Psych Ch. 2

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The neuron fiber that carries messages to other neurons is the…

axon

The tiny space between the axon of a sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of a receiving neuron is called the…

synaptic gap

When an action potential reaches the axon terminal of a neuron, it triggers the release of chemical messengers called…

neurotransmitters

What neurotransmitters are linked to pain control and pleasure?

endorphins

What is the scientific study of the links between biological and psychological processes?

biological psychology

What is a nerve cell called?

neuron

Which part of the neuron receives messages and conducts impluses toward the cell body?

dendrites

What is the electrical charge that travels down an axon called?

action potential

What is the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse called?

threshold

The autonomic nervous system controls internal functions, such as heart rate and glandular activity. The word "autonomic" means…

self-regulating

The sympathetic nervous system arouses us for action and the parasympathetic nervous system calms us down. Together, the two systems make up the…

autonomic nervous system

The neurons of the spinal cord are part of the…

central nervous system

What makes up the central nervous system?

brain and spinal cord

What nervous system includes sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body

peripheral nervous system

Which neurons communicate internally and intervene between sensory and motor outputs?

interneurons

What are bundled axons that connect the central nervous system with muscles, glands, and sense organs?

nerves

What division of the peripheral nervous system controls the body’s skeletal muscles?

somatic nervous system

What division of the peripheral nervous system controls the glands and muscles of the internal organs?

autonomic nervous system

Which part of the autonomic nervous system arouses the body?

sympathetic nervous system

Which part of the autonomic nervous system calms the body?

parasympathetic nervous system

The most influential endocrine gland is the…

pituitary gland

What secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine, helping to arouse the body during times of stress?

adrenal glands

What’s the body’s "slow" chemical communication system?

endocrine system

What chemical messengers travel through the blood stream and affect other tissues?

hormones

The brainstem is the oldest and innermost region of the brain. The part of the brainstem that controls heartbeat and breathing is the…

medulla

The lower brain structure that governs arousal is the…

reticular formation

The part of the brain that coordinates voluntary movement is the…

cerebellum

What is a lesion?

tissue destruction

Which part of the brain is responsible for autonomic survival functions?

brainstem

What is a recording of the waves of electrical activity in the brain called?

EEG

Which brain scan shows where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task?

PET scan

Which brain scan shows brain anatomy?

MRI

Which brain scans show brain function?

fMRI

What is considered the brain’s sensory "switchboard"?

thalamus

What neural system is associated with emotions and drives?

limbic system

Two parts of the limbic system are the…

amygdala and hippocampus

The neural structure that most directly regulates eating, drinking, and body temperature is the…

hypothalamus

What is the body’s ultimate control and information processing center?

cerebral cortex

What portion of the cerbral cortex is involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgements?

frontal lobes

What portion of the cerebral cortex receives sensory input for touch and body positions?

parietal lobes

What portion of the cerebral cortex receives information from visiual fields?

occipital lobes

What portion of the cerebral cortex includes the auditory areas, each receiving information primarily from the opposite ear?

temporal lobes

Which part of the brain controls voluntary movements?

motor cortex

Which part of the brain registers and processes body touch and movement sensations?

sensory cortex

Which areas of the cerebral cortex are involved in higher mental functions like learning and thinking?

association areas

Impairment of language caused by damage in the left-hemisphere is called…

aphasia

What part of the brain controls language expression?

Broca’s area

What part of the brain controls language reception?

Wernick’s area

What is the brain’s ability to change called?

plasticity

What is the formation of new neurons called?

neurogenesis

What connects the two brain hemispheres?

corpus callosum

What is a condition resulting from surgery that isolates the brain’s two hemispheres?

split brain

Damage to the brain’s right hemisphere is most likely to reduce a person’s ability to…

make inferences

Plasticity is especially evident in the brains of…

young children

Studies of people with split brains and brain scans of those with undivided brains indicate that the left hemisphere excels in…

processsing language

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