Psych Ch 11

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Motivational Concepts

instinct/evolutionary theory/perspective, drive-reduction theory, arousal theory, hierarchy of needs

instinct theory/evolutionary perspective

genetically predisposed behavior; criticized because it named behaviors but didn’t explain them

instinct

complex, fixed, unlearned behavior

drive-reduction theory

physiological need creates a drive to satisfy need (aroused, motivated state); how our "inner pushes" and "external pulls" interact;

homeostasis

physiological aim of drive-reduction; steady internal state

incentives

positive/negative stimuli that lures/repels us

arousal theory

optimum level of stimulation; ie. "sensation-seekers"

hierarchy of needs (Maslow)

some needs take priority over others; physiological needs must be met before psychological; not universally fixed

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs

1. physiological needs 2. safety needs 3. belongingness and love needs 4. esteem needs 5. self-actualization (full potential) needs 6. self-transcendence (find meaning and identity beyond the self) needs

motivations

need or desire that energizes and directs our behavior

Hunger (Effects of semi-starvation)

Keys’ semi-starvation study: need for food hijacked subconscious

The Social Effects of Obesity

stereotypes affect obese and how people treat obese; women less likely to be hired/promoted/married if overweight; depression fosters obesity, obesity contributes depression

The Sexual Response Cycle (Masters and Johnson)

four stages: 1. excitement 2. plateau 3. orgasm 4. resolution

1. excitement

engorge

2. plateau

breathing

3. orgasm

increases retention of sperm; women and men experience it in same way and in same part of brain

4. resolution

release of blood; refractory period

refractory period

resting period after orgasm; men cannot have orgasm for a few minutes after to a few days; women can be restimulated during or shortly after

External Stimuli

repeated exposure to erotica = lessening/habituation of emotional response

Teen Pregnancy

lack of birth-control-related knowledge, guilt (wish they wouldn’t have done it), use of alcohol, media promiscuity

Erotic Plasticity

varying sexuality; ie. women more likely to feel and act on bisexual attraction

Sex and Human Values

researches should state their values openly to make bias obvious and allow for debate

On the basis of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, one would be LEAST likely to predict that a

-starving person might sell his or her child to obtain food.
-teacher with high self-esteem might seek a career change to use his or her abilities more fully.
-successful business executive might show greater concern for his or her family relationships than for becoming president of his corporation.
-prisoner might choose to die rather than betray his or her country.

prisoner might choose to die rather than betray his or her country. On the basis of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, one would be LEAST likely to predict that a prisoner might choose to die rather than betray his or her country.

Ancel Keys and his colleagues observed that men on a semistarvation diet

-became apathetic and lost interest in food.
-remained interested in food but avoided talking or thinking about it.
-lost interest in sex and social activities.
-became increasingly preoccupied with political and religious issues.

lost interest in sex and social activities. Ancel Keys and his colleagues observed that men on a semistarvation diet lost interest in sex and social activities.

Given an obese parent, boys are at a(n) ________ risk for obesity and girls are at a(n) ________ risk for obesity.

increased; decreased
decreased; increased
increased; increased
decreased; decreased

increased; increased Given an obese parent, boys are at an increased risk for obesity and girls are at an increased risk for obesity.

The descriptions of orgasm written by men and women are ________, and the subcortical brain regions active in men and women during orgasm are ________.

different; similar
similar; different
different; different
similar; similar

similar; similar The descriptions of orgasm written by men and women are similar, and the subcortical brain regions active in men and women during orgasm are similar.

Ivan just spent an evening watching pornographic movies of attractive women who actually seemed to enjoy being sexually molested. This experience is most likely to lead him to

perceive himself as sexually impotent.
be more willing to hurt women.
feel unsure about his gender identity.
view sexual promiscuity as morally wrong.

be more willing to hurt women. Ivan just spent an evening watching pornographic movies of attractive women who actually seemed to enjoy being sexually molested. This experience is most likely to lead him to be more willing to hurt women.

