Psych 7A Ch. 10 Review

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When we refer to someone’s intelligence quotient as if it were a fixed and objectively real trait such as height, we commit a reasoning error called
A) Standardization
B) Factor analysis
C) Convergent thinking
D) Reification

D) reification

The ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations is known as
A) divergent thinking.
B) neural plasticity.
C) intelligence.
D) validation.

C) intelligence

The sort of problem solving that demonstrates "school smarts" is what researchers have historically assessed in their tests of
A) divergent thinking.
B) intelligence.
C) intrinsic motivation.
D) neural plasticity.

B) intelligence

Those who score above average on tests of mathematical aptitude are also likely to score above average on tests of verbal aptitude. According to Spearman, this best illustrates the importance of
A) predictive validity.
B) heritability.
C) the g factor.
D) reliability.

C) the g factor

Those who emphasize the importance of the g factor would be most likely to encourage
A) discontinuing special programs for intellectually advantaged children.
B) deriving adult intelligence test scores from the ratio of mental age to chronological age.
C) using a small standardization sample in the process of intelligence test construction.
D) quantifying intelligence with a single numerical score.

D) quantifying intelligence with a single numerical score

A statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related test items that seem to tap a common ability is called
A) standardization.
B) reliability assessment.
C) validation.
D) factor analysis.

D) factor analysis

Factor analysis has been used to assess whether
A) intelligence is determined primarily by heredity or by experience.
B) intelligence is a single trait or a collection of distinct abilities.
C) intelligence scores remain stable over the life span.
D) differences in intellectual ability exist between groups of individuals.

B) intelligence is a single trait or a collection of distinct abilities

A person who demonstrates an exceptional specific mental skill while otherwise remaining very limited in intellectual capacity is said to show signs of
A) emotional intelligence.
B) savant syndrome.
C) neural plasticity.
D) intrinsic motivation.

B) Savant syndrome

Psychological tests show that 18-year-old Isaiah has an intelligence score of 65. Nevertheless, Isaiah can, with a few seconds of mental calculation, accurately tell the day of the week on which Christmas falls for any year in this century. It would be fair to conclude that
A) the intelligence test Isaiah was given has no validity.
B) intelligence tests are generally good measures of verbal but not of mathematical intelligence.
C) Isaiah is a person with savant syndrome.
D) Isaiah excels in divergent thinking

C) Isaiah is a person with savant syndrome

People who make outstanding creative contributions to the arts or sciences are most likely to
A) be unusually sensitive to criticism of their ideas.
B) receive above-average scores on standard tests of intelligence.
C) show signs of savant syndrome.
D) be strongly motivated to attain fame and fortune.

B) receive above average scores on standard tests of intelligence

Whenever Arlo reminded himself that his musical skills could earn him fame and fortune, he became less creative in his musical performance. This best illustrates that creativity may be inhibited by
A) emotional intelligence.
B) a venturesome personality.
C) the g factor.
D) extrinsic motivation.

D) extrinsic motivation

Emotional intelligence is a critical component of
A) creativity.
B) social intelligence.
C) analytical intelligence.
D) convergent thinking

B) social intelligence

In very stressful or embarrassing situations, Sanura is able to maintain her poise and help others to feel comfortable. Sanura’s ability best illustrates the value of
A) extrinsic motivation.
B) heritability.
C) divergent thinking.
D) emotional intelligence

D) emotional intelligence

One component of emotional intelligence involves
A) the ability to completely forget emotionally traumatic experiences.
B) a lack of concern about receiving social approval.
C) predicting accurately when feelings are about to change.
D) selectively focusing attention on positive thoughts and feelings.

D) selectively focusing attention on positive thoughts and feelings

Environmental stimulation during childhood often contributes to the development of intelligence by altering the circuitry of the brain. This alteration illustrates
A) the Flynn effect.
B) divergent thinking.
C) heritability.
D) neural plasticity.

D) neural plasticity

Encouraging those of high intellectual ability to mate with one another was of most interest to
A) Alfred Binet.
B) Charles Spearman.
C) David Wechsler.
D) Francis Galton.

