Psych 9-12

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In basic terms, existentialism is an area of philosophy concerned with __________

the meaning of human existence

Positivists advocate __________ while non-positivists argue __________.

the governing laws of behavior; the subjective nature of existence

A phenomenological approach to personality states that

people’s perceptions and subjective realities are important and should be studied

Maslow stated that psychoanalysis and behaviorism were the first two "forces" and that __________ was the "third force."

humanism

Humanism emphasizes

all of these

The dialogue in which each person confirms the other as being unique and important is what philosopher Martin Buber called the

"I-Thou" dialogue.

The purpose of many of the encounter groups, hippie communes, and meditation seminars in the 1960s and 1970s was to

help people realize their inner potentials

Erich Fromm would argue that

love requires knowledge, effort, and experience.

According to Fromm, the most mature and healthy personality is one that

transcends everyday life and is productive, creative, respectful, and loving of others.

Which of the following provides some evidence that Fromm’s ideas might be right?

In Western countries, psychological depression has been steadily rising for the past 50 years

Rogers believed that people have an inherent tendency

toward growth

Many humanistic psychologists have deep roots in

religion

According to Rogers, a healthy person

has a broad self-concept and is open to many feelings and experiences.

For therapy to be successful, Rogers argues that the therapist must

do all of these

You are driving on the highway and a careless driver cuts you off, nearly causing a wreck. As if that were not enough, she then yells obscenities at you from her car and shakes her fist. Rogers would say that the most adaptive things for you to do would be to

acknowledge your anger but not act aggressively, instead try to be understanding and compassionate.

Rollo May sees __________ as being a fundamental aspect of human existence.

anxiety

Which of the following interventions to help people with life-threatening illnesses has its roots in existential-humanistic psychology?

support groups

According to your textbook, in the debate between B. F. Skinner and Rollo May, who was proved right?

They were both right

Self-actualization, an important component of an existentialist/humanistic approach to personality, was first proposed by

Jung

According to Maslow, self-actualized people

all of these

Which of the following is NOT characteristic of a peak experience?

There is a heightened sense of anxiety.

According to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, which must be satisfied first?

physiological needs

Maslow based his theories on the study of

well-adjusted people

The Personal Orientation Inventory (POI) was designed to assess

self-actualization.

The existentialist/humanistic approach to personality is most similar to which of the following?

psychoanalytic approaches

One major feature of the logotherapy approach is

its focus on a search for meaning in life

If you were to enter a school organized by philosopher Jean Jacques Rousseau, you would likely see

children doing all sorts of activities, each learning in his/her own way.

Philosopher Martin Buber called the dialogue in which each human confirms the other person as being of unique value:

I-Thou

According Erich Fromm, love is

an art that enables us to overcome our isolation from others but still maintain our individual integrity.

Abraham Maslow called humanistic psychology the

third force

Existentialists sometimes focus on

being-in-the-world

The idea that people’s perceptions or subjective realities are considered to be valid data for investigation is termed a _________ perspective.

phenomenological

Which approach is nondeterministic?

existential

When we are immature and alienated, the world is seen as one big breast, and we are the sucklers. This is the view of

Erich Fromm

In a society that lost cultural traditions to standardized Big Mac hamburgers, and replaced religious concerns about helping others with self-indulgent trips to visit Mickey Mouse, existential/humanists predict that people

would be susceptible to the appeals of totalitarian government.

Carl Rogers

grew up on a farm in a religious family environment.

According to Carl Rogers, a psychologically healthy person is one who

has a broad self-concept that can understand and accept many feelings and experiences.

According to an existentialist like Viktor Frankl, an existential struggle can lead to

a triumph of the human spirit.

The process by which one tends to grow spiritually and realize one’s potential is called

self-actualization

Maslow called basic biological necessities such as food, water, sex, and shelter, and the need for safety

D-needs.

In the 1960s and 1970s, which approach to personality often meant hippie communes in the woods, with encounter groups, body massage, meditation, organic health foods, and communing with nature?

existential/humanistic

Which approach to personality, as applied to the workplace, is associated with protecting humans’ relations with an unsullied, unpolluted natural eco-sphere, concern with the individual worker’s self-development, and concern with the feelings and ideas of small groups of workers?

existential/humanistic

Maslow views "higher needs" as

arising from within the individual.

Which of the below characterize an existentialist’s view of human perception?

Perception is to some degree dependent on the meaning an individual attaches to stimuli

Fromm’s view of love and society is that

none of these

Individuals who are happy are

trusting and have good relations with others.

