Psych- ch 15 review

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Which of the following statements regarding changes in midlife are TRUE? check all that apply

medical discoveries have helped reduce the aging process for middle aged adults today middle age is lasting longer than in years past 50 year olds are in better shape today than 40 year olds a generation or two ago

Which of the following statements about middle-aged is FALSE?

many recognize the limitations in career progress

many are planning for their retirement

most have not yet reached their peak in earnings

most have not yet reached their peak in earnings

because of _____ , the workforce today is sometimes outsourced to other countries with a significantly less expensive labor force

globalization

One of the top six regrets among U.S adults was not engaging in more _____

leisure Leisure refers to the pleasant times after work when individuals are free to pursue activities and interests of their own choosing—hobbies, sports, or reading,

_______ adulthood is a time for evaluation, assessment, and reflection about work

middle

For many people, what is middle adulthood a time of? check all that apply

declining physical skills passing on something meaningful to the next generation becoming more aware of the young old polarity

Recent findings indicate that everyday effectiveness in problem solving and decision making ______ in early and middle adulthood

improves

_______ involves experiencing something beyond oneself in a transcendent manner and living in a way that benefits others in society

spirituality

Viktor Frankl has identified which of the following as our most distinct human qualities. check all that apply

responsibility freedom spirituality

Baumeister and Vohs that there are four needs in our quest for a meaningful life. they include all of the following, Except ______

values
purpose
identity
self-worth
self-efficacy

identity

The inability to adequately achieve and maintain an erection is known as ________ _______

erectile dysfunction

In middle age, changes occur in ones working memory-the mental workbench that helps individuals do which of the following? check all that apply

manipulate information assemble information make decisions

Ones accumulated information and verbal skills are components of _____ intelligence

crystallized fluid intelligence is one’s ability to reason abstractly, begins to decline in middle adulthood

How is fluid intelligence defined?

the ability to reason abstractly

When assessing individual variations in intellectual functioning, Schaie identified which THREE groups? check all that apply

decliners stable gainers

_______-time tasks are one common way of assessing speed of information processing

reaction in which individuals simply press a button as soon as they see a light appear. Middle-aged adults are slower to push the button when the light appears than young adults are. However, keep in mind that the decline is not dramatic—under 1 second in most investigations.

The term _____ is used to describe the midlife transition in which fertility declines

climacteric

Select the TWO leading causes of death in middle adulthood. check all that apply

cancer cardiovascular disease In 2013, about 46,000 45- to 54-year-olds died of cancer and about 35,000 died of cardiovascular disease; about 113,000 55- to 64-year-olds died of cancer and 73,000 died of cardiovascular disease

the time when women menstrual periods completely cease is known as ______

menopause usually during the late forties or early fifties The average age at which U.S. women have their last period is 51 However, there is a large variation in the age at which menopause occurs—from 39 to 59 years of age. Later menopause is linked with increased risk of breast cancer

_______ is the transitional period from normal menstrual periods to no menstrual periods at all

perimenopause which often takes up to 10 years Perimenopause usually occurs during the forties but can occur in the thirties

Hot flashes are associated with a decline in the hormone ________

estrogen production of estrogen by the ovaries declines dramatically, and this decline produces uncomfortable symptoms in some women—"hot flashes," nausea, fatigue, and rapid heartbeat,

HRT stands for __________ ________ ________

hormone replacement therapy

What are the characteristics of metabolic syndrome? check all that apply

insulin resistance obesity hypertension

Which statement regarding health and disease in middle adulthood is FALSE?

most all middle-aged adults will have a disease or persistent health problem

frequency of accidents declines in middle adulthood compared to early adulthood and adolescence

in middle adulthood, individuals are less susceptible to colds than in childhood, adolescence, and early adulthood

in middle adulthood, individuals are less susceptible to allergies than in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood

most all middle-aged adults will have a disease or persistent health problem

Chronic disorders have a _____ onset and a _____ duration

slow; long Chronic disorders are rare in early adulthood, increase in middle adulthood, and become common in late adulthood. Chronic disorders account for 86 percent of total health care spending in the United States

