psych chapter 11 siggy

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Most experts view intelligence as a person’s:
A) ability to perform well on intelligence tests.
B) innate mental capacity.
C) ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and adapt to new situations.
D) diverse skills acquired throughout life.
rationalization.
B) nominalizing.
C) factor analysis.
D) reification.

C

By creating a label such as "gifted," we begin to act as if all children are naturally divided into two categories, gifted and nongifted. This logical error is referred to as:
A) rationalization.
B) nominalizing.
C) factor analysis.
D) reification.

D

Which of the following is not a requirement of a good test?
A) reliability
B) standardization
C) reification
D) validity

C

The concept of a g factor implies that intelligence:
A) is a single overall ability.
B) is several specific abilities.
C) cannot be defined or measured.
D) is both a. and c.

A

Melvin has been diagnosed as having savant syndrome, which means that he:
A) has an IQ of 120 or higher.
B) would score high on a test of analytical intelligence.
C) is mentally retarded but has one exceptional ability.
D) was exposed to high levels of testosterone during prenatal development.

C

The existence of ________ reinforces the generally accepted notion that intelligence is a multidimensional quality.
A) adaptive skills
B) mental retardation
C) general intelligence
D) savant syndrome

D

Don’s intelligence scores were only average, but he has been enormously successful as a corporate manager. Psychologists Sternberg and Wagner would probably suggest that:
A) Don’s verbal intelligence exceeds his performance intelligence.
B) Don’s performance intelligence exceeds his verbal intelligence.
C) Don’s academic intelligence exceeds his practical intelligence.
D) Don’s practical intelligence exceeds his academic intelligence.

D

Gerardeen has superb social skills, manages conflicts well, and has great empathy for her friends and co-workers. Peter Salovey and John Mayer would probably say that Gerardeen possesses a high degree of:
A) g.
B) social intelligence.
C) practical intelligence.
D) emotional intelligence.

D

Which of the following best describes the relationship between creativity and intelligence?
A) Creativity appears to depend on the ability to think imaginatively and has little if any relationship to intelligence.
B) Creativity is best understood as a certain kind of intelligence.
C) The more intelligent a person is, the greater his or her creativity.
D) A certain level of intelligence is necessary but not sufficient for creativity.

D

Vanessa is a very creative sculptress. We would expect that Vanessa also:
A) has an exceptionally high intelligence score.
B) is quite introverted.
C) has a venturesome personality and is intrinsically motivated.
D) lacks expertise in most other skills.

C

When highly skilled people are performing a task, their brains:
A) retrieve information from memory more quickly.
B) register simple stimuli more quickly.
C) demonstrate a more complex brain-wave response to stimuli.
D) do all of the above.

D

The test created by Alfred Binet was designed specifically to:
A) measure inborn intelligence in adults.
B) measure inborn intelligence in children.
C) predict school performance in children.
D) identify mentally retarded children so that they could be institutionalized.

C

Benito was born in 1937. In 1947, he scored 130 on an intelligence test. What was Benito’s mental age when he took the test?
A) 9
B) 10
C) 11
D) 13

D

Originally, IQ was defined as:
A) mental age divided by chronological age and multiplied by 100.
B) chronological age divided by mental age and multiplied by 100.
C) mental age subtracted from chronological age and multiplied by 100.
D) chronological age subtracted from mental age and multiplied by 100.

A

A 6-year-old child has a mental age of 9. The child’s IQ is:
A) 96.
B) 100.
C) 125.
D) 150.

D

If asked to guess the intelligence score of a stranger, your best guess would be:
A) 75.
B) 100.
C) 125.
D) "I don’t know; intelligence scores vary too widely."

B

The formula for the intelligence quotient was devised by:
A) Sternberg.
B) Binet.
C) Terman.
D) Stern.

D

Current intelligence tests compute an individual’s intelligence score as:
A) the ratio of mental age to chronological age multiplied by 100.
B) the ratio of chronological age to mental age multiplied by 100.
C) the amount by which the test-taker’s performance deviates from the average performance of others the same age.
D) the ratio of the test-taker’s verbal intelligence score to his or her nonverbal intelligence score.

C

According to the text, what can be concluded from early intelligence testing in the United States?
A) Most European immigrants were "feeble-minded."
B) Army recruits of other than West European heritage were intellectually deficient.
C) The tests were biased against people who did not share the culture assumed by the test.
D) Both a. and b. could be concluded.

C

Before becoming attorneys, law students must pass a special licensing exam, which is an ________ test. Before entering college, high school students must take the SAT, which is an ________ test.
A) achievement; aptitude
B) aptitude; achievement
C) achievement; achievement
D) aptitude; aptitude

A

Tests of ________ measure what an individual can do now, whereas tests of ________ predict what an individual will be able to do later.
A) aptitude; achievement
B) achievement; aptitude
C) reliability; validity
D) validity; reliability

B

If you wanted to develop a test of musical aptitude in North American children, which would be the appropriate standardization group?
A) children all over the world
B) North American children
C) children of musical parents
D) children with known musical ability

B

Standardization refers to the process of:
A) determining the accuracy with which a test measures what it is supposed to.
B) defining meaningful scores relative to a representative pretested group.
C) determining the consistency of test scores obtained by retesting people.
D) measuring the success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict.