Compared with European teens, American teens have ________ rates of contraceptive use and ________ rates of pregnancy and abortion.

lower; lower
higher; higher
lower; higher
higher; lower

lower; higher Compared with European teens, American teens have lower rates of contraceptive use and higher rates of pregnancy and abortion.

Gender differences in erotic plasticity are best illustrated by the fact that women

-have longer refractory periods than do men.
-tend to be more changeable than men in sexual orientation.
-are less likely than men to be equally aroused by male and female erotic stimuli.
-become aware of their sexual orientation much earlier in life than do men.

tend to be more changeable than men in sexual orientation. Gender differences in erotic plasticity are best illustrated by the fact that women tend to be more changeable than men in sexual orientation.

With respect to sex research and human values, the text suggests that

-sexual activity is largely a medical and biological issue, not a moral issue.
-scientific methods prevent sex researchers from being influenced by their own personal values.
-researchers should not reveal their sexual values because sexual standards are a matter of personal taste.
-sex research and education should be accompanied by open consideration of sexual values.

sex research and education should be accompanied by open consideration of sexual values. With respect to sex research and human values, the text suggests that sex research and education should be accompanied by open consideration of sexual values.

Foolish conformity to peer pressure is most likely to be motivated by ________ needs.

safety.
belongingness.
achievement.
self-actualization.

belongingness. Foolish conformity to peer pressure is most likely to be motivated by belongingness needs.

In a series of studies, research participants were informed that personality test results indicated they were the type likely to end up alone later in life. As a result, they became ________ likely to underperform on aptitude tests and ________ likely to become aggressive toward someone who had insulted them.

more; less
less; more
more; more
less; less

more; more In a series of studies, research participants were informed that personality test results indicated they were the type likely to end up alone later in life. As a result, they became more likely to underperform on aptitude tests and more likely to become aggressive toward someone who had insulted them.

Work is most likely to satisfy the higher-level needs in Maslow’s hierarchy for those who

work only part-time.
view their work as a calling.
are strongly motivated by high wages.
are supervised by managers with a directive style.

view their work as a calling. Work is most likely to satisfy the higher-level needs in Maslow’s hierarchy for those who view their work as a calling.

Flow is characterized by a ________ awareness of self and a ________ awareness of the passing of time.

heightened; diminished
diminished; heightened
heightened; heightened
diminished; diminished

diminished; diminished Flow is characterized by a diminished awareness of self and a diminished awareness of the passing of time.

Jeff, who is 14, engages in rigorous tennis drills or competitive play at least four hours every day because he wants to master the sport and play on one of the best university teams in the country. His goal and behavior best illustrate the concept of

set point.
360-degree feedback.
human factors pschology.
achievement motivation.

achievement motivation. Jeff, who is 14, engages in rigorous tennis drills or competitive play at least four hours every day because he wants to master the sport and play on one of the best university teams in the country. His goal and behavior best illustrate the concept of achievement motivation.

Which theory has been accused of simply naming rather than explaining behaviors?

drive-reduction
set point
arousal
instinct

instinct Which theory has been accused of simply naming rather than explaining behaviors? instinct

According to Maslow, our need for ________ must be met before we are preoccupied with satisfying our need for ________.

love; food
adequate clothing; self-esteem
self-actualization; friendship
political freedom; economic security

adequate clothing; self-esteem According to Maslow, our need for adequate clothing must be met before we are preoccupied with satisfying our need for self-esteem.

People become obsessed with water when thirsty and obsessed with food when hungry. This illustrates that activated motives

increase basal metabolic rate.
shorten the refractory period.
trigger a state of flow.
dominate consciousness.

dominate consciousness. People become obsessed with water when thirsty and obsessed with food when hungry. This illustrates that activated motives dominate consciousness.

