Psych

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In what percentage of households in the United States do women earn as much as their husbands?

50%

According to psychologist Robert Sternberg, the three components of love include all of the following EXCEPT

companionate love, where strong affection is apparent with people whose lives are deeply involved.

Fewer than ____ of disabled people finish high school. Fewer than ____ of disabled men and ____ of disabled women are employed full time.

10%; 25%; 15%

According to Robert Sternberg, when two people enjoy each other’s company and their relationship but no longer feel much sexual interest for the other, it is called

companionate love

In which of the following countries of cohabitation the norm?

Sweden

Marlene aced her previous math quizzes and tests, and now she is getting ready for her end-of-semester math final. Which of the following is she LEAST likely to experience with regard to stress?

She is likely to feel overwhelmed that she must now demonstrate again her know ledge of math material

Schaie believed that when young adults apply their intelligence to attain long-term goals and confront and resolve major issues such as what job to take, whom to marry, etc., they are using an operation in the

achieving stage

Which of the following developed countries has the highest murder rate?

United States

which of the following reflects a secure attachment style?

someone who finds it easy to get close to others and is comfortable depending on them

In Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence, the componential aspects of intelligence deals with

analysis of data to solve problems, using previously learned information.

According to Robert Sternberg, infatuated love develops when when only _________ is present.

passion

Research suggests that children raised in households in which parents are homosexual

show no differences in eventual adjustment

What percentage of marriages in the United States remain intact?

50%

Combining réponses or ideas in novel ways defines

creativity

Medical problems caused by the interaction of psychological, emotional, and physical difficulties are called

psychosomatic disorders

In the 1930s, 70% of Americans who were polled reported that the ideal number of children to have was _________. In the 1990s, Americans who were polled reported that the ideal number of children to have is _____________________________________________.

3 or more; no more than two, although three or more is ideal if money is no object.

Which of the following is NOT considered a psychosomatic disorder?

Cancer

The landmark legislation that mandates full access for people in wheelchairs to public establishments such as stores, office buildings, hotels, and theaters is called the

Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)

The effort to control, reduce, or learn to tolerate the threats that lead to stress is called

coping

All of the following are reasons why young adults choose to marry EXCEPT

marriage offers a guaranteed commitment to both parties

Which of the following is a reason for the decline in the fertility rate?

women joining the workforce

Many people who have normal weight for their height young adulthood put on weight as they age because

they never learn to adjust/reduce their caloric intake as they age

The term for body weight that is 20% or more above the average weight for a person of a given height is called

obesity

According to Schaie, what is the mission of the late stages of early adulthood through middle adulthood?

responsibility

Regular exercise is related to all of the following EXCEPT

increased physical injuries

When Bobby was 8 years old, he was sure he wanted to grow up to be a fireman. But just a year later, Bobby told everybody that when he grew up he wanted to be an astronaut. Still, a couple of years passed, and when he was around 11 years old he changed his mind again and wanted to be a professional basketball player. According to Ginzberg, Bobby is in the

fantasy period

Jayne is having difficulty finding adequate, affordable daycare for her child while she is at work. Instead of focusing on the negative, she looks at the bright side and realizes that at least she has a good job in a tight economy. Jayne is utilizing

Emotion-focused coping

In what culture do men rank good health more important in marriage than love?

China

Psychologist Robert Sternberg proposed a theory that intelligence is made up of three major components: componential, experiential, and contextual, which he called the

triarchic theory of intelligence

Molly is a 27-year-old female who looks years older than her actual age. She lives a high-risk lifestyle that includes regular use of alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drugs, and she has never exercised regularly. Molly’s behavioral choices have likely brought about

secondary aging

According to Robert Sternberg, when two people decide to move in together after knowing each other for only two weeks, this is called

fatuous love

Psychologist Robert Sternberg suggests that love requires a more complex explanation and is made up of

three components

According to Erikson, if a person in his/her 30s is unable to resolve the intimacy-versus-isolation stage, he/she is most likely to demonstrate all of the following characteristics EXCEPT

the ability to build relationships with others

What is most likely reason for the dramatic decrease in the number of children in the average American family?

the availability and use of effective contraceptives

According to the text, which of the following components of Sternberg’s theory of intelligence has come to be called "practical intelligence"?

contextual intelligence

According to psychologist Jan Sinnot, postformal thought also takes into account all of the following EXCEPT

that usually a person cannot reach the postformal thought process without first establishing Piaget’s formal operations.

Evidence suggests that ______________ is the most useful measure for comparing and predicting adult success.

contextual intelligence

Which is the most likely cause of death for African Americans?

Murder

What percentage of gay men and lesbian women are parents?