B

The bell-shaped distribution of intelligence scores in the general population is called a:
A) g distribution.
B) standardization curve.
C) bimodal distribution.
D) normal distribution.

D

Over the past 80 years, college aptitude test scores have ________ and WAIS scores have ________.
A) declined; remained stable
B) remained stable; declined
C) risen; declined
D) declined; risen

D

Jack takes the same test of mechanical reasoning on several different days and gets virtually identical scores. This suggests that the test has:
A) high content validity.
B) high reliability.
C) high predictive validity.
D) been standardized.

B

A school psychologist found that 85 percent of those who scored above 115 on an aptitude test were "A" students and 75 percent of those who scored below 85 on the test were "D" students. The psychologist concluded that the test had high:
A) content validity because scores on it correlated highly with the criterion behavior.
B) predictive validity because scores on it correlated highly with the criterion behavior.
C) content validity because scores on it correlated highly with the target behavior.
D) predictive validity because scores on it correlated highly with the target behavior.

B

If a test designed to indicate which applicants are likely to perform the best on the job fails to do so, the test has:
A) low reliability.
B) low content validity.
C) low predictive validity.
D) not been standardized.

C

You would not use a test of hearing acuity as an intelligence test because it would lack:
A) content reliability.
B) predictive reliability.
C) predictive validity.
D) content validity.

D

Which of the following is true of people who score high on aptitude tests?
A) They achieve greater career success.
B) They are likely to be happier.
C) They always do well in college.
D) None of the above is true.

D

Amelia recently took a test that assessed her ability to perform at the college level. The test she took was the:
A) WAIS.
B) WISC.
C) SAT.
D) None of the above, because they are all achievement tests.

C

Which of the following statements is true?
A) The predictive validity of intelligence tests is not as high as their reliability.
B) The reliability of intelligence tests is not as high as their predictive validity.
C) Modern intelligence tests have extremely high predictive validity and reliability.
D) The predictive validity and reliability of most intelligence tests is very low.

A

Studies of 2- to 7-month-old babies show that babies who quickly become bored with a picture:
A) often develop learning disabilities later on.
B) score lower on infant intelligence tests.
C) score higher on intelligence tests several years later.
D) score very low on intelligence tests several years later.

C

At age 16, Angel’s intelligence score was 110. What will her score probably be at age 32?
A) 125
B) 110
C) 115
D) There is no basis for predicting an individual’s future IQ.

B

A high-school psychologist who is looking at a student’s intelligence score finds a jump of 30 points between the earliest score at age 2 and the most recent at age 17. The psychologist’s knowledge of testing would probably lead her to conclude that such a jump:
A) indicates that different tests were used, creating an apparent change in intelligence level, although it actually remained stable.
B) signals a significant improvement in the child’s environment over this period.
C) is unsurprising, since intelligence scores do not become stable until late adolescence.
D) is mainly the result of the age at which the first test was taken.

D

By what age does a child’s performance on an intelligence test stabilize?
A) 2
B) 3
C) 6
D) 7

D

Before about age ________, intelligence tests generally do not predict future scores.
A) 1
B) 3
C) 5
D) 10

B

Twenty-two-year-old Dan has an intelligence score of 63 and the academic skills of a fourth-grader, and is unable to live independently. Dan probably:
A) has Down syndrome.
B) has savant syndrome.
C) is mentally retarded.
D) will eventually achieve self-supporting social and vocational skills.

C

Down syndrome is normally caused by:
A) an extra chromosome in the person’s genetic makeup.
B) a missing chromosome in the person’s genetic makeup.
C) malnutrition during the first few months of life.
D) prenatal exposure to an addictive drug.

A

Which of the following statements is true?
A) About 1 percent of the population is mentally retarded.
B) More males than females are mentally retarded.
C) A majority of the mentally retarded can learn academic skills.
D) All of the above are true.

D

In his study of children with high intelligence scores, Terman found that:
A) the children were more emotional and less healthy than a control group.
B) the children were ostracized by classmates.
C) the children were healthy and well-adjusted, and did well academically.
D) later, as adults, they nearly all achieved great vocational success.

C

Sorting children into gifted and nongifted educational groups:
A) creates a self-fulfilling prophecy.
B) increases social isolation between groups.
C) promotes racial segregation and prejudice.
D) has all of the above effects.

D

Which of the following provides the strongest evidence of the role of heredity in determining intelligence?
A) The IQ scores of identical twins raised separately are more similar than those of fraternal twins raised together.
B) The intelligence scores of fraternal twins are more similar than those of ordinary siblings.
C) The intelligence scores of identical twins raised together are more similar than those of identical twins raised apart.
D) The intelligence scores of adopted children show relatively weak correlations with scores of adoptive as well as biological parents.

