psych chap 8

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Both Piaget and Vygotsky emphasized that cognitive development occurred according to a very rigid schedule of distinct stages.

false

Which of the following would socioculturalists say about imaginative play?

It enhances their ability to practice self-regulation and other important skills

The gradual adoption of other people’s ways of thinking and behaving for one’s own purposes is known as:

Appropriation

Vygotsky’s focus was on development occurring due to accommodation and assimilation, whereas Piaget was more focused on schematic changes.

False

The sociocultural approach to cognitive development is most concerned with:

How a cultural community shapes and is shaped by the individual

Owen says, "The pillow doesn’t like Uncle Freddy sitting on him." Owen’s thinking about the pillow can be described as:

Animistic

Which is NOT true?

Piaget disregarded biological influences on children’s cognitive development.

Hattie watches a bug crawl under a rug. She pulls up the rug and tries to pick up the bug, which then hides behind a mug Hattie’s father placed on the floor earlier. Hattie attempts to move the mug to get at the bug. This scenario demonstrates that Hattie has an understanding of:

Object permanence

Tammy is playing with a set of pots and pans. First, she bangs the lids together. Then she tries to fit them on the pots. Then she bangs the lids against the floor. Her manipulation of the lids to better understand their properties can best be described as:

Tertiary circular reactions

Which of the following is likely to encourage children’s make-believe play

All of these

Which is the correct order of Piagetian periods of development?

Sensorimotor, Preoperational, Concrete operational, Formal operational

On average, children begin saying recognizable words at about ___ months of age.

12

Most children begin speaking in multi-word sentences around 12 months.

False

B.F. Skinner emphasized the importance of ____ in language acquisition.

Reinforcement

The term "holophrase" is used to denote:

The infant’s use of one word to express a whole thought

Ashante’ is reading a book to her little sister, Tieanna. After reading all the words on the page, she asks Tieanna questions about what she just read. This is known as:

Dialogic reading

Marily shows little Joey a live baby chicken and says, "chick" several times. Assuming that Joey is a typical child, he will most likely understand "chick" to refer to the bird’s pointed facial feature (i.e., its beak) because it’s very different from Joey’s own nose and mouth.

False

Chomsky believed that children have a biological mechanism that helps them learn language.

True

"Mommy cake!" is an example of a holophrase.

False

Sensorimotor

Learning about the world through senses and actions. B-2

Pre-Operational

Representing things with words and images; thinking intuitive, not logical. 2-7

Concrete Operational

Logical thinking about concrete events; can figure out conservation tasks 7-11

Formal Operational

Abstract thinking 11+

Piaget focused on mental representations underlying development.

True

Vygotsky focused on social/cultural constraints that shaped development.

True

Vygotsky believed that the child-in-activity-in-cultural-context was the smallest unit of study.

True

Piaget saw children as individuals who actively select and interpret information from the environment largely on their own, motivated by their innate curiosity.

True

Vygotsky believed that a child’s need for social interaction motivated their learning.

True

Vygotsky placed more emphasis on the role of language in cognitive development than Piaget did.

True

Adjusting the assistance offered to fit learner’s current level of performance

Scaffolding (S)

Shared endeavors between more and less expert participants

Guided participation (S)

Development resulting from increased integration of conflicting, contradictory ideas/elements/phenomena

Dialectical change (S)

State in which cognitive structures are "in balance" with the environment

Equilibrium (P)

Organized pattern of behavior that reflects a particular way of interacting with the environment

Schema (P)

Using current schemas to interpret the external world (i.e., fitting reality into the current cognitive organization)

Assimilation (P)

Adjusting/creating a new schema to better make sense of external world

Accommodation (P)

Building and refining schemas in response to the realities of the external world

Adaptation (P)

First words

12 months

Naming explosion

18 months

two-word sentences

21-24 months

telegraphic speech

"Go Car"

Child’s assumption that there is only one name for an object

Mutual exclusivity constraint

Repetitive vocalization that does not convey any meaning

Echolalia

Use of syntax to learn new words

Syntactic boot-strapping

Application of constraints and knowledge of grammar to learn new words very quickly

Fast-mapping

Learning disability related to writing/expressing one’s thoughts on paper

Dysgraphia

Assumption that a word describes an entire object, rather than just a part of it

Whole object bias

Difficulty distinguishing or separating the sounds in spoken words, which leads to problems with spelling and reading

Dyslexia

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