20%

Which of the following is an example of the avoid ant attachment style?

people who are uncomfortable being close to others

Skills that underline the accurate assessment, evaluation, expression, and regulation of feeling are referred to as

emotional intelligence

When a person exhibits success facing everyday, real-world demands, such as those found in on-the-job professional demands, Sternberg’s theory of intelligence would suggest that that person is demonstrating

contextual intelligence

Occupations that are associated with getting things accomplished are called

agentic

___________ is referred to as "the silent addiction" because it doesn’t receive the same attention as other addictive behaviors.

Gambling

Assistance and comfort provided to a person dealing with a stressful situations known as

social support

According to Schaie, the stage in which people in middle adulthood may become involved in town government, service clubs, charitable groups, unions and organizations, where they have a larger purpose in society and can look beyond their individual/family situations is called

executive stage

According to Robert Sternberg, empty love develops when only _________ is present.

decision/commitment

According to psychologist John Holland’s research, the greater the correspondence between career choices and _____________, the happier people will be in their choice.

personality traits

Stella and Anthony have been happily married for 22 years, and they still enjoy an active sex life and participate in many activities together. Psychologist Robert Sternberg would call their relationship

consummate love

What was a conclusion developed by John Holland in his personality type theory?

Certain personality types match well with certain careers

Psychoneuroimmunology suggests that when a stressful situation is encountered several biological reactions occur, including all of the following except

lightheadedness or unconscious episodes.

According to John Holland’s personality type theory, people who are associated with good verbal and interpersonal relationship skills are described as

social

Information that is gathered before we grow up and stored away for future use (e.g., education during childhood and adolescence) is an example of what developmental psychologist K. Warner Schaie calls

acquisitive stage

Women today make up ____% of the U.S. labor force.

55

What is the name for the new field of study that researches the relationship among the brain, immune system, and psychological factors with regard to stress-related events?

psychoneuroimmunology

According to psychologist Bernard Murstein, the second stage of his stimulus-value-role (SVR) is based on

similar interests and values within the second to the seventh encounter

According to George Vaillants longitudinal research study of male Harvard graduates, all of the following usually occur when a man is in his late 20s and early 30s EXCEPT

he fulfills obligations to his parents

According to Robert Sternberg, when two people have a "fling" or short-term relationship based only on sexual attraction, this is called

infatuated love.

According to Schaie, what is the stage that many (but not all) people enter further into middle adulthood?

executive

Which body part continues to exhibit growth both in size and weight during early adulthood?

brain

How well people handle stress is an interplay between

physical and psychological factors

A personality characteristic associated with lower rate of stress-related illness is known as

hardiness

Brenda owns a small bookstore that also serves as an art gallery for her artwork and that of some of her friends. While this business may never make Brenda wealthy, she admits that it has been her dream since she was an art student in college. Brenda appears to be motivated by

intrinsic motivation

The motivation that causes people to work for their own enjoyment, not just for the financial rewards that work may bring, is called

intrinsic motivation

When did the fertility rate peak in the United States?

after WWII, when each woman had 3.7 children

According to research by psychologist William Perry, students entering Harvard University tended to have a view of the world where they reasoned that something was good or bad, people were good or bad, and others were either for them or against them. He called this

dualistic thinking

Jerome and Alice have been married for 15 years, and their marriage is strained with bickering and unhappiness. Still, they are not considering a divorce because they have an 8-year-old son whom they both love deeply. Psychologist Robert Sternberg would call their relationship

empty love

In sternbergs’s theory of intelligence, the contextual aspect of intelligence deals with

how intelligence is used to face real-world demands (i.e., practical intelligence).

According to developmental psychologist K. Warner Schaie, the period of late adulthood during which the focus is on tasks that have personal meaning is called

reintegrative stage

The term for a condition that substantially limits a major life activity such as walking or vision is a

disability

Traditional intelligence tests, such as those used in psychoeducational evaluations in schools, usually focus on which of Sternberg’s aspects of intelligence

componential intelligence

According to psychologist Bernard Murstein, his stimulus-value-role (SVR) has

3 stages

The average age of POSSLQs is between ___ and____

25; 30

According to Robert Sternberg, companionate love develops when _________ is (are) present.

intimacy and decision/commitment

According to Sternberg, the relationship between intelligence, people’s prior experience, and their ability to cope with new situations is called

experiential intelligence

According to Schaie, what is the mission of young adulthood?

achievement

According to Schaie, old age marks a period in which people no longer focus on acquiring knowledge to solve potential problems, but rather focus on acquiring information directed toward issues of personal interest. He calls this stage

reintegrative stage

According to John Holland’s personality type theory, people who are down-to-earth, practical problem solvers, and physically strong but have mediocre social skills are best described as

realistic

According to Robert Sternberg, when two people are living in an arranged marriage or a couple has decided to stay together "for the sake of the children," this is called

empty love

__________ is the tendency to marry someone who is similar in age, race, education, and religion.

homogamy

Acoording to research reported in the text, which country has the least divorce?