The American Paradox refers to the discrepancy between

Americans’ material wealth and moral decline.

A new subdiscipline in psychology that focuses on creativity, hope, wisdom, and spirituality is called __________.

positive psychology

All of the following are suggestions discussed in the text for finding happiness EXCEPT

avoid situations that may lead to failure

John was offered a million-dollar contract to continue working with his company, but he turned it down, saying that he needed to find happiness another way. John said he had been feeling discontented lately and "needed to figure some things out." It is possible that John is experiencing

an existential crisis.

Psychoanalysis and behaviorism are similar in that they are both __________, while humanism is __________.

deterministic; nondeterministic

Maslow discussed sex as a(n) __________ and respect from others as a(n) __________.

physiological need; esteem need

Frankl’s approach, called __________, focuses on the search for meaning in existence.

logotherapy

During __________, time may seem to stop and the immediate environment may recede

a peak experience

Which of the following best applies to the existentialist view?

Existentialists are nondeterministic; people are not cogs in some vast machine.

Which of the follow statements best describes the humanistic perspective on personality?

People are individual, creative, spontaneous, and active beings.

Love, according to Fromm,

needs to be developed over time with humility and discipline.

Which of the following instances shows support for Fromm’s idea of existential alienation?

an increase in anxiety and depression as our society becomes more individualistic and consumerist

What two things are required for a constructive personality change to occur during psychotherapy, according to Rogers?

The therapist must demonstrate unconditional positive regard as well as experience and communicate an empathetic understanding of the person’s internal frame of reference.

According to Maslow, the push for self-actualization comes from what source?

the self, internally

In Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, what must happen so that higher needs (such as the need for self-actualization) can be met?

the lower needs must be satisfied, so that the higher needs can become important

Which of the following is a major weakness of Maslow’s perspective?

it is hard, if not impossible, to study objectively

Which of the following statements best describes positive psychology?

It is a movement that is primarily concerned with positive aspects of humans (such as creativity and hope) and less oriented toward negative aspects (such as hate and aggression)

Which of the following is a weakness in the existential-humanistic approach?

its extent of scientific verifiability

The "American Paradox" can best be described as what?

America is industrialized with ample materials humans need, yet our society faces social recession and psychological depression.

Which of the following statements best describes the central idea behind Rogers’ perspective on human development?

humans develop in a positive direction

Which of the following would be an outgrowth of the human potential movement?

Hippie communes

Which of the following statements BEST describes the term "experiencing person"?

important issues are defined by each person in the context of the total range of things the person experiences

__________ is an area of philosophy concerned with the meaning of human existence.

Existentialism

he concept that focuses on the subjective nature of existence, arguing that the self cannot exist without the world and the world cannot exist without a person or being to perceive it is called __________.

being-in-the-world

The existential concept that people’s perceptions or subjective realities are considered to be valid data for investigation is called __________.

phenomenology (phenomenological perspective)

The philosophical movement that emphasizes the personal worth of the individual and the centrality of human values is called __________.

humanism

According to Martin Buber, in the __________, each human confirms the other person as being of unique value, whereas in the utilitarian __________, a person uses others but does not value them for themselves.

I-Thou dialogue; I-It monologue

The movement in which people are encouraged to realize their inner potentials through small group meetings, self-disclosure, and introspection is called the __________.

human potential movement

The approach called __________, used by Erich Fromm, tries to reconcile the biological, driven side of human beings and the pressures of societal structure by focusing on the belief that people can rise above or transcend these forces and become spontaneous, creative, and loving.

dialectical humanism

Abraham Maslow called humanistic psychology the "__________ force" in psychology.

third

In __________ therapy, the role of the therapist is to be empathic and supportive, and reflect back the client’s own tensions and conflicts.

Rogerian

__________ is the innate process by which a person tends to grow spiritually and realize his or her potential.

Self-actualization

The idea that there is a grand design or purpose to one’s life is called __________.

teleology

__________ are those certain times in our lives when everything seem to fall into place, time seems to stand still, and a feeling of inner peace is experienced.

