psych chap 3

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In psychology, the term sensation formally refers to:

the process of detecting or sensing a physical stimulus such as light, sound, heat, or pressure.

In contrast to sensation, the term perception is formally defined as the:

active mental process of making sense of sensory stimulation.

In order to answer this test item, you must read the words on this page. Detecting the black marks on the page relies on the process of _____, and the ability to interpret these black lines and curves as letters and words involves the process of _____.

sensation; perception

What makes sensation possible?

sensory receptors

The process by which physical energy, such as light, is converted into a coded neural signal that can be transmitted to and interpreted by the brain is called:

transduction.

When sensory receptors convert different forms of energy into neural signals, the process is known as:

transduction.

Sensation results when sensory receptor cells are stimulated by:

some form of physical energy.

Perception that is below the threshold of conscious perception is called:

Subliminal perception

The clear membrane that covers the outside of the eye and helps gather and direct incoming light is called the:

Cornea

The muscle that controls the amount of light entering the pupil is the:

Iris

As you walk into a brightly lit room, the black structure in the center of your eye seems to shrink to a tiny black dot. This response is caused by the action of the eye structure called the:

Iris

Both Myra and Ben have worn glasses since they were children, but Myra is extremely nearsighted, and Ben is extremely farsighted. Both Myra and Ben have:

Abnormally shaped retinas

A common form of farsightedness occurs in middle age in which the lenses in the eyes become brittle and inflexible. This disorder is known as:

presbyopia.

The optic chiasm is:

he point at which the optic nerve fibers from each eye meet and cross over to opposite sides of the brain.

From the optic chiasm, visual information travels first to the _____.

Thalamus

From the optic chiasm, the PRIMARY visual pathway projects first to the _____ and processes information about _____.

Thalamus; Form, color, brightness, depth of objects

The SECONDARY visual pathway projects first to the _____ and processes information about _____.

Midbrain; Location of objects

From the thalamus, visual signals are sent to the _____, where they are interpreted.

Visual Cortex

Feature detectors are:

highly specialized neurons in the visual cortex that respond to particular types of visual stimuli.

Where would you expect to find visual feature detectors?

Visual Cortex

In general, sound waves are _____ in the outer ear and _____ in the middle ear.

Collected; Amplified

The primary function of the outer ear is to:

collect sound waves and funnel them into the ear canal.

The primary function served by the middle ear is to:

amplify the vibration of sound waves.

The purpose of the hammer, anvil, and stirrup is to:

increase the amplification of sound and transmit the amplified vibration to the oval window.

The basilar membrane:

lies within the coiled cochlea.

How are auditory stimuli transmitted to the brain?

The bending of hair cells stimulates the auditory nerve.

The auditory nerve transmits neural signals to the:

Thalamus and Auditory cortex

The auditory nerve transmits neural signals to the:

Thalamus

The word anosmia refers to:

Loss of the olfactory sense

The olfactory nerve transmits messages to the:

olfactory bulb.

The olfactory bulb is:

the enlarged ending of the olfactory cortex

The olfactory neurons in your nose are unique in that they:

form a direct connection to areas of the cortex and limbic system and are the only neurons that directly link the brain to the outside world.

As you walk into your office, you are almost overwhelmed by the strong smell of the cologne with which the copier repairman has doused himself. Because you have studied this chapter, however, you reassure yourself that sensory adaptation will occur and you will become much less aware of the odor in approximately:

One minute or less

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