Psych. Ch. 5 Vocab

Total Word Count: 1910
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Learning

Any relatively permanent change in behavior brought about by experience or practice.

Reflex

An involuntary response, one that is not under personal control or choice.

Classical conditioning

Learning to make an involuntary response to a stimulus other than the original, natural stimulus that normally produces the response.

Unconditioned stimulus (UCS)

In classical conditioning, a naturally occurring stimulus that leads to an involuntary and unlearned response.

Unconditioned response (UCR)

In classical conditioning, an involuntary and unlearned response to a naturally occurring or unconditioned stimulus.

Neutral stimulus (NS)

In classical conditioning, a stimulus that has no effect on the desired response prior to conditioning.

Conditioned stimulus (CS)

In classical conditioning, a previously neutral stimulus that becomes able to produce a conditioned response, after pairing with an unconditioned stimulus.

Conditioned response (CR)

In classical conditioning, a learned response to a conditioned stimulus.

Stimulus generalization

The tendency to response to a stimulus that is only similar to the original conditioned stimulus with the conditioned response.

Stimulus discrimination

The tendency to stop making a generalized response to a stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus because the similar stimulus is never paired with the unconditioned stimulus.

Extinction

The disappearance or weakening of a learned response following the removal or absence of the unconditioned stimulus or the removal of a reinforcer.

Spontaneous recovery

The reappearance of a learned response after extinction has occurred.

Higher order conditioning

Occurs when a strong conditioned stimulus is paired with a neutral stimulus, causing the neutral stimulus to become a second conditioned stimulus.

Conditioned emotional response

Emotional response that has become classically conditioned to occur to learned stimuli, such as a fear of dogs or the emotional reaction that occurs when seeing an attractive person.

Vicarious conditioning

Classical conditioning of an involuntary response or emotion by watching the reaction of another person.

Conditioned taste aversion

Development of a nausea or aversive response to a particular taste because that taste was followed by a nausea reaction, occurring after only one association.

Cognitive perspective

Modern perspective in psychology that focuses on memory, intelligence, perception, problem solving, and learning.

Operant conditioning

The learning of voluntary behavior through the effects of pleasant and unpleasant consequences to response.

Law of effect

Law stating that if an action is followed by a pleasurable consequence, it will tend to be repeated, and if followed by an unpleasant consequences, it will tend not to be repeated.

Operant

Any behavior that is voluntary and not elicited by specific stimuli.

Reinforcement

Any event or stimulus, that when following a response, increases the probability that the response will occur again.

Reinforcers

Any events or objects, that when following a response, increase the likelihood of that response occurring again.

Primary reinforcer

Any reinforcer that is naturally reinforcing by meeting a basic biological need, such as hunger, thirst, or touch.

Secondary reinforcer

Any reinforcer that becomes reinforcing after being paired with a primary reinforcer, such as praise, tokens, or gold stars.

Positive reinforcement

The reinforcement of a response by the addition or experiencing of a pleasurable stimulus.

Negative reinforcement

The reinforcement of a response by the removal, escape from, or avoidance of an unpleasant stimulus.

Partial reinforcement effect

The tendency for a response that is reinforced after some, but not all, correct responses to be very resistant to extinction.

Continuous reinforcement

The reinforcement of each and every correct response.

Fixed interval schedule of reinforcement

Schedule of reinforcement in which the interval of time that must pass before reinforcement becomes possible is always the same.

Variable interval schedule of reinforcement

Schedule of reinforcement in which the interval of time that must pass before reinforcement becomes possible is different for each trial or event.

Fixed ratio

Schedule of reinforcement in which the number of responses required for reinforcement is always the same.

Variable ratio

Schedule of reinforcement in which the number of responses required for reinforcement is different for each trial or event.

Punishment

Any event or object that, when following a response, makes that response less likely to happen again.

Punishment by application

The punishment of a response by the addition or experiencing of an unpleasant stimulus.

Punishment by removal

The punishment of a response by the removal of a pleasurable stimulus.

Discriminative stimulus

Any stimulus, such as a stop sign or a doorknob, that provides the organism with a cue for making a certain response in order to obtain reinforcement.

Shaping

The reinforcement of simple steps in behavior through successive approximations that lead to a desired, more complex behavior.

Instinctive drift

Tendency for an animals behavior to revert to genetically controlled patterns.

Behavior modification

The use of learning techniques to modify or change undesirable behavior and increase desirable behavior.

Token economy

The use of objects called tokens to reinforce behavior in which the tokens can be accumulated and exchanged for desired items or privileges.

Applied behavior analysis

Modern term for a form of functional analysis and behavior modification that uses a variety of behavioral techniques to mold a desired behavior or response.

Biofeedback

Using feedback about biological conditions to bring involuntary responses, such as blood pressure and relaxation, under voluntary control.

Neurofeedback

Form of biofeedback using brain-scanning devices to provide feedback about brain activity in an effort to modify behavior.

Latent learning

Learning that remains hidden until its application becomes useful.

Insight

The sudden perception of relationships among various parts of a problem, allowing the solution to the problem to come quickly.

Learned helplessness

The tendency to fail to act to escape from a situation because of a history of repeated failures in the past.

Observational learning

Learning new behavior by watching a model perform that behavior.

Learning/performance distinction

Referring to the observation that learning can take place without actual performance of the learned behavior.

