Psych 7A Chapter 16

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The text defines social psychology as the scientific study of how people __ one another

think about, influence, and relate to

To analyze how people explain others’ behavior, Fritz Heider developed

attribution theory

The tendency for observers to underestimate the impact of the situtaion and to overestimate the impact of personal dispositions on another’s behavior is called

the fundamental attribution error

Recognizing the powerful impact of social influence on other’s behaviors is most likely to minimize

social facilitation

In explaining our own behavior or the behavior of those we know well, we often resort to

situational attributions

Magazine computer ads seldom feature endorsements from Hollywood stars or great athletes. Instead they offer detailed information for consumers to develop more positive opinions about the company’s products. This advertising strategy best illustrates

the central route to persuasion

The tendency for initial compliance with a small request to facilitate subsequent compliance with a larger request is known as the

foot in the door phenonmenon

In the years immediately following the introduction of school desegregation in the US and the passage of the Civil rights Acts of 1964, White Americans expressed diminishing racial prejudice. According to the text author, this best illustrated the impact of

groupthink on deindividuation

The participants in Philip Zimbardo’s simulated prison study

were so endangered by their role-playing experience that the study was discontinued

When no weapons of mass destruction were found following the US invasion of Iraq, some Americans revised their memories of the main rationale for going to war. The text author suggests that we can best explain why people changed their memories in terms of

cognitive dissonance theory

The chameleon effect involves

automatic mimicry

The text indicates that the clusters of suicides that sometimes follow a highly publicized suicide may be the result of

suggestibility

Conformity is best described as

adjusting one’s behavior or thinking toward a group standard

Solomon Asch asked people to identify which of the 3 comparison lines was identical to a standard line. His research was designed to study

conformity

In Milgram’s first study of obedience, the majority of "teachers" who were ordered to shock a "learner"

complied fully and delivered the highest level of shock

In all of Milgram’s obedience experiments, participants were deceived about

the amount of shock the victim actually received

Norman Triplett observed that adolescents wound a fishing reel faster in the presence of someone working simultaneously on the same task. This best illustrates

social facilitation

The presence of others_____ a person’s performance on well learned tasks and _____ improves a person’s performance on unmastered tasks.

improves; hinders

The tendency for people to exert less effort when they are pooling their efforts toward a common goal is known as

social loafing

Individuals who are normally law-abiding may vandalize and loot when they become part of a mob. This change in behavior is best understood in terms of

deindividuation

The NASA executive who made the final decision to launch the space shuttle Challenger was shielded from information and dissenting views that might have led to a delay of the tragic launch. This best illustrates the dangers of

groupthink

Research indicates that minorities are most influential when they

unswervingly hold to their own position

An unjustifiable and usually negative attitude toward a group and its members is called

prejudice

People may unconsciously harbor negative racial associations. This best illustrate the subtle nature of

implicit attitudes

Hostilities between the Iraqi Sunni and Shia and between Northern Ireland Protestant and Catholic illustrate the irony that sometimes the greatest dislike is expressed between groups that

are much more alike than different

A sense of social identity is most likely to promote

ingroup bias

Following 9/11, some outraged people lashed out at innocent Arab-Americans. This venting of hostility can best be explained in terms of

scapegoat theory

The just-world phenomenon often leads people to

believe that victims of misfortune deserve to suffer

Verbal behavior intended to hurt another person is an example of

aggression

After Ravi’s lost the student election of president of his high school class, he spread false rumors intended to spoil the newly chosen president’s reputation. Ravi’s behavior is best explained in terms of

frustration aggression principle

Bullying younger children earns Diego the attention and respect of many classmates. As a result, his bullying behavior increases. This most clearly suggests that his aggression is a(n)

learned response

High rates of violence are most common among those who experience minimal levels of

father care

A significant danger of media violence that is impressionable viewers are subsequently more likely to enact the ___ provided by the media

social scripts

Compared with their nonplaying counterparts, kids who play a lot of violent video games have been found to

get into more arguments and fights

An increased liking for an unfamiliar stimulus following repeated experience with it is known as

the mere exposure effect

Research on physical attractiveness indicates that men are more likely than women to

judge members of the opposite sex as more attractive if they have a youthful appearance

We are likely to prefer as friends those who are similar to us in

any of these areas

Equity and self-disclosure are important to the development of

companionate love

Altruism is best described as

behaving unselfishly to enhance the welfare of others

The presence of many bystanders at the scene of an emergency increases the likelihood that any individual bystander will

fail to interpret the incident as an emergency

Two social norms that influence altruistic behavior are

reciprocity and social responsibility

Initially prejudiced heterosexuals are likely to develop more accepting attitudes toward homosexuals following the experience of

face to face contact

After their country was ravaged by a series of earthquakes, two bitterly antagonistic political groups set aside their differences and worked cooperatively on effective disaster relief. This cooperation best illustrates the importance of

superordinate goals

Two friends quarreled over possession of a single orange without realizing that one of them simply wanted orange juice and the other simply wanted the orange peel to make a cake. This classic episode best illustrates that people sometimes fail to recognize

win win solutions

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