Italy

Which of the following psychologists developed the "seasons of life" theory, where men in their early 40s are in a period of transition and crisis?

Levinson

Which of the following are more apt to be involved with their grand children

African American grandparents

According to the U. S. Census, the multigenerational household has increased more than a third between 1990 and 2000, and represents ____% of all households in America.

4

Research indicates that stress can produce direct physiological effects such as all of the following EXCEPT

psychological disorders

The loss of near vision in middle adulthood is referred to as

presbyopia

Men and women can reduce the risk of osteoporosis by having a diet high is calcium and

getting regular exercise

All of the following may be contributing factors to why a higher percentage of second marriages end in divorce EXCEPT

the empty nest syndrome

All of the following are considered reasons why marriages unravel in Western society EXCEPT

the benefits of marriage, such as economic, sexual, health, social support, and financial (such as tax advantages), no longer exist

The "silent killer" refers to

hypertension

Globally speaking, __________ women throughout the world experience some form of violent victimization during their lives.

1 in 3

All are contributing factors to child abuse EXCEPT

multigenerational families living in the same house

Mary looks at the phone number of her favorite pizza restaurant for a few seconds, and then walks into the other room to call to order. Mary remembers the phone number in its correct sequence. Mary is taking advantage of

short-term memory

In which parts of the body would Sam likely lose strength during middle adulthood?

back and leg muscles

Which of the following is NOT a problem facing men sexually during middle adulthood?

endurance decreases

What approach to personality development is based on fairly universal stages tied to a sequence of age-related crises?

normative-crisis models

At what age do men typically experience climacteric?

50

According to developmental psychologist K. Warner Schaie, numeric ability tends to increase until the

mid-40s, is lower at age 60, and then stays steady.

George is experiencing back pain. His doctor tells him the bones attached to his spinal column have become less dense. The doctor is referring to the

settling process

One reason why brain functioning begins to change in middle adulthood is that

researchers have found that 20 genes that are vital to learning, memory, and mental flexibility begin to function less efficiently as early as age 40.

When developmentalists looked at the two kinds of intelligence, fluid and crystallized, to determine if intelligence continues to grow, slow, or decline with age, they determined that

fluid intelligence does decline; however, crystallized intelligence holds steady and can improve

José is beginning to lose the ability to detect fine spatial detail in close and distant objects. Which of the following terms refers to his condition?

loss of visual acuity

What was 2009 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force proposal regarding routine

Women in their 40s should not routinely have mammograms, and that women between the ages of 50 and 74 should have mammograms every two years.

At what age does the "settling" process begin with regard to height?

55

Approximately how many people who divorce will remarry again, usually within 2 to 5 years?

three-quarters

Which two developmental psychologists believed that a person’s personality is quite stable and continuous throughout one’s lifetime?

Costa and McCrae

Certain chronic illnesses begin to appear during middle adulthood. Which of the following would Not be considered a chronic illness typically occurring during this time

impotence

Which disorder tends to appear during middle adulthood?

hypertension

Research indicates that stress can produce indirect health-realted behaviors such as all of the following EXCEPT

increased and habitual risk-taking behaviors

Which of the following groups is particularly susceptible to glaucoma

African Americans

Which of the following developmental psychologists believed that between the ages of 45 and 55 is important regarding "keeping the meaning" versus rigidity?

Vaillant

All of the following are considered reason marriages unravel in Western society EXCEPT

he benefits of marriage, such as economic, sexual, health, social support, and financial (such as tax advantages), no longer exist.

All of the following are factors that contribute to the phenomenon called the "sandwich generation" EXCEPT

middle-aged people earn more than both their children and their parents.

According to developmental psychologist K. Warner Schaie, numeric ability tends to increase until the

mid-40s, is lower at age 60, and then stays steady.

When reviewing findings across cultures, which of the following of the "Big Five" major clusters of personality traits/characteristics increase to a degree from early adulthood through middle age?

agreeableness and conscientiousness

Joan is 45 years old and her body temperature sometimes feels too hot. During these episodes, her skin looks red, she begins to sweat, and then she feels chills. Joan is experiencing

"hot flashes."

Which of the following of the "Big Five" major clusters of personality traits/characteristics pertains to the degree to which a person is organized and responsible?

conscientiousness

According to one analysis, every time the unemployment rate goes up 1%, there is a ____% rise in suicides.

4

Critics who argue that immigrants lack the technical knowledge to contribute to the U.S. economy fail to see some fundamental aspects of immigrant success, including all of the following EXCEP

most immigrants eventually marry into native

Intelligence that reflects information processing capabilities, reasoning, and memory is called

fluid intelligence

Which of the following memory skills show decline in middle age?

long=term memory only

Based on longitudinal studies, a different developmental pattern for intelligence was revealed that showed all of the following EXCEPT

adults’ intelligence significantly slowed around their mid-30s.

