Psych Ch 13

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Carl Jung

-According to Jung, our collective unconscious consists of inherited archetypes -the primitive images and patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behavior that reside in the collective unconscious are called archetypes

Abraham Maslow

-Personality theorist who believed in the basic goodness of individuals, and their natural tendency toward self-actualization -According to Maslow, Albert Einstein, Mahatma Ghandi, and Eleanor Roosevelt have self-actualization in common.

Karen Horney

-According to Horney, an emotionally healthy person will balance moving toward, away, and against people -Horney believed that the strongest influence on an individual’s personality was that person’s relationship with his or her parents.

Sigmund Freud

– According to Freud, the thoughts and information that you can easily bring to awareness is called your preconscious – The three mental structures that form personality are the id, ego, and superego

Carl Rogers

emphasized the importance of self-concept. He believed our personality and individual self-esteem are heavily influenced by early childhood experiences.

Unconditional positive regard

Rogerian term for positive behavior toward a person without attaching any contingencies

multiphasic personality test

measures a range of personality tests

Five-Factor Model

Openness, conscientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness, neuroticism (OCEAN)

Projective Testing

The use of ambiguous, unstructured stimuli to assess personality

Thematic Apperception Test

people are asked to look at an ambiguous scene and tell a story about what has, is, and will happen in the scene

Defense Mechanisms

– Strategies employed by the ego to reduce anxiety and avoid conflict – When used excessively, they can be dangerous because they distort reality

Barnum Effect

One reason people tend to believe in pseudo personality tests is because they have "something for everyone."


– An individual’s relatively stable and enduring pattern of thoughts, feelings, and actions -A major premise underlying psychoanalytic or psychodynamic theories of personality is that unconscious forces have an enormous impact on our behavior, such as feelings, thoughts & actions


-A relatively stable and consistent characteristic that can be used to describe someone -Ex. of traits: Cheerful, honest, friendly, optimistic


The rational part of the psyche that deals with reality and tries to meet the needs of the other two mental structures

Biological Theories

emphasize the importance of genetics in the development of personality

sequence of Freud’s psychosexual stages of development

Oral > anal > phallic > latency > genital


Support for a biological contribution to personality can be found in brain research which suggests that introversion is associated with activation in the amygdala of the brain.


associated with both novelty-seeking and extroversion.

Compared to low sensation-seekers and introverts, high sensation-seekers and extroverts tend to have ______.

lower levels of physiological arousal


represents a blending of several theories of personality.


refers to the study of personality, based on the location of bumps on a person’s head

Which of the following is NOT used by a psychologist to assess someone’s personality?

Objective handwriting analysis

Objective personality tests

people are asked to describe themselves on paper-and-pencil tasks that have a limited number of response options and a standardized scoring system.

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