Peak experiences

According to Maslow, the theory that the push for development comes from inside the growing organism rather than from outside (in the external environment) is called __________.

organismic

According to Maslow’s __________ the individual’s lower needs must be largely satisfied before higher needs can become important.

hierarchy of needs

According to Maslow, physiological, safety, belonging and love, and esteem needs are all __________ needs.

deficiency

The __________ is a self-report questionnaire that instructs people to classify themselves on a number of dimensions for the various characteristics of self-actualization

Personal Orientation Inventory

A study done by Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi found that the contradictory traits in creative people produce a(n) __________ tension.

dialectical

Erich Fromm was concerned that __________ alienates us from others, nature, and ourselves.

modern society

In Hartshorne & May’s studies of honesty, it was found that

children who were honest at times were dishonest at other times.

The equation B = f(P,E) means

the person and the environment both contribute to behavior.

For Sullivan, it is most important to examine

how people feel when they have been rejected by others.

Mead’s idea of the "social self" describes the idea that

the way we see ourselves is determined from our interactions with others.

Sullivan integrated many ideas from which two individuals?

Mead and Sapir

Julian was always something of a "screw-up" in school. His grades were poor and he was suspended several times during high school for pulling pranks that his teachers didn’t find funny. His parents were pleasantly surprised, however, when he went off to college. He enjoyed his biology classes so much that he decided to become a doctor and he began getting A’s in all of his classes! His friends in college were the "intellectuals" and he spent many late nights at a local coffee house discussing politics and ethical issues related to the practice of medicine. After a successful first year, his parents were amazed to see him slip back into his slovenly habits and jokester ways when he returned home for the summer. Julian’s behavior best illustrates the ideas of which personality theorist?

Sullivan

Who coined the term "personology"?

Murray

According to Murray, __________ are internal motivations and the power of the situation is called __________.

needs; press

Murray’s measurement tool, designed to assess "thema" is called the

Thematic Apperception Test.

You arrive at a new therapist’s office and are told that you will be given several assessments in order to help the therapist understand you better. The first thing the therapist does is to show you a series of pictures and asks you to tell the "story" of what is taking place in the picture. The therapist is probably administering the

TAT.

Mischel’s basic argument (that began a great controversy) was that

knowing someone’s personality traits does not allow one to predict that person’s behavior in a particular situation

Mischel stated that correlations between personality traits and behavior were

almost always about .30 or slightly higher

What does it mean to say that two behaviors are "functionally equivalent"?

They are different behaviors, but derive from the same underlying motivation.

When comparing the correlation between personality and behavior with the correlation between situation and behavior, we find that

both the situation and the personality contribute about equally to the prediction of behavior.

Which of the following does NOT influence an individual’s ability to delay gratification?

generation

According to Mischel, encoding strategies are

the mechanisms we use to process information.

It is often easy to believe stereotypes because

we don’t see people in a wide variety of situations, so we assume they ARE the way we usually see them

In general, people tend to attribute other people’s behaviors to their personalities _______ they attribute their own behaviors to their own personality

more than

People are better at judging the personalities of others when they

know them well.

Which of the following are examples of the power of situational factors in determining behavior?

all of these

The correlation between personality and behavior is higher when

behavior is averaged across varying situations

People who are more field independent are likely to be __________ in their behaviors across situations, as compared with those that are field dependent.

more consistent

What is a longitudinal study?

a study in which people are observed and studied over significant portions of their life spans

Which of the following is not one of the types of data collected by the Blocks in their longitudinal study?

contradictory data

The study of personality across the "life course" or "life path" takes into account which of the following influences on behavior?

all of the above

The adage "You can’t teach an old dog new tricks" can be applied to a person-by-situation interaction perspective to reflect which of the concepts below?

Experience has its effect in the context of previous experiences.

Lorenz found that during a critical period, ducklings will __________ on their mother (or whoever is available).

imprint

Which of the following may affect our susceptibility to environmental influences?

circadian rhythms

It seems that small-group interactions can be categorized into which two broad dimensions?

affiliation and assertiveness

According to Loevinger, people with undeveloped egos are often

impulsive, self-protective, or conformist

Imagine a boy, whose needs for love and tenderness are not being met by his mother, and who is a Catholic growing up in a prejudiced Protestant farming community, and who has the pressures of a boy with homosexual feelings growing up in an aggressively heterosexual world

Harry Stack Sullivan.

Murray’s Needs include which one of the following

Need for Exhibition.

A "cheating personality" cannot generally be found. This is because

honesty depends so much on the situation.

Personality is the relatively enduring pattern of recurrent interpersonal situations that characterize a person’s life. This is the view of

Harry Sullivan

John recently brought his TA a box of cookies. To determine the traits relevant to this act and the meaning of this act, Funder would suggest that you would want to know

the immediate situation and John’s past behavior with TA’s

The ethological idea of "readiness," as applied to understanding the interaction of the person and the situation, implies that

that we are more affected by certain environments at certain times in our lives

The primary idea behind an interactionist perspective is that

observed behavior results from a mix of situational and dispositional causes.

