic

Negative symptoms of schizophrenia appear to reflect a decrease of normal functions such as:

poor attention or a lack of effort

_______ is when a person believes that his or her behavior must be perfect or the result will be a total failure.

All-or-nothing thinking

An irrational and often persistent fear of an object, situation, or activity is called:

a phobia.

This is apparent when there is a sudden onset of intense alarm in which there can be multiple physical symptoms of stress occurring.

a panic attack

Researchers investigating ways to help people reduce their experience of test anxiety have found that ________ (imagining a person who is successful at a related task) lowered the relationship between test anxiety and test performance.

competence priming

Matthew, a psychology major, is worried that he and his family have the mental disorders he is reading about. Matthew is experiencing:

psychology student’s syndrome

Maria is a college student and is generally anxious. She cannot identify any one thing in particular that is bothersome, but feels anxious most of the time. Maria is exhibiting:

free-floating anxiety

Bill tends to have relationships with others that are very intense and often unstable. He is moody, manipulative, and sometimes engages in suicidal behaviors to get attention from others. Bill would best be diagnosed with ________ disorder.

borderline personality

The ____ model explains disordered behavior as the result of repressing one’s threatening thoughts, memories, and concerns in the unconscious mind.

psychodynamic

In the ______ model, abnormal behavior is seen as the result of the combined and interacting forces of biological, psychological, social, and cultural influences.

biopsychosocial

The term that refers to the need to consider the unique characteristics of the culture in which the person with the disorder was nurtured in order to correctly diagnose and treat the disorder is:

cultural relativity

The study of abnormal behavior is called:

psychopathology

A person who finds it difficult to function on a day-to-day basis may be displaying ______ behaviors.

maladaptive

During the Middle Ages, mental disorders were thought to be caused by:

spirit possession

The DSM-5 describes about _____ different psychological disorders, each noted for its symptoms, typical path, and a checklist of criteria that must be met in order for a diagnosis of that condition to be made.

250

_______ is the most commonly diagnosed mood disorder

Major depression

_____ is a mood disorder that is caused by the body’s reaction to low levels of light present in the winter months.

Seasonal affective disorder

Severe sadness that comes on suddenly, and is either (a) too severe for the circumstances or (b) exists without any external cause, is called:

major depression

The ______ theory explains dissociative disorders as the result of "thought avoidance" to avoid or decrease the pain of guilt, shame, or anxiety produced from disturbing thoughts and experiences.

cognitive/behavioral

_____ disorders involve a break in consciousness, memory, or a person’s sense of identity.

Dissociative

A ________ occurs when a person travels away from home and then cannot remember the trip or personal information such as identity.

dissociative fugue

________ is a condition in which a person reduces eating to a point that results in significantly lower-than-normal body weight.

Anorexia nervosa

The emotional unresponsiveness of people who suffer from _______ personality disorder has been linked to lower than normal levels of stress hormones.

antisocial

There are ___ basic categories of recognized types of personality disorders in the DSM-5.

three

The current name for what was once called multiple personality disorder is:

dissociative identity disorder

______, such as hearing voices or seeing things that aren’t really there, are not uncommon in someone diagnosed with schizophrenia.

Hallucinations

A man with a paralyzing fear of heights has become unable to go upstairs or ride in an elevator. This is an example of:

subjective discomfort

A child who witnessed the death of his mother experiences symptoms of anxiety, dissociation, nightmares, poor sleep, reliving the event, and concentration problems as late as three years after the event. The child is suffering from:

posttraumatic stress disorder

A woman who was assaulted cannot recall the experience itself and also cannot recall anything that happened in the two weeks following the event. She remembers everything leading up to the event. The woman is suffering from:

dissociative amnesia

________ is a condition in which a person reduces eating to a point that results in significantly lower-than-normal body weight

Anorexia nervosa

The DSM-5 contains

the path of the progression of each disorder. a description of the symptoms of each disorder. a checklist of criteria to be met for the diagnosis of each disorder.

Behavioral theorists link depression to:

learned helplessness

The term dementia praecox once referred to the disorder now known as:

schizophrenia

The _____ assumes that a biological sensitivity to a certain disorder will result in the development of the disorder under the right conditions of environmental or emotional stress.

stress-vulnerability model

Criteria such as behavior going against social norms, behavior that causes subjective discomfort, maladaptive behavior that causes an inability to function, and behavior causing a person to be dangerous to self or others are all indications of a:

psychological disorder

Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are ailments most often found in Western society, and are therefore called:

cultural syndromes

_________ results from exposure to a major stressor, with symptoms of anxiety, dissociation, recurring nightmares, sleep disturbances, problems concentrating, and flashbacks for as long as one month following the event.