Tomasina finds herself holding books and newspapers further from her eyes in order to read and bring material into focus. Her eye exam reveals she has

presbyopia

According to Gould’s stages of development, which stage is associated with the period of urgency to attain life’s goals, the awareness of time limitations, and the realignment of life’s goals?

stage 5

According to Erikson, if a middle-aged person is focused on the triviality of his/her own activities and not on being involved with family and society, he/she is likely to experience all of the following EXCEPT

satisfaction and inner-peace

"Involved" grandparents usually are all of the following EXCEPT

they act as supporters and buddies to their grandchildren

Which of the following people is most likely to experience feelings of loneliness and increased physical and mental health problems?

divorced men in general

When a person carries out multiple activities simultaneously, this is called

polyphasic activities

When a situation occurs where a highly trained professional experiences dissatisfaction, disillusionment, frustration, and weariness from his/her job, this is called

burnout

In which of the following families is incest most likely to occur

families of affluent socioeconomic levels

Approximately how many hours per week does the average middle-aged person spend socializing?

6

When young adults return after leaving home for some period to live in the home of their middle-aged parents, this is called

boomerang children

If Larry is taught new information about an elephant, which is a large animal, he will benefit from using ___________ about other large animals to store that new information so he can retrieve that information when he needs it.

schemas

All of the following "Big Five" major clusters of personality traits/characteristics decline somewhat from early adulthood through middle adulthood EXCEPT

agreeableness

Which of the following is NOT an acceptable treatment for cancer

holistic therapy

Which of the following is one of the most frequent causes of eye problems that can result in blinds in middle adulthood?

glaucoma

John has been gaining weight during middle adulthood. He feels fine and exercises, but still gains weight. John’s weight gain is attributed to

the amount of body fat that begins to grow with age

Using memory skills such as getting better organized, paying attention, using visualization strategies, and rehearsing information for later retrieval are all considered

mnemonic strategies

Which of the following is NOT a reason that menopause is important?

Sexuality declines at a rapid rate

"Remote" grandparents usually are all of the following EXCEPT

hold clear expectations about the way their grandchildren behave

Most research regarding marital satisfaction

substantiates the "U-shaped" pattern where marital satisfaction is high at the beginning, drops down around the birth of children, and then gradually rises back to its original high level.

Dr. Johnson is lecturing to a group of medical students. Her lecture focuses on the period beginning around 10 years prior to menopause when hormone production begins to change. She is discussing

perimenopause

What percentage of people between the ages of 45 and 65 suffer from presbycusis

12%

Which of the following of the "Big Five" major clusters of personality traits/characteristics pertains to the degree to which a person is moody, anxious, and self-critical?

neuroticism

Erik Erikson suggested that middle adulthood encompasses a period he characterized as ________________ ,where a person is, or is not, making a contribution to family and community.

generativity-versus-stagnation stage

In the model of aging for high-caste Hindu women from the Oriya culture in Orissa, India, which of the following brings about a significant alteration in social responsibility?

the change from daughter to daughter-in-law

In stark contrast to the majority of immigrants in the beginning of the 20th century, the majority of recent immigrants are

not Caucasian

Certain chronic illnesses begin to appear during middle adulthood. Which of the following would NOT be considered a chronic illness typically occurring during this time?

impotence

According to developmental psychologist K. Warner Schaie, verbal ability rises until about the start of the _______ and stays fairly steady throughout life.

40s

The initial, momentary storage of information that lasts only an instant, and is raw and meaningless, is called

sensory memory

Approximately how many hours per week does a middle-aged person watch television?

15

Research indicates that stress can produce harmful behaviors such as all of the following EXCEPT

increased addictive behavior for sex, gambling, and shopping

Kaitlyn and Sam have agreed to participate in marriage counseling. They have been married for five years and report they have become bored with their marriage. Initially, what can the marriage therapist tell them regarding the "ups and downs" of marriage?

Marital satisfaction begins to decline just after marriage and it continues to fall until it reaches its lowest point following the birth of children.

All of the following are common symptoms of menopause EXCEPT

fainting

All of the following are considered factors that affect job satisfaction for middle-aged workers EXCEPT

recognition and approval

Winona is a 22-year-old new mother, and Anna is a 38-year-old new mother. According to Ravenna Helson’s theory, the ____________, both of these women may experience similar psychological forces based upon their shared experience of being a new mother regardless of their ages.

life events models

Which of the following plays a major factor in reducing and preventing weight gain during middle adulthood?

lifestyle changes

According to Levinson, people around the age of 40-45 move into a period/time of questioning called ________ and focus on the finite nature of life where they begin to question everyday fundamental assumptions.

midlife transition

What are organized bodies of information stored in memory that help people represent the way the world is organized and allow them to categorize and interpret new information?

schemas

What primary thing can middle-aged people do to improve their memory that takes relatively little effort?

pay greater attention to particular things

The model of aging for high-caste Hindu women from the Oriya culture in Orissa, India, consists of all of the following EXCEPT

physical changes such as the onset of menstruation and its cessation at menopause.