Learning

Any relatively permanent change in behavior brought about by experience or practice.

Reflex

An involuntary response, one that is not under personal control or choice.

Classical conditioning

Learning to make an involuntary response to a stimulus other than the original, natural stimulus that normally produces the response.

Unconditioned stimulus (UCS)

In classical conditioning, a naturally occurring stimulus that leads to an involuntary and unlearned response.

Unconditioned response (UCR)

In classical conditioning, an involuntary and unlearned response to a naturally occurring or unconditioned stimulus.

Neutral stimulus (NS)

In classical conditioning, a stimulus that has no effect on the desired response prior to conditioning.

Conditioned stimulus (CS)

In classical conditioning, a previously neutral stimulus that becomes able to produce a conditioned response, after pairing with an unconditioned stimulus.

Conditioned response (CR)

In classical conditioning, a learned response to a conditioned stimulus.

Stimulus generalization

The tendency to response to a stimulus that is only similar to the original conditioned stimulus with the conditioned response.

Stimulus discrimination

The tendency to stop making a generalized response to a stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus because the similar stimulus is never paired with the unconditioned stimulus.

Extinction

The disappearance or weakening of a learned response following the removal or absence of the unconditioned stimulus or the removal of a reinforcer.

Spontaneous recovery

The reappearance of a learned response after extinction has occurred.

Higher order conditioning

Occurs when a strong conditioned stimulus is paired with a neutral stimulus, causing the neutral stimulus to become a second conditioned stimulus.

Conditioned emotional response

Emotional response that has become classically conditioned to occur to learned stimuli, such as a fear of dogs or the emotional reaction that occurs when seeing an attractive person.

Vicarious conditioning

Classical conditioning of an involuntary response or emotion by watching the reaction of another person.

Conditioned taste aversion

Development of a nausea or aversive response to a particular taste because that taste was followed by a nausea reaction, occurring after only one association.

Cognitive perspective

Modern perspective in psychology that focuses on memory, intelligence, perception, problem solving, and learning.

Operant conditioning

The learning of voluntary behavior through the effects of pleasant and unpleasant consequences to response.

Law of effect

Law stating that if an action is followed by a pleasurable consequence, it will tend to be repeated, and if followed by an unpleasant consequences, it will tend not to be repeated.

Operant

Any behavior that is voluntary and not elicited by specific stimuli.

Reinforcement

Any event or stimulus, that when following a response, increases the probability that the response will occur again.

Reinforcers

Any events or objects, that when following a response, increase the likelihood of that response occurring again.

Primary reinforcer

Any reinforcer that is naturally reinforcing by meeting a basic biological need, such as hunger, thirst, or touch.

Secondary reinforcer

Any reinforcer that becomes reinforcing after being paired with a primary reinforcer, such as praise, tokens, or gold stars.

Positive reinforcement

The reinforcement of a response by the addition or experiencing of a pleasurable stimulus.

Negative reinforcement

The reinforcement of a response by the removal, escape from, or avoidance of an unpleasant stimulus.

Partial reinforcement effect

The tendency for a response that is reinforced after some, but not all, correct responses to be very resistant to extinction.

Continuous reinforcement

The reinforcement of each and every correct response.

Fixed interval schedule of reinforcement

Schedule of reinforcement in which the interval of time that must pass before reinforcement becomes possible is always the same.

Variable interval schedule of reinforcement

Schedule of reinforcement in which the interval of time that must pass before reinforcement becomes possible is different for each trial or event.

Fixed ratio

Schedule of reinforcement in which the number of responses required for reinforcement is always the same.

Variable ratio

Schedule of reinforcement in which the number of responses required for reinforcement is different for each trial or event.

Punishment

Any event or object that, when following a response, makes that response less likely to happen again.

Punishment by application

The punishment of a response by the addition or experiencing of an unpleasant stimulus.

Punishment by removal

The punishment of a response by the removal of a pleasurable stimulus.

Discriminative stimulus

Any stimulus, such as a stop sign or a doorknob, that provides the organism with a cue for making a certain response in order to obtain reinforcement.

Shaping

The reinforcement of simple steps in behavior through successive approximations that lead to a desired, more complex behavior.

Instinctive drift

Tendency for an animals behavior to revert to genetically controlled patterns.

Behavior modification

The use of learning techniques to modify or change undesirable behavior and increase desirable behavior.

Token economy

The use of objects called tokens to reinforce behavior in which the tokens can be accumulated and exchanged for desired items or privileges.

Applied behavior analysis

Modern term for a form of functional analysis and behavior modification that uses a variety of behavioral techniques to mold a desired behavior or response.

Biofeedback

Using feedback about biological conditions to bring involuntary responses, such as blood pressure and relaxation, under voluntary control.

Neurofeedback

Form of biofeedback using brain-scanning devices to provide feedback about brain activity in an effort to modify behavior.

Latent learning

Learning that remains hidden until its application becomes useful.

Insight

The sudden perception of relationships among various parts of a problem, allowing the solution to the problem to come quickly.

Learned helplessness

The tendency to fail to act to escape from a situation because of a history of repeated failures in the past.

Observational learning

Learning new behavior by watching a model perform that behavior.

Learning/performance distinction

Referring to the observation that learning can take place without actual performance of the learned behavior.

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