A

Current estimates are that ________ percent of the total variation among intelligence scores can be attributed to genetic factors.
A) less than 10
B) approximately 25
C) between 50 and 75
D) over 75

C

If you compare the same trait in people of similar heredity who live in very different environments, heritability for that trait will be ________; heritability for the trait is most likely to be ________ among people of very different heredities who live in similar environments.
A) low; high
B) high; low
C) environmental; genetic
D) genetic; environmental

A

Studies of adopted children and their biological and adoptive families demonstrate that with age, genetic influences on intelligence:
A) become more apparent.
B) become less apparent.
C) become more difficult to entangle from environmental influences.
D) become easier to entangle from environmental influences.

A

The Flynn effect refers to the fact that:
A) white and black infants score equally well on measures of infant intelligence.
B) Asian students outperform North American students on math achievement tests.
C) The IQ scores of today’s better fed and educated population exceed those of the 1930s population.
D) Individual differences within a race are much greater than between-race differences.

C

Which of the following provides the strongest evidence of environment’s role in intelligence?
A) Adopted children’s intelligence scores are more like their adoptive parents’ scores than their biological parents’.
B) Children’s intelligence scores are more strongly related to their mothers’ scores than to their fathers’.
C) Children moved from a deprived environment into an intellectually enriched one show gains in intellectual development.
D) The intelligence scores of identical twins raised separately are no more alike than those of siblings.
l’s basic intelligence is largely the product of heredity.
B) With the exception of those with genetic disorders such as Down syndrome, intelligence is primarily the product of environmental experiences.
C) Both genes and life experiences significantly influence performance on intelligence tests.
D) Because intelligence tests have such low predictive validity, the question cannot be addressed until psychologists agree on a more valid test of intelligence.

C

Which of the following statements most accurately reflects the text’s position regarding the relative contribution of genes and environment in determining intelligence?
A) Except in cases of a neglectful early environment, each individual’s basic intelligence is largely the product of heredity.
B) With the exception of those with genetic disorders such as Down syndrome, intelligence is primarily the product of environmental experiences.
C) Both genes and life experiences significantly influence performance on intelligence tests.
D) Because intelligence tests have such low predictive validity, the question cannot be addressed until psychologists agree on a more valid test of intelligence.

C

J. McVicker Hunt found that institutionalized children given "tutored human enrichment":
A) showed no change in intelligence test performance compared with institutionalized children who did not receive such enrichment.
B) responded so negatively as a result of their impoverished early experiences that he felt it necessary to disband the program.
C) thrived intellectually and socially on the benefits of positive caregiving.
D) actually developed greater intelligence than control subjects who had lived in foster homes since birth.

C

First-time parents Geena and Brad want to give their baby’s intelligence a jump-start by providing a super-enriched learning environment. Experts would suggest that the new parents should:
A) pipe stimulating classical music into the baby’s room.
B) hang colorful mobiles and artwork over the baby’s crib.
C) take the child to one of the new "superbaby" preschools that specialize in infant enrichment.
D) relax, since there is no surefire environmental recipe for giving a child a superior intellect.

D

Which of the following is not cited as evidence of the reciprocal relationship between schooling and intelligence?
A) Neither education level nor intelligence scores accurately predict income.
B) Intelligence scores tend to rise during the school year.
C) High school graduates have higher intelligence scores than do those who drop out early.
D) High intelligence is conducive to prolonged schooling.

A

Research on the effectiveness of Head Start suggests that enrichment programs:
A) produce permanent gains in intelligence scores.
B) improve school readiness and may provide a small boost to intelligence.
C) improve intelligence scores but not school readiness.
D) produce temporary gains in intelligence scores.

B

Most psychologists believe that racial gaps in test scores:
A) have been exaggerated when they are, in fact, insignificant.
B) indicate that intelligence is in large measure inherited.
C) are in large measure caused by environmental factors.
D) are increasing.

C

Hiroko’s math achievement score is considerably higher than that of most American students her age. Which of the following is true regarding this difference between Asian and North American students:
A) It is a recent phenomenon.
B) It may be due to the fact that Asian students have a longer school year.
C) It holds only for girls.
D) Both a. and b. are true.

D

Reported racial gaps in average intelligence scores are most likely attributable to:
A) the use of biased tests of intelligence.
B) the use of unreliable tests of intelligence.
C) genetic factors.
D) environmental factors.

D

The contribution of environmental factors to racial gaps in intelligence scores is indicated by:
A) evidence that individual differences within a race are much greater than differences between races.
B) evidence that white and black infants score equally well on certain measures of infant intelligence.
C) the fact that Asian students outperform North American students on math achievement and aptitude tests.
D) all of the above.

D

High levels of male hormones during prenatal development may enhance:
A) verbal reasoning.
B) spatial abilities.
C) overall intelligence.
D) all of the above.

B

Which of the following is not true?
A) In math grades, the average girl typically equals or surpasses the average boy.
B) The gender gap in math and science scores is increasing.
C) Women are better than men at detecting emotions.
D) Males score higher than females on tests of spatial abilities.

B

To say that the heritability of a trait is approximately 50 percent means:
A) that genes are responsible for 50 percent of the trait in an individual, and the environment is responsible for the rest.
B) that the trait’s appearance in a person will reflect approximately equal genetic contributions from both parents.
C) that of the variation in the trait within a group of people, 50 percent can be attributed to heredity.
D) all of the above.

C

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