All of the following are reasons why middle-aged adults are involved in fewer automobile accidents than younger people EXCEPT

the slowing of reaction time helps middle-aged adults avoid accidents.

Research indicates that stress can produce indirect health-related behaviors such as all of the following EXCEPT

increased and habitual risk-taking behaviors

Which of the following is NOT a reason why men and women cite satisfaction with their marriage?

They state that their spouse has sex with them as often as they want

Alice is a 52-year-old typist working in the same law firm as 28-year-old Juliet. Both are considered excellent at their job, even though Alice is older and has some delay in her reaction time. What is it that permits Alice to perform her job the same as Juliet?

Alice has developed selective optimization whereby she can look further into the material to compensate for her typing time

What are the odds that a woman will get divorced from her first marriage by the time she is 40 years old?

1 in 8

According to anthropologist Richard Shweder, high-caste Hindu women from the Oriya culture in Orissa, India, view their life course in all of the following ways EXCEPT

on the basis of ongoing chronological age

The process by which people concentrate on particular skill areas to compensate for losses in other areas is called

selective optimization

A group of highly athletic people in their early 50s are meeting with a developmental specialist to discuss the changes of middle age. Self-image becomes the major topic of discussion, and the group asks the specialist to discuss self-image issues in middle adulthood. What could the specialist tell the group?

Middle-aged adults whose self-image is tied to their physical attributes may find the changes of middle adulthood particularly challenging as they face the signs of aging.

U.S. residents born outside the United States represent about ____% of the population, which is nearly two times the percentage in 1970.

10

Along with genetic characteristics, which of the following is NOT considered a contributor to heart and circulatory disease?

intellectual ability

At what age does visual acuity begin to decline?

40

Which country in the world has the fastest pace of living?

Switzerland

When discussing marital aggression, all of the following are stages that the couple goes through EXCEPT

the fight-or-flight stage

By what age have most people lost, on average, 10% of their maximum strength?

60

Which of the following has become a stereotypical emblem of middle adulthood?

reading glasses

What was the 2009 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force proposal regarding routine mammograms?

Women in their 40s should not routinely have mammograms, and that women between the ages of 50 and 74 should have mammograms every two years.

By age 60, what percentage of strength is lost in most people?

10%

What percentage of women experience no significant symptoms of menopause?

50%

What is the term for the strategy where people are most likely to recall information in environments that are similar to those in which they initially learned it?

encoding specificity phenomenon

When information in memory is held for 15 to 25 seconds, it is called

short-term memory

Sue’s bones have become brittle, fragile, and thin. Her doctor tells her she has

osteoporosis

the cessation of menstruation is know as

menopause

For men, the period of physical and psychological change in the reproductive system is referred to as

male climacteric

Middle-aged people who lose their jobs may be discriminated against when trying to find a new job, which is not only illegal, but based on misguided assumptions. All of the following statements are true about middle-aged workers EXCEPT

older workers lack sufficient technological skills, and are unable to learn new skills.

According to Robert Butler, what triggers a life review?

obvious prospect of one’s death

The ego-integrity-versus-despair stage of psychosocial development is characterized by a process of

looking back over one’s life, evaluating it, and coming to terms with it.

Approximately how many people over the age of 60 experience elder abuse each year?

2 million

In which of the following countries are the elderly likely to show less memory loss?

China

The relationship between environmental factors and intellectual skills suggests that with the proper stimulation, practice, and motivation, older people can maintain their mental abilities, or __________

plasticity

72-year-old Angelo is demonstrating the following symptoms: serious memory loss, lessened intellectual ability, and impaired judgment. What diagnosis is Angelo likely to receive from his doctor?

dementia

_________ is assistance and comfort supplied by a network of caring, interested people.

Social support

Daniel Levinson discusses a transition stage people pass through when entering late adulthood and they realize that they are

old

Which of the following stages for adjusting to widowhood includes accepting one’s loss, reorganizing roles, and forming new friendships?

adaptation

What is the most likely reason for the involvement of African American grandfathers with their grandchildren?

African Americans have more multigenerational families than Caucasian American families, and grandparents play a role in childrearing.