D) Francis Galton

The French government commissioned Binet to develop an intelligence test that would
A) demonstrate the innate intellectual superiority of western European races.
B) effectively distinguish between practical and creative intelligence.
C) provide an objective measure of teaching effectiveness in the public school system.
D) reduce the need to rely on teachers’ subjectively biased judgments of students’ learning potential

D) reduce the need to rely on teachers’ subjectively biased judgments of students’ learning potential

Intelligence tests were initially designed by Binet and Simon to assess
A) academic aptitude.
B) divergent thinking.
C) emotional intelligence.
D) savant syndrome

A) academic aptitude

In developing a test of intellectual ability for Parisian schoolchildren, Binet and Simon assumed that
A) the test would measure capacities that were determined by heredity and thus unalterable.
B) the test would yield an intelligence quotient consisting of chronological age divided by mental age multiplied by 100.
C) a bright child would perform like a normal child of an older age.
D) measures of physical and sensory skills would be good predictors of school achievement

C) a bright child would perform like a normal child of an older age

Binet used the term mental age to refer to
A) the average chronological age of children who completed a particular grade in school.
B) the years of formal education successfully completed by a child.
C) the total number of items correctly answered on an intelligence test divided by the respondent’s chronological age.
D) the chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of intelligence test performance.

D) The chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of intelligence test performance

Binet’s recommendation of "mental orthopedics" highlighted the potential role of ________ in intellectual ability. Terman’s sympathy with "eugenics" highlighted the potential role of ________ in intellectual ability.
A) brain size; neural plasticity
C) intrinsic motivation; extrinsic motivation
B) convergent thinking; divergent thinking
D) educational training; biological inheritance

D) educational training; biological inheritance

A 6-year-old who responded to the original Stanford-Binet with the proficiency typical of an average 8-year-old was said to have an IQ of
A) 75.
B) 85.
C) 125.
D) 133.

D) 133

The original IQ formula would be LEAST appropriate for representing the intelligence test performance of
A) kindergartners.
B) grade school students.
C) middle school students.
D) university students.

D) University students

A survey of the history of intelligence testing reinforces the important lesson that
A) although science strives for objectivity, scientists can be influenced by their personal biases.
B) the experiment is the most powerful tool available for examining cause-effect relationships.
C) different theoretical perspectives on behavior may be complementary rather than competing.
D) scientists are more concerned with the development of theory than with its practical application

A) Although science strives for objectivity, scientists can be influenced by their personal biases

Aptitude tests are specifically designed to
A) predict ability to learn a new skill.
B) compare an individual’s abilities with those of highly successful people.
C) assess learned knowledge or skills.
D) assess the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas.

A) predict ability to learn a new skill

Molly has just taken a test of her capacity to learn to be a computer programmer. This is an example of an ________ test.
A) applied intelligence
B) achievement
C) interest
D) aptitude

D) aptitude

Tests designed to assess what a person has learned are called ________ tests.
A) factor analysis
B) aptitude
C) standardized
D) achievement

D) achievement

The final exam in a calculus course would be an example of a(n) ________ test.
A) aptitude
B) achievement
C) standardized
D) general intelligence

B) achievement

The test that provides separate verbal comprehension, perceptual organization, working memory, and processing speed scores, as well as an overall intelligence score, is the
A) WAIS.
B) Stanford-Binet.
C) SAT.
D) Emotional Intelligence Test.

B) Stanford-Binet

When a person’s test performance can be compared with that of a representative and pretested sample of people, the test is said to be
A) reliable.
B) standardized.
C) valid.
D) normally distributed

B) standardized

Dr. Zimmer has designed a test to measure golfers’ knowledge of their sport’s history. To interpret scores on it, he is presently administering the test to a representative sample of all golfers. Dr. Zimmer is clearly in the process of
A) establishing the test’s validity.
C) standardizing the test.
B) conducting a factor analysis of the test.
D) establishing the test’s reliability.

C) standardizing the test

A bell-shaped curve that characterizes a large sample of intelligence test scores is a graphic representation of a
A) factor analysis.
B) normal distribution.
C) heritability estimate.
D) g factor

B) normal distribution

The widespread improvement in intelligence test performance during the past century is called
A) the bell curve.
B) divergent thinking.
C) the g factor.
D) the Flynn effect

D) the Flynn effect

The Flynn effect is LEAST likely to be explained in terms of
A) changes in human genetic characteristics.
C) reductions in family size.
B) increasing educational opportunities.
D) improvements in infant nutrition

A) changes in human genetic characteristics

A test is reliable if it
A) measures what it claims to measure or predicts what it is supposed to predict.
B) yields dependably consistent scores.
C) has been standardized on a representative sample of all those who are likely to take the test.
D) produces a normal distribution of scores.

B) yields dependably consistent scores

Researchers assess the correlation between scores obtained on alternate forms of the same test in order to measure the ________ of the test.
A) content validity
B) predictive validity
C) normal distribution
D) reliability

D) reliability

A test has a high degree of validity if it
A) measures or predicts what it is supposed to measure or predict.
B) yields consistent results every time it is used.
C) produces a normal distribution of scores.
D) has been standardized on a representative sample of all those who are likely to take the test.