acute stress disorder

One of the most researched and well-known personality disorders is _____ personality disorder. These individuals are literally "against society.

antisocial

The most dominant symptom of a(n) _______ disorder is excessive or unrealistic worrying and fearfulness.

anxiety

An individual who uses _____ takes one negative event and interprets it as a never-ending pattern of defeat.

overgeneralization

Scott experiences vast mood swings ranging from depression on one end of the spectrum to episodes when he feels euphoric and has so much energy that he can’t sleep. Scott is suffering from:

bipolar disorder

Todd has been struggling with _____, characterized by the intruding thought that his hands are covered in germs. He cannot pursue daily tasks unless he completes a ritualistic routine to wash his hands until he feels clean. These rituals have taken up so much of his time that he rarely manages to finish a task or complete his work at his job.

obsessive-compulsive disorder

The treatment of choice for spirit possession during the Middle Ages was:

exorcism

Research has found that lower levels of dopamine produced by the ________ are associated with attention deficits and poor organization of thought, two negative symptoms of schizophrenia.

prefrontal cortex

______, such as hearing voices or seeing things that aren’t really there, are not uncommon in someone diagnosed with schizophrenia.

Hallucinations

The frequency of ______ personality disorder is nearly three times greater in women than in men.

borderline/narcissistic

Researchers have found a small correlation between attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the onset of ______ in adolescence.

bipolar disorder

Bulimia nervosa is a condition in which a person develops a cycle of binging on enormous amounts of food and then using inappropriate methods to avoid weight gain. What causes a person to binge when he or she is so worried about weight gain?

prompts such as an anxious or depressed mood, social stressors, or intense hunger after extreme diet attempts

In psychological terms, "affect" means:

"emotion."

A man wakes up on a beach with no memory of how he got there, who he is, where he lives, or of any sense of identity whatsoever. The man has experienced a:

dissociative fugue

_______ are false beliefs about the world that a person holds and that tend to remain fixed and unshakable even in the face of evidence that disproves them.

Delusions

A man suffering from _____ might complain that he hears voices constantly whispering to him.

hallucinations

A person with schizophrenia would likely display all of the following symptoms

speaking in a word salad. difficulty linking thoughts together in a logical fashion. unusual and disordered thought processes.

In a set of twins, one twin experienced a stressful event during puberty and later developed schizophrenia, while the other remained healthy. This is explained by the:

stress-vulnerability model???

A person who experiences a great deal of ______ in his or her daily routine or behaviors may be displaying a sign of behavioral abnormality.

subjective discomfort

Archaeologists have found human skulls that bear the signs of ancient surgeries. This surgery has been termed:

trephining

Dr. Sutton performed some tests and believes the abnormal behaviors Richard are displaying are caused by a chemical imbalance. She is writing a prescription for a pill she believes will restore the balance that he needs. Dr. Sutton is in favor of a _____ treatment.

biological

______ is a disorder that occurs due to a traumatic stressor, manifests within 4 weeks of the event, lasts for only about a month, and includes symptoms such as emotional numbness, lack of responsiveness, unawareness of surroundings, anxiety, flashbacks, and nightmares.

acute stress disorder

Pam is troubled by unwelcomed thoughts of being attacked by birds and is always looking over her head to make sure no birds are around. These thoughts will not go away, even when she tries hard to think of other things. Pam’s therapist told her that the thoughts she is experiencing are called ________.

obsessions

Tyrone exhibits behavior that causes him great distress, inhibits his ability to function well throughout the day, and at times proves to be harmful to his health. Based on the characteristics of Tyrone’s behavior, Tyrone appears to be suffering from ______.

a psychological disorder

Anthony has been known to cheat, steal, lie, and manipulate others to get what he wants. Even worse, he feels no remorse after committing such acts. It is most likely that Anthony suffers from _______ disorder.

antisocial personality

Every time Drew gets into an elevator, or walks into his closet, or enters any small, enclosed space, he begins to hyperventilate and feels as if he is going to die. Drew may be suffering from _______.

claustrophobia

Phyllis was bitten by a mosquito and became convinced that she had contracted the West Nile virus. Though no symptoms of the virus were evident, Phyllis exclaimed that she felt faint and nauseous and constantly nervous since being bitten. Also, she was sure that her entire body was starting to swell. Cognitive-behavioral therapists might refer to Phyllis’s irrational behavior as _______.

magnification

Gena, who is a patient in a psychiatric institute, believes that she is the Virgin Mary and expects all of the other patients in her ward to pray to her. Gena’s belief that she is the Virgin Mary is referred to as a delusion of ________.

grandeur

Bulimia nervosa is a condition in which a person develops a cycle of binging on enormous amounts of food and then using inappropriate methods to avoid weight gain. What causes a person to binge when he or she is so worried about weight gain?

prompts such as an anxious or depressed mood, social stressors, or intense hunger after extreme diet attempts

The disorder in which a person adopts a persistent, rigid, and maladaptive pattern of behavior that interferes with normal social interactions is ______ disorder.

personality

Personality disorders are different from other psychological disorders in that personality disorders:

affect the entire life adjustment of the person

When talking about schizophrenia, a positive symptom is:

an excess or distortion of normal functions, such as hallucinations or delusions.??