Research on the physiological basis of hunger has indicated that

-there is no relationship between stomach contractions and the experience of hunger.
-hunger continues in humans whose cancerous stomachs have been removed.
-rats whose stomachs have been removed must be force-fed to prevent starvation.
-the secretion of ghrelin is reduced when the stomach is empty.

hunger continues in humans whose cancerous stomachs have been removed. Research on the physiological basis of hunger has indicated that hunger continues in humans whose cancerous stomachs have been removed.

In one experiment, professional actors played the role of either normal-weight or overweight job applicants. Research participants’ willingness to hire the applicants revealed

-no discrimination against either overweight men or overweight women.
-equal levels of discrimination against both overweight men and overweight women.
-greater discrimination against overweight men than against overweight women.
-greater discrimination against overweight women than against overweight men.

greater discrimination against overweight women than against overweight men. In one experiment, professional actors played the role of either normal-weight or overweight job applicants. Research participants’ willingness to hire the applicants revealed greater discrimination against overweight women than against overweight men.

The first stage of the sexual response cycle is

a refractory period
an excitement stage
a plateau stage
orgasm

an excitement stage The first stage of the sexual response cycle is an excitement stage.

Brain scans of people viewing erotic material reveal a more active ________ in men than in women.

thalamus
medulla
amygdala
cerebellum

amygdala Brain scans of people viewing erotic material reveal a more active amygdala in men than in women.

Many sexually active American adolescents fail to avoid pregnancy because

-low sex guilt inhibits the careful planning of contraceptive use.
-they have mistaken ideas about effective birth control methods.
-sex education courses have actually discouraged contraceptive use.
-of all these reasons.

they have mistaken ideas about effective birth control methods. Many sexually active American adolescents fail to avoid pregnancy because they have mistaken ideas about effective birth control methods.

Unlike in men, a high sex drive in women is likely to be associated with an increased same-sex attraction as well as an increased opposite-sex attraction. This best illustrates women’s greater

erotic plasticity.
refractory period.
orgasmic dysfunction.
unit bias.

erotic plasticity. Unlike in men, a high sex drive in women is likely to be associated with an increased same-sex attraction as well as an increased opposite-sex attraction. This best illustrates women’s greater erotic plasticity.

Since 1977, the percentage of Americans who agree that sexual orientation is biologically disposed has ________. Those who agree that sexual orientation is biologically disposed express ________ accepting attitudes toward homosexual people than those who disagree.

decreased; more
increased; less
decreased; less
increased; more

increased; more Since 1977, the percentage of Americans who agree that sexual orientation is biologically disposed has increased. Those who agree that sexual orientation is biologically disposed express more accepting attitudes toward homosexual people than those who disagree.

When people’s need to belong is fulfilled through close relationships, they are less likely to

commit suicide.
contract physical illness.
suffer psychological disorders.
do any of these things.

do any of these things. When people’s need to belong is fulfilled through close relationships, they are less likely to do any of these things.

Our need to belong is most clearly threatened by

cluster migration
drive reduction
ostracism
unit bias

ostracism Our need to belong is most clearly threatened by ostracism

Andrea views her work as primarily an opportunity to climb the corporate ladder in pursuit of increasingly better positions. Andrea apparently views her work as a

calling
job
contract
career

career Andrea views her work as primarily an opportunity to climb the corporate ladder in pursuit of increasingly better positions. Andrea apparently views her work as a career

After studying artists who would spend hour after hour painting or sculpting with enormous concentration, Csikszentmihalyi formulated the concept of

transformational leadership.
strengths-based selection.
360-degree feedback.
flow

flow After studying artists who would spend hour after hour painting or sculpting with enormous concentration, Csikszentmihalyi formulated the concept of

When researchers monitored the professional accomplishments of more than 1500 highly intelligent individuals, they found that the most successful were more ambitious, energetic, and persistent. This best illustrates the importance of

social leadership
360-degree feedback.
achievement motivation
leniency errors

achievement motivation When researchers monitored the professional accomplishments of more than 1500 highly intelligent individuals, they found that the most successful were more ambitious, energetic, and persistent. This best illustrates the importance of achievement motivation

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