Which statement regarding chronic disorders is FALSE?

men are more likely than women to have chronic disorders such as cancer and coronary heart disease

hypertension is the leading chronic disorder in middle adulthood

chronic disorders are rare in early adulthood, increase in middle adulthood, and become common in late adulthood

women are more likely than men to have chronic conditions such as arthritis and bursitis

hypertension is the leading chronic disorder in middle adulthood

For many adults, susceptibility to colds and allergies are ______ common in middle adulthood compared to adolescence and early adulthood

less

Which of the following are among the more visible and obvious signs of aging? check all that apply

pigmentation in the skin producing age spots skin beginning to wrinkle and sag fingernails and toenails developing ridges and becoming thicker

_______ is an organized set of beliefs, practices, rituals, and symbols that increases an individuals connection to a sacred or transcendent other (God, higher power, or ultimate truth)

religion Religiousness refers to the degree of affiliation with an organized religion, participation in its prescribed rituals and practices, connection with its beliefs, and involvement in a community of believers.

________ refers to the degree of affiliation with an organized religion, participation in its prescribed rituals and practices, connection with its beliefs, and involvement in a community of believers

religiousness

The time period between ones 40s and 60s is known as _______ adulthood

middle

_________ is term given to describe age-related loss of muscle mass and strength

sarcopenia Muscle loss with age occurs at a rate of approximately 1 to 2 percent per year after age 50 Obesity is a risk factor for sarcopenia

Which of the following accurately describe age-related physical changes? check all that apply

bone loss usually accelerates with further aging age-related muscle loss usually occurs at a rate of 1% to 2% per year after age 50 joint performance generally peaks in ones 20s

which of the following describe vision changes in middle age? check all that apply

retina receives only one-third as much light as 20 years before visual fields size decreases the eyes blind spot increases

which statement about the rate of physical changes in middle adult hood is FALSE?

genetic makeup plays an important role in whether and when chronic disease appears

lifestyle factors have been implicated in whether and when chronic disease appears

midlife changes are more gradual than those of adolescent and late adulthood

the rate of physical changes is fairly similar for all adults

the rate of physical changes is fairly similar for all adults

physical changes in middle adulthood are usually ______

gradual Although everyone experiences some downward physical change due to aging in middle adulthood, the rates of this aging vary considerably from one individual to another.

Which of the following is not associated with a decrease in deaths from cardiovascular disease?

healthy eating habits

exercising

lowering blood pressure

reducing alcohol consumption

reducing alcohol consumption

In the Seattle Longitudinal study, which four intellectual abilities peaked among men and women in middle age? check all that apply

inductive reasoning verbal memory verbal ability spatial orientation

Viagra works by allowing increased ________ ______ to the penis

blood flow

A consistent finding is that as adults become older their age identity, or self-perception of age is _______ their chronological age

younger than

Adults may have cosmetic surgery or dye their hair to hide the visible signs of _________

aging Baby boomers have shown a strong interest in plastic surgery and Botox, which may reflect their desire to slow down the aging process

Stress and ____ emotions can affect the development and course of cardiovascular disease

negative

Which of the following are needs that are linked to the meaning of life? check all that apply

need for values need for self-worth need for a sense of efficacy

Researcher John Horn asserts that there are two aspects of intelligence that include __________ and ________ intelligence

crystallized=an individual’s accumulated information and verbal skills, continues to increase in middle adulthood, fluid=one’s ability to reason abstractly, begins to decline in middle adulthood

Which of the following statements about hormonal changes in middle-aged is TRUE?

men do not lose fertility in middle age During middle adulthood, most men do not lose their capacity to father children, although there usually is a modest decline in their sexual hormone level and activity

Identify the six areas of mental abilities assessed in the Seattle Longitudinal study. check all that apply

spatial orientation number inductive reasoning verbal comprehension verbal memory perceptual speed

it has been concluded that in general, there is a(n) _______

decline in memory during middle adulthood

Research has recently identified that TRT has been found to _______ check all that apply

improve bone health improve sexual functioning improve muscle strength

Hot flashes are ______ in Mayan women

uncommon Asian women report fewer hot flashes than women in Western societies It is difficult to determine the extent to which these cross-cultural variations are due to genetic, dietary, reproductive, or cultural factors.