A) measures or predicts what it is supposed to measure or predict

After learning about his low score on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Gunter complained, "I don’t believe that test is a measure of intelligence at all." Gunter’s statement is equivalent to saying that the WAIS lacks
A) standardization.
B) reliability.
C) validity.
D) a normal distribution.

C) validity

If both depressed and nondepressed individuals receive similar scores on a diagnostic test for depression, it suggests that the test
A) has not been standardized.
B) is not valid.
C) is not reliable.
D) has not been factor-analyzed.

B) is not valid

The Wilsons note that their 6-month-old daughter Beth seems to be developing more slowly and is not as playful as other infants her age. Research suggests that
A) Beth’s intelligence score will be below average in childhood but not necessarily in adulthood.
B) Beth’s intelligence score will be below average in both childhood and adulthood.
C) casual observation of Beth’s behavior cannot be used to predict her later intelligence score.
D) Beth’s performance intelligence score but not necessarily her verbal intelligence score will be below average in both childhood and adulthood.

C) casual observation of Beth’s behavior cannot be used to predict her later intelligence score

The stability of children’s intelligence test scores over time is most positively correlated with their
A) chronological age.
B) mental age.
C) intrinsic motivation.
D) extrinsic motivation.

A) chronological age

When Ian Deary and his colleagues retested 80-year-old Scots, using an intelligence test they had taken as 11-year-olds, the correlation of their scores across seven decades was
A) -.16.
B) +.06.
C) +.16.
D) +.66.

D) +.66

Terman observed that children with IQ scores over 135 are likely to
A) be athletically uncoordinated.
C) lack intrinsic motivation.
B) be academically successful.
D) have all of these characteristics

B) be academically successful

Educational programs for gifted children are most likely to be criticized for
A) assuming that intelligence test scores can predict children’s academic success.
B) underestimating the extent to which a g factor underlies success in a wide variety of tasks.
C) encouraging the segregation and academic tracking of intellectually advantaged students.
D) overemphasizing the genetic determinants of giftedness.

C) encouraging the segregation and academic tracking of intellectually advantaged students

Research on the determinants of intelligence indicates that
A) concern over the nature-nurture issue has declined significantly during the past 10 years.
B) both genes and environment have some influence on intelligence scores.
C) there are no scientific methods for answering the nature-nurture question for a particular range of individuals or situations.
D) there is no relationship between people’s position on the nature-nurture issue and their social or political attitudes.

B) both genes and environment have some influence on intelligence scores

Twin and adoption studies are helpful for assessing the ________ of intelligence.
A) validity
B) reliability
C) heritability
D) standardization

C) heritability

The impact of early environmental influences on intelligence is most apparent among young children who experience
A) stereotype threat.
B) savant syndrome.
C) the Mozart effect.
D) minimal interaction with caregivers.

D) minimal interaction with caregivers

Research indicates that Head Start programs
A) fail to produce even short-term improvements in participants’ mental skills.
B) contribute to dramatic long-term gains in participants’ intelligence test scores.
C) increase the school readiness of children from disadvantaged home environments.
D) are beneficial only to participants from very intellectually stimulating home environments.

C) increases the school reediness of children from disadvantaged home environments

On which of the following tasks are females most likely to perform as well or better than males?
A) playing checkers
B) reciting poetry
C) playing video games
D) copying geometric designs

B) reciting poetry

On which of the following tasks are males most likely to outperform females?
A) speed-reading
C) learning a foreign language
B) interpreting literature
D) mentally rotating three-dimensional objects

D) mentally rotating 3D objects

Experts who defend intelligence tests against accusations of racial bias note that racial differences in intelligence test scores
A) have increased in the past decade despite the introduction of less culturally biased test items.
B) occur on nonverbal as well as verbal intelligence test subscales.
C) are a clear indication that the heritability of intelligence approaches 100 percent.
D) are just as significant as intelligence differences among members of a single race.

B) occur on nonverbal as well as verbal intelligence test subscales

Self-fulfilling expectations are most likely to be triggered by
A) the Flynn effect.
B) factor analysis.
C) savant syndrome.
D) stereotype threat.

D) stereotype threat

Blacks have been found to score lower on tests of verbal aptitude when tested by Whites than when tested by Blacks. This best illustrates the impact of
A) standardization.
B) emotional intelligence.
C) stereotype threat.
D) the Flynn effect

C) stereotype threat

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