Jake has recently been diagnosed with schizophrenia. One of his symptoms is the experience of hallucinations. Of the five sensory systems, which one is most likely to be affected by these events?

auditory

The ______ model of abnormality explains disorders such as anxiety, depression, and schizophrenia as caused by chemical imbalances, genetic disorders, and brain damage.

biological

In the United States, the term ______ is not a psychological term; it is a legal term used to argue that a mentally ill person who committed a crime should not be held responsible for his or her actions because he or she could not understand the difference between right and wrong.

insanity

The disorder in which a person adopts a persistent, rigid, and maladaptive pattern of behavior that interferes with normal social interactions is ______ disorder

personality

Elaine has suffered from major depression since childhood. During several of their therapy sessions, Elaine informed her therapist that she does not view herself to be as smart or as pretty as the other girls with whom she grew up, and that she would never be capable of accomplishing anything worth appreciating. Elaine’s therapist proposed that her faulty way of thinking appeared to be the cause of her depression, thus supporting the _________ perspective.

cognitive

Sidney, a 36-year-old woman who one day vanished from her home, was found two weeks later dressed like a teenager, walking the streets of the town she had grown up in. When found, she could not remember any of the last two weeks, and she did not recognize her husband. Sidney was most likely suffering from the disorder known as ________.

dissociative fugue

Jean travelled to England to undergo a procedure that she was told could cure her of her depression. She was informed by the surgeon that it would involve the drilling of a hole in her skull to help relieve pressure on a certain area of her brain, thus reducing her symptoms of depression. The procedure that Jean would undergo is called ______.

trephining

The psychodynamic model sees anxiety as the result of:

inappropriate urges threatening to surface???

Stage fright, fear of public speaking, and a fear of urinating in a public restroom are all examples of:

social anxiety disorder

People with ______ disorder have lower brain activity in the areas responsible for sense of body awareness and feel detached from themselves, their bodies, and their surroundings.

bipolar depersonalization delusional???

How would the Greek physician Hippocrates have typically dealt with someone suffering from mental illness ?

He would focus on correcting the imbalance of bodily fluids, or humors

Lisa has just been fired from her new job for consistently arriving 2 hours late for work. Lisa tries to explain that she must often dive back home to ensure that all the doors are locked and that no appliances have been left on. Lisa’s condition is abnormal from the __ definition

maladaptive

In the US, insanity is a term typically used by

the legal system

Elliot became widowed after nearly 40 years of marriage. He has convinced himself that no one will ever love him again. His irrational thinking has caused him to suffer from depression, and he rarely leaves his house. What perspective might best explain his behavior?

cognitive

Which of the following concepts is not specifically associated with the DSM-5 examination of culture-related disorders?

cultural binding

Who is most likely to be diagnosed with a phobic disorder?

Jennifer, who is morbidly afraid of snakes and refuses to even look at a picture of a snake

Amelia has recently given birth to her first child. She mentions that she often goes into her baby’s bedroom to check if he is still breathing. Would this qualify as an obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)?

As long as Amelia is not compelled to check on her baby and does not suffer from severe anxiety if she is unable to do so, then this is not an OCD

Sandy took part in the April 2013 Boston Marathon, where two bombs were detonated near the finish line killing three spectators. For approximately two weeks after the marathon, Sandy was unable to sleep or concentrate and often found herself reliving the moment she heard the bombs explode. What disorder might Sandy be diagnosed with?

acute stress disorder

Jorge finds himself feeling depressed most of the day. He is constantly tired yet he sleeps very little. He has feelings of worthlessness that have come on suddenly and seemingly have no basis in reality. What might Jorge be diagnosed with?

major depressive disorder

Studies have suggested that increased rates of major depressive disorder in women may have a basis in __

gender roles, social factors, and emotional processing

What disorder seems to hold an association with bipolar disorder?

ADHD

Olivia is a teenager who has been diagnosed with anorexia nervosa. What percentage of individuals with anorexia that receive treatment make a recovery?

40-60%

Which of the following characteristics best describe differences between bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa?

Individuals with bulimia may have a normal body weight whereas those with anorexia tend to be severly under their expected body weight.