The idea that the situation and personality interact

has been discussed since the 1930s at least

Sullivan’s approach to understanding personality is sometimes referred to as the

interpersonal theory of psychiatry

Mischel based his argument that personality is not a useful construct on the fact that

people’s behaviors vary across situations.

Trait relevance refers to the idea that

all traits are not equally relevant to all people.

A prospective research design

uses earlier measures to predict later outcomes

Recent research suggests that personality is most stable when people are in their

fifties

In the circumplex model , the major dimensions are

affiliation and assertiveness

From childhood to early adulthood researchers find

personality consistency is about .50

__________ looked at the combined influence of internal drives and external influences.

Murray

An important facet of Sullivan’s personality theory is which of the following concepts?

Chumship

Which of the following statements best describes the main idea behind Harry Stack Sullivan’s approach to personality?

All of these

According to Harry Stack Sullivan, the idea that a person has a fixed personality that does not vary with changes in situation is called

the Illusion of Individuality

What was the name that Murray gave to his theory of personality?

Personological System

Which two things are combined to make up Murray’s theory of personality?

Internal motivations and external demands

The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT), developed by Henry Murray, measures

Needs and Press

Walter Mischel combined which two ideas in his theory of personality to explain where behavior comes from?

Cognitive ability and societal influences

Which of the following statements best describes behavioral signatures?

Situation-behavior relationships that are typical of an individual

Which of the following is a weakness of Walter Mischel’s approach?

All of these

What is the main importance of longitudinal studies in the study of personality?

To look for consistency and change in personality over time

Which of the following is not one of the three ways that, according to the ‘cumulative continuity’ approach, the personality tends to remain stable, even though change is possible?

People display erratic behavior when physically threatened

What is the main focus of Attribution theories?

Examines the ways we draw inferences about other people’s behaviors

What is the main role of mirror neurons?

To help us feel the same emotions and experience the same states as other people, at the same time

According to Harry Stack Sullivan’s idea of __________, a preadolescent’s pals serve as a social mirror for forming his or her identity.

chumship

Harry Stack Sullivan’s __________ focuses on the recurring social situations that we face

interpersonal theory of psychiatry

The __________ is the idea that how we think of ourselves arises from our interactions with those around us.

social self

The idea that it is just an illusion to believe a person has a single, fixed personality is called the __________.

Illusion of Individuality

Henry Murray’s term for his theory of personality that emphasizes the richness of the life of each person and the dynamic nature of the individual as a complex organism responding to a specific environment is called the __________.

Personological System

According to Henry Murray, people have a variety of internal _________ that necessitate taking action in the social environment

needs

The push from situational forces, called the __________, are directional forces on a person that arise from other people or events in the environment.

environmental press

According to Murray, a typical combination of needs and presses is termed a __________.

thema

The __________ is a projective test in which a person is presented with a series of ambiguous pictures and instructed to compose a story

TAT (Thematic Apperception Test)

Delay of __________ is a specific aspect of self-control that occurs when an individual chooses to forgo an immediate reinforcer to wait for a later, better reinforcer.

gratification

The notion that behavior is caused at that moment as a function of a variety of influences is called __________.

contemporaneous causation

According to Mischel, the individual differences in the meanings people give to stimuli and reinforcements that are learned during experiences with situations and their rewards are called __________.

Strategies

Behavioral __________ are the sets of situation-behavior relationships that are typical of an individual and that contribute to the apparent consistency of an individual’s personality.

signatures

The biasing tendency for people to see certain traits as going together and to perceive consistencies when viewing the personalities of others is part of __________.

attribution theory

Theories that examine the ways in which individuals draw inferences about other people are called __________.

attribution theories

Snyder’s concept of__________ captures the notion of self-observation and self-control guided by situational cues to the social appropriateness of behavior.

self-monitoring

People with more of a __________ identity may act more independently and be unmotivated to confirm to social demands. On the other hand, we all monitor our __________ identity in response to the expectations of others to some extent.

personal/ social

__________ is the close, comprehensive, systematic, objective, sustained study of individuals over significant portions of the life span.

Longitudinal study

The extent to which individuals are likely to respond appropriately in a given situation, as a function of their prior experiences with that situation is called __________

readiness

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