The process by which people concentrate on selected skill areas to compensate for losses in other areas is called

selective optimization

All of the following are considered a group or part of functional age EXCEPT

young

Memory changes in old age are explained by three of the following factors. Which of the following is NOT one of those factors?

poor nutrition, inadequate diet, and inadequate vitamin and supplement intake

Mollie has been retired for 10 years and is 71 years old. She is having a conversation with her daughter and she is discussing plans to do different things with each of her grandchildren. According to Robert Peck, Mollie is in what developmental stage?

redefinition of self versus preoccupation with work role

Which of the following stages of retirement means that retirees reconsider their options and become engaged in new, more fulfilling activities?

reorientation

Which of the following may soon be considered an incentive to hiring the elderly?

baby boomers are retiring, so the workforce is shrinking

What percentage of African Americans in late adulthood live below the poverty level?

24%

Which of the following is NOT considered an age-related change in the physical apparatus of an elderly person’s eye?

The elderly are less able to distinguish colors

Short-term memory slips gradually until _______, when the decline becomes more pronounced.

age 70

Frederick is living in a specialized living environment where all residents are of retirement age and in need of some level of care. Frederick is in a(n)

continuing-care community

Memories that are related to unconscious information, such as how to ride a bike or boil water, are called

implicit memories

Which of the following can assist in conflict resolution when elderly people live with their children?

establishing ground rules regarding roles

When pleasant memories are more likely to be recalled than unpleasant memories, this is called

the Pollyanna principle

Which of the theories promotes the idea based on the survival of the species that a long life after the reproductive years is unnecessary?

genetic programming theories of aging

Bernice Neugarten examined

different ways people cope with aging

What is the term for the part of the protective area(s) or tip of the DNA that grow(s) shorter every time the cell divides?

telomeres

Which of the following aspects of memory loss involving information processing deficits has received the most research support?

Memory declines are due to changes in the ability to pay attention to and organize tasks involving memory skills.

Which of the following is the definition of "young old"?

healthy and active

Wilma is a 65-year-old woman who has chronic pulmonary disease, osteoporosis, and recently suffered a stroke. Which of the following best describes Wilma’s functional age?

oldest old

Which of the following stages for adjusting to widowhood relates to the immediate reaction to the death of a spouse including shock, pain of loss, grief, and reality testing?

grief and mourning

The theories that the mechanical functions of the body simply wear out with age are called the

wear-and-tear theories

Some people contemplate their lives and realize they are dissatisfied. They realize missed opportunities have passed and they have not accomplished what they wished. These individuals experience

despair

Which of the following people is most likely to show the symptoms of dementia?

85-year-old African American

George is beginning to look back on his life and evaluate it. Which stage describes what George is attempting to accomplish?

ego integrity versus despair

Whether an old person is ill or healthy, their health depends on all of the following EXCEPT

cognitive capabilities.

Which of the theories promotes the existence of a "death gene" that is programmed to direct the body to deteriorate and die?

genetic programming theories of aging

What percentage of people in late adulthood live in homes that are some kind of specialized environment?

10%

The theory that processing in all parts of the nervous system, including the brain, is less efficient is called

generalized slowing hypothesis.

What percentage of adults over the age of 75 have some degree of hearing loss?

50%

What is the name for the protein that forms the basic fibers of body tissue?

collagen

Memories from one’s own life are called

autobiographical memories

When the production of the protein beta amyloid precursor protein, which normally produces neurons, goes awry and produces clumps of cells that trigger inflammation and deterioration of nerve cells, this is called

Alzheimer’s disease.

Pedro is age 65 and was married for 42 years. His children are concerned because their mother died over 3 years ago but their father continues in unrelenting grief. Their father cannot seem to let go of the loss of his spouse. He has intrusive memories that impede normal functioning. Pedro is experiencing

complicated grief.

All of the following are reasons why friendships are more highly valued by older people in late adulthood than family relationships EXCEPT

new friendships require much less time and effort than maintaining family ties.

Which of the following reflects Robert Peck’s view of the first task in old age?

People must redefine themselves in a manner not relating to their work roles.

Which of the following stages of retirement means that retirees come to grips with the realities of retirement and feel fulfilled with the new phase of life?

retirement routine

In which of the following cultures/societies would ageism most likely be seen?

Western/United States

What is the major task to be accomplished in the body-transcendence-versus-body-preoccupation stage?

learning to cope with and move beyond physical changes

Which of the following is NOT related to the prevention and/or treatment of osteoporosis in women?

bone marrow replacement therapy

The physical or psychological mistreatment or neglect of elderly individuals is called

elder abuse

Memories that are related to general facts, such as the names of the capitals of states or addition facts, are called

semantic memories.

Changes in physical functioning that are due to illness, health habits, and other individual differences, but which are not due to increased age itself and are not inevitable are called

secondary aging

Which of the following professions was exempted from laws prohibiting a mandatory retirement age?

public safety

Which of the following statements regarding personality throughout adulthood is true?

Profound changes in social environments can produce fluctuations.

