psych chapter 13

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People often commit the fundamental attribution error, especially when they explain

the behavior of strangers who have been observed in only one type of situation.

This afternoon, Mica’s boss wants to meet with her. She is sure it is about the customers who complained about her yesterday. The best-case scenario would be for Mica’s boss to decide that her behavior was the result of:

a situational attribution

According to the _____, people explain behavior by crediting either the situation or the person’s disposition.

attribution theory

People tend to feel discomfort when their thoughts are inconsistent, and so they act to reduce that discomfort. This is known as:

cognitive dissonance theory

Cognitive dissonance theory is MOST helpful in understanding the impact of:

role playing on attitude change.

Marilyn thinks strict class attendance policy is an indication of her professor’s overly controlling personality rather than a necessity dictated by the limited number of class sessions (the course meets only once a week). Her judgment BEST illustrates:

the fundamental attribution error.

Professor Stewart wrote a very positive letter of recommendation for a student, despite his doubts about her competence. After writing the letter, he began to develop a more favorable attitude about the student’s abilities. Which theory BEST explains why?

cognitive dissonance theory

As Spencer is driving to campus one day, another car cuts him off and speeds ahead. Immediately he yells out "Crazy driver!" not realizing that the person is rushing to get to the hospital. Spencer’s judgment BEST illustrates:

the fundamental attribution error

Malerie stops for a cup of coffee and the waitress yells at her when she sits at a table that has not been cleared. Malerie is convinced that the waitress should find another line of work—one in which her angry personality traits will not interfere with her job. However, Malerie disregards the possibility that the restaurant is short of help that day. She has just fallen prey to

the fundamental attribution error.

The Stanford Prison experiment consisted of male college students who volunteered to participate in a simulated prison. Half of the students became guards, the other half prisoners. Who is the psychologist who had to call off the study in only six days because of the degrading behaviors displayed by the guards as well as the psychological damage to prisoners?

Philip Zimbardo

Researchers find that conformity to the group increases when all of these occur EXCEPT:

one is made to feel secure

result(s) from a person’s desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval, whereas _____ result(s) from a person’s willingness to accept other’s opinions about reality.

Normative social influence; informational social influence

Juan’s friends ask him to participate in some activities. He feels pressure to join them, even though the adventures might not be in his best interest. Which statement is NOT a reason strengthening Juan’s conformity to the group?

He feels a strong sense of individual self when in the group.

In one study, participants who worked alongside someone who rubbed his face or shook his foot, were observed to produce the same behaviors. This mimicry illustrates

the chameleon effect

While Dean disagrees with his boss, he laughs at the joke anyway to gain her approval. Dean’s behavior illustrates:

normative social influence.

result(s) from a person’s willingness to accept others’ opinions about reality.

Informational social influence

result(s) from a person’s desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval.

Normative social influence

In the original Milgram obedience experiment, men aged 20 to 50 had complied fully, right up to the last switch, _____ percent of the time.

60

In making wedding preparations, Jason conforms to the expectations of his future bride’s family simply to win their favor. His behavior illustrates the importance of

normative social influence

When people adjust their behavior or thinking so that it coincides with a group standard, they are exhibiting

conformity

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