Stress can affect the ______ system, which consists of millions of white blood cells that fight off bacteria, viruses, and tumors

immune

Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding hormone replacement therapy?

it can consist of various forms estrogen, and usually a progestin

Chronic _____ is/are linked to the overproduction of coticsoteriods such as cortisol

stress

What are some of the contributors to erectile dysfunction? check all that apply

smoking elevated cholesterol levels diabetes

Which of the following describe the effects of agin on an individuals height? check all that apply

a decrease in height in middle adulthood is usually associated with bone loss on average, men lose inch in height from early to middle age women can lose as much as 2 inches in height during adulthood

Expertise shows up more often in ______ adulthood than _______ adulthood years

middle; early

In general, there is little change with regard to lung capacity during middle adulthood, except for a decrease in lung capacity for people who ______

smoke

Sexual activity in middle adulthood usually occurs _____ in early adulthood

less frequently than The frequency of having sex was greatest for individuals aged 25 to 29 years old (47 percent had sex twice a week or more) and dropped off for individuals in their fifties (23 percent of 50- to 59-year-old males said they had sex twice a week or more,

Which of the following is not a finding of the Seattle longitudinal Study?

four of the six intellectual abilties assessed reached their highest level of functioning in middle adulthood

number ability in middle age

middle-aged men and women showed similar levels of peak performance in most cognitive abilities

perceptual speed increased in middle adulthood

perceptual speed increased in middle adulthood

True or False: with regard to generational differences in cognitive functioning for parents and their offspring between the ages of 60 and 67 years, Schaie reported that declines were more likely for the parents whereas stability or slight increases were more likely for children

true

Timothy Salthouse disagrees with Schemes findings and argues that cross-sectional research shows reasoning, memory, spatial visualization, and processing speed _______

begin declining in early adulthood and further decline in the 50s

In the latter part of middle age, ______ memory capacity becomes more limited

working

many middle-aged adults experience decreases in the visual fields creating a problem seeing objects that are ______

close Accommodation of the eye—the ability to focus and maintain an image on the retina—experiences its sharpest decline between 40 and 59 years of age.

As many as ______ of 50 year olds experience a loss in hearing

50% Sensitivity to high pitches usually declines first; the ability to hear low-pitched sounds does not seem to decline much in middle adulthood. Men usually lose their sensitivity to high-pitched Page 465sounds sooner than women do.

True or False: cardiovascular disease does not increase significantly until late adulthood

false Cardiovascular disease increases considerably in middle age

When ______ is too high it sticks to the singing of the blood vessel, which can lead to atherosclerosis

LDL (low density lipoprotein)

What can reduct many cardiovascular problems in middle age? check all that apply

weight control exercise eating foods low in saturated fat

sleep problems are more common in which individuals? check all that apply

those who are: depressed cardiovascular disease have a higher number of prescription and nonprescription drugs obese

Some researchers argue that having a sense of control in middle age is _______ modifiable factors in delaying the onset of diseases in middle adulthood and reducing the frequency of diseases in late adulthood

one of the most important

Which of the following statements regarding menopause is FALSE?

later menopause is linked with increased risk of breast cancer

there is a large variation in the age at which menopause occurs-from 39-59

the age of onset for menopause has decreased significantly in the 20th century

there is no correlation between the age at which a female has her first period and the age at which she starts menopause

the age of onset for menopause has decreased significantly in the 20th century

Which of the following side effects may be produced by menopause? check all that apply

hot flashes nausea fatigue rapid heartbeat

Compared to early adulthood, sexual activity in middle adulthood is ______ frequent

less

which middle-aged woman is MOST likely to engage in sexual activity?