In the final stage of Alzheimer’s disease, people

lose voluntary control of their muscles and are bedridden.

What is a source of financial vulnerability for people in late adulthood?

reliance on fixed income

Which if the following is NOT true regarding brain development and aging?

The structure, function, and number of neurons in the brain are significantly reduced.

Jamil has been diagnosed with terminal cancer and has been given six months to live. He and his family are starting to come to grips with his impending death. What developmental task is he facing?

ego transcendence versus ego preoccupation role

According to parents’ responses in a research study, what is the least important way that children should behave toward their elderly parents?

living close to the parent

Which of the following best describes the meaning of "functional age"?

physical and psychological well-being

All of the following contribute to a person getting osteoporosis EXCEPT

improper posture throughout life.

When an elderly person demonstrates difficulty with multi-step verbal information that is presented quickly, the person is exhibiting problems with _________ memory.

short-term

Elderly people experience a decline in their taste and smell sensitivity because of all of the following EXCEPT

they use too much salt on their food.

K. Warner Schaie has employed an ongoing study of intelligence in older people using the _________ research method.

sequential studies

Renee is 67 years old and is in the hospital because she broke her hip. She will need extensive physical therapy for two months. Which of the following is the proper facility to provide care for her?

skilled nursing

What percentage of people age 75 to 84 live in nursing homes?

4.4%

How does a person experience ego transcendence?

seeing their contributions lasting beyond their own lives

One out of every ____ people in the United States is 65 years of age or older.

8

Children’s responsibility in perpetuating an older parent’s views, beliefs, values, and standards is called ________, and is responsible for parents wanting closer bonds with their children

developmental stake

Which vision disease, if diagnosed early, can be treated with medication, lasers, and in some cases, a diet rich in antioxidant vitamins?

age-related macular degeneration (AMD

According to Daniel Levinson, at which of the following ages might a person be entering into late adulthood by passing through a transition stage?

63

Alzheimer’s patients make up _______ of the people living in nursing homes.

two-thirds

What is the term for a progressive brain disorder that produces loss of memory and confusion?

Alzheimer’s disease

Donepezil (Aricept), galantamine (Razadyne), rivastigmine (Exelon), and tacrine (Cognex) are among the common drugs prescribed to treat

Alzheimer’s disease.

All of the following are stages in Robert Peck’s developmental tasks EXCEPT

ego integrity versus despair.

Which of the following is NOT one of the biological factors associated with declines in memory in older people?

information processing deficits

Pedro is age 65 and was married for 42 years. His children are concerned because their mother died over 3 years ago but their father continues in unrelenting grief. Their father cannot seem to let go of the loss of his spouse. He has intrusive memories that impede normal functioning. Pedro is experiencing

complicated grief

Which of the following theories focuses on a gradual withdrawal from the world on physical, social, and psychological levels?

disengagement theory

Which of the following is the term for when pressure in the fluid of the eye increases either because it cannot be drained properly or too much fluid is produced?

glaucoma

All of the following are reasons for why life expectancy has continued to rise for the world’s population EXCEPT

major alterations in the human genetic code

What percentage of women living on their own in late adulthood live on an income below the poverty line?

25%

All of the following reflect internal changes due to aging EXCEPT

the reduction in gray matter makes the aging brain less efficient

What percentage of people over the age of 65 show some symptoms of a psychological disorder?

15% to 25%

What percentage of women outlive their husbands?

70%

Approximately how many deaths are a result of Alzheimer’s disease annually in the United States?

100,000

The notion that the nerves that branch out from the spinal cord and brain become less efficient with age is called

peripheral slowing hypothesis.

Children’s responsibility in perpetuating an older parent’s views, beliefs, values, and standards is called ________, and is responsible for parents wanting closer bonds with their children.

developmental stake

What is the term for the average age of death for members of a population?

life expectancy

What type of facility provides extensive care?

skilled nursing

Which of the following stages of retirement means that retirees engage in a variety of activities, such as travel, that were previously hindered by working full time?

honeymoon

When a cell’s _________ has/have just about disappeared, the cell stops replicating, making it susceptible to damage and producing signs of aging.

telomeres

Which of the theories promotes the idea based on the survival of the species that a long life after the reproductive years is unnecessary?

genetic programming theories of aging

All of the following are true about the change in relationships after retirement EXCEPT

women typically desire greater companionship

What percentage of adults between the ages of 65 and 74 have some degree of hearing loss?

30%

All of the following are reasons why great-grandparents do not have close relationships with their great-grandchildren EXCEPT

great-grandparents lack interest in being involved in raising great-grandchildren and, therefore, they don’t build relationships.