Researchers believe that 40-60% of the risk for anorexia, bulimia, and binge-eating disorders are due to

genetic factors

What is the major difference between dissociate amnesia and retrograde amnesia

Retrograde amnesia patients often suffer from some form of physical brain trauma

Franklin wakes up on a cot in a homeless shelter in another town. He doesn’t know where he is or how he got there, and he’s confused when people say he has been calling himself Anthony. This is most likely an episode of dissociative

amensia with fugue

Dr. Cowden believes that Jamison’s dissociate disorder may be due to his apparent enhanced ability to think about things other than those associated with his traumatic childhood. What psychological perspective is Dr. Cowden applying ?

cognitive/behavioral persepctive

David believes that characters in a popular science fiction show are secretly sending him messages. This would be an example of a delusion of

reference

Dr. Hadol has several patients with schizophrenia who appear to exhibit excessive or distorted characteristics in relation to what one might consider normal functioning. Specific symptoms include varied hallucinations and multiple delusions. According to the DSM-5, these are referred to as

positive symptioms

Accurate portrayals of antisocial personality disorder::

Most are male; people with this disorder suffer little to no guilt for their criminal acts; peroplewith this disorder are consitently irrespohnsible and don’t keep commitments

Studies show that __ personality disorders occur more frequently in women while __ personality disorders happen more often in men

borderline; antisocial

What was the most likely reason that someone would perform an exorcism?

to release evil spirits

In 1972, a jet carrying a rugby team from Peru crashed high in the snow-covered Andes Mountains. Many of the players survived for over 2 months by eating the remains of those who died. Psychologists justified their cannibalism because that was the only way they could have survived so long without food. By what definition might their behavior best be classified ?

situational context

Which of the following is an example of cultural relativity ?

While Dr. AKido knows that his patient, AKi, believes her anxiety has a biological explanation, in learning more about her family of orgin, he suspects it has a psychological cause

How many axes does the DSM-5 use to aid mental health professional sin making a diagnoissi

one

Trypanophobia, also known as fear of receiving an injection is an example of a

specific phobia

Aaron hates to go to restaurants for fear that he will be seated in the fear back of the restaurant and be unable to get out in case of an emergency. This may be a symptom of

agoraphobia

Ria experienced a sudden attack of intense fear when she was boarding a plane with her friends to fly to Mexico for sprint break. Ria’s heart raced, she becomes dizzy, and she was certain she would die in a plane crash if she bordered the plane. Subsequently she did not go on her trip, and the plan arrived safely in Mexico 3 hours later. Ria experienced

a panic attack

Dr. Kirby has been meeting with 9 year old Loren, whose family lost everything in a tornado. In her initial visit, Loren was diagnosed with acute stress disorder. During a 2 month follow up with Dr. Kirby, Loren is still exhibiting many of the same symptoms. What should Dr. Kirby do?

Dr. Kirby will revise Loren’s diagnosis from ASD to posttraumatic stress disorder

Survivors of natural disasters like Hurricane Sandy in 2012 may experience higher incidences of

posttraumatic stress disorder

Calvin is terribly worried that his college education was wasted when he didn’t get his dream job. Furthermore, Calvin believes he ruins his future when he did poorly in his job interview. Calvin explains, "I had to ace the interview. It had to be perfect, and it wasn’t!" How might a cognitive-behavioral psychologist classify this distorted thought process?

all-or-nothing thinking

Which type of depression is the most common type of mood disorder?

major depressive disorder

behavioral theorists link depression to __ whereas social cognitive theorists point to __

learned helplessness; distortions in thinking

Individuals with bulimia often rationalize that since they have had a single treat, their diet is ruined and therefore they might as well go ahead and eat excessively. Such irrational thinking is an example of the cognitive disorder known as

all or nothing thinking

Binge-eating disorder is different from bulimia in that individual with binge-eating disorder

do not typically purge the food they eat

Dissociate amnesia is different from retrograde amnesia because

dissociative amnesia is typically psychological in orgin

Depersonalization/derealization disorder is a type of dissociatve disorder that has been found to have possible __ foundations for the experience of detachment.

biological

On your first call as a paramedic, you enter the house of a man who has covered his walls and ceiling in aluminum foil to protect his brain from the thought-controlling rays of the government. This is an example of a __ delusion

persecution

Rodney has been diagnosed with schizophrenia. He rarely smiles and often shows little emotion to any situation. Psychologist refer to the characteristic as

flat affect

What neurotransmitter was first believed to be the cause of schizophrenia?

dopamine

Colleen found herself attracted to her psychology instructor. She would frequently go by his office just to be near him. When he didn’t respond to her advances, Colleen eventually told him that she had thoughts of killing herself so that he would spend time tying to counsel her. What personality disorder best describes Colleen’s thinking and behavior?

borderline personality disorder

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