marianne, a married woman living with her partner

Based on data from the Seattle longitudinal study, Schaie found more declines using_______ assessments than in _______ assessments

cross-sectional; longitudinal

Middle-aged men experience a decline in the production of the hormone ________ at a rate of 1% per year

testosterone

In terms of gains (growth) and losses (decline), emotional support from others generally ______ in middle adulthood

increases

Events such as the death of a parents, becoming a grandparents, and having ones last child leave the home are _______

more likely to occur in late midlife than in earlier midlife

In terms of gains (growth) and losses (declines), biological functioning typically ________ in middle adulthood

decreases

What are some of the contributors to erectile dysfunction? check all that apply

diabetes elevated cholesterol levels smoking

Which of the following accurately describe age-related physical changes? check all that apply

bone loss usually accelerates with further aging joint performance generally peaks in ones 20s age-related muscle loss usually occurs at a rate of 1% to 2% per year after age 50

As ______ adulthood people prepare for retirement, they may have to adjust their idealistic hopes to realistic possibilities to meet their goals

middle

Midlife changes may produce ______ opportunities for leisure

expanded

What has promoted the rectangularization of age distribution? check all that apply

aging of the baby-boom cohort increased longevity low fertility rates

Today, the age distribution of the population has created what is known as rectangularization because ________

the percentages of people at different ages in the lifespan are more similar

Many experts conclude that in middle adulthood ______

gains and losses balance each other

True or False: religious attendance and commitment have been positively associated with health outcomes in middle adulthood

true

Due to concerns about the safety of HRT, which alternatives do many women seek? check all that apply

regular exercise relaxation therapy and acupuncture dietary supplements and herbal remedies non steroidal medications

Which statement about weight in midlife is False?

body fat account for about 10% of weight in middle age

obesity increases from early to middle adulthood

obesity in middle adulthood increases ones risk for hypertension

nearly 40% of middle-aged adults were classified as obese in a recent study

body fat account for about 10% of weight in middle age body mass index, which takes into account height and weight, of 25 or more

True or False: whether it involves being a homemaker, volunteering, working a part-time job, or having a full-time career, work has a central role in middle adulthood

true

Historically, retirement has been a male transition, but now _____ expect to retire

both spouses

comparing cross-sectional data with longitudinal data, what did Schiae find?

declines in intellectual abilities were more likely in cross-sectional assessments than longitudinal assessments

In order to solve problems in their domain, experts are more likely than novices to use strategies that include all of the following, EXCEPT______

processing information automatically

using better shortcuts

flexibility and creativity

relying exclusively on recent experiences

relying exclusively on recent experiences likely to rely on their accumulated experience to solve problems.

In the United States, approximately _____ of individuals ages 45 to 54 years are employed

80%

Which of the following statements about leisure is FALSE?

leisure helps middle-aged adults prepare psychologically for retirement

middle-aged men who took yearly vacation were less likely to die over nine years than those who never took vacations

research has not been able to establish clear links between leisure time and improved health

middle-aged men who took yearly vacations were 32% less likely to die of heart disease than those who never vacationed

research has not been able to establish clear links between leisure time and improved health

A loss of strength in middle adulthood is most common in the _____

back and legs sarcopenia is given to age-related loss of muscle mass and strength

After ______, a woman blood pressure rises sharply and remains higher than that of a man during the later adult years

menopause A recent study found that uncontrolled hypertension can damage the brain’s structure and function as early as the late thirties and early forties

Based on Willis & Schaie’s analysis of individual variations in cognitive trajectories, which statement regarding the association between cognitive functioning in midlife and later functioning in old age is true?

decline in memory, word fluency, and perceptual speed in midlife were associated with cognitive impairment in older adulthood

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