According to parents’ responses in a research study, what is the most important way that children should behave toward their elderly parents?

discuss matters of importance

Because the elderly begin to lose their sensitivity to taste and smell, they begin to do all of the following EXCEPT

eat more, because they don’t remember what they ate

Research indicates that the fastest-growing segment of the population is the

oldest old

Accumulating knowledge, experience, and contemplation is referred to as

wisdom

Learned helplessness is a belief that

one has no control over one’s environment

What are the two major factors that determine whether or not an elderly person can engage in sexual activity?

good physical and mental health, and previous sexual activity

The goal of professionals such as social services workers is to help senior citizens extend their

active life spans

According to surveys conducted in the United States, almost ________ of people 65 years old and older rate their health as good, very good, or excellent.

three-quarters

The theory suggesting that people need to maintain their desired level of involvement in society in order to maximize their sense of well-being and self-esteem is called

continuity theory

According to children’s responses in a research study, what is the most important way that children should behave toward their elderly parents?

help them understand resources

Renee is 67 years old and is in the hospital because she broke her hip. She will need extensive physical therapy for two months. Which of the following is the proper facility to provide care for her?

skilled nursing

What is the age of the onset of late adulthood?

65

What is a category of by-product that is produced in the body and has been related to aging?

free radicals

According to Paul Costa and Robert McCrae, the "Big Five" personality traits

appear stable across adulthood

What are the theories of aging that argue that the body’s constant manufacturing of energy creates by-products, which combine with toxins such as radiation, chemical exposure, accidents, and disease, and eventually reach such high levels that they impair the body’s ability to function normally?

wear-and-tear theories

Thinking about "old age" and associating it with nursing homes is a

stereotype

What factor led to the development of the activity theory?

lack of support for the disengagement theory

Sophia is a 98-year-old woman who still lives independently, has no major illnesses, and is able to take daily walks to the local grocery store. Which of the following best describes Sophia’s functional age?

young old

Which of the following is a term for prejudice and discrimination directed at older people?

ageism

When does research suggest that a man is most likely to leave his wife for a younger woman?

soon after the man retires and is in psychological turmoil

The theory suggesting that overall processing speed declines in the peripheral nervous system with increasing age is called

peripheral slowing hypothesis

The notion that processing in all parts of the nervous system, including the brain, slow down with age is called

generalized slowing hypothesis

Which model of successful aging was developed by Paul and Margret Baltes and focuses on the assumption that late adulthood brings changes and losses in underlying capabilities that vary from person to person?

selective optimization with compensation

The researcher Timothy Salthouse suggests that if people are mentally active all of their lives they enter late adulthood with

a "cognitive reserve" that allows them to continue to perform at a relatively high mental level

Hannah is a strict parent and does not recall that she herself got drunk at her senior prom, which does not "fit" with the way she currently views herself. This is an example of

the Pollyanna principle

What statement is true regarding financial issues in late adulthood?

Social inequities that various socioeconomic groups experience magnify with increasing age.

Amad does not need continued care. However, he does receive care during the day in the form of meals and medications. What type of facility does Amad attend?

adult day-care

What percentage of people 85 and older have Alzheimer’s disease?

50%

The process of adjusting to widowhood encompasses all of the following stages EXCEPT

regret

Research shows that ________ declines with age, while ________ remains steady and sometimes improves.

fluid intelligence; crystallized intelligence

Older people spend what percentage of their income on health care?

20%

Which of the following is the term for cloudy or opaque areas on the lens of the eye that interfere with the passing of light?

cataracts

Memories that are related to specific life experiences, such as recalling the events of a vacation, are called

episodic memories

Which of the following is NOT a factor in keeping older women from marrying or remarrying?

There is less social stigma toward the lesbian lifestyle

Which of the following stages of retirement means that retirees feel that retirement is not all that they thought it would be, and they may miss the stimulation of a job or find that it’s difficult to keep busy?

disenchantment

What percentage of children live within a 30-minute drive of their parents?

75%

Which of the following is NOT a benefit of a life review?

reviving old wounds

Researchers have known for some time that obesity in middle age is associated with an increase risk of cognitive decline in late adulthood. What are other findings researchers have discovered with regard to brain size, cognitive decline, and certain health problems?

Diabetes and high blood pressure are associated with brain shrinkage and cognitive decline.

Evidence supporting the genetic programming theories of aging comes from research showing that when human cells are permitted to divide in the laboratory, they can do so successfully only around ____ times.

50

Which of the following countries supports and has legalized assisted suicide performed by physicians?

Netherlands

Margaret is a 58-year-old-woman who has smoked almost all of her life, and now she has just been given a diagnosis of terminal lung cancer by her physician. Margaret is devastated and begins to go to church and pray regularly. Her prayers consist of promising to quit smoking and devoting the rest of her life to the good of other people if she receives a reprieve from God. According to Kübler-Ross, which of the five stages of death and dying is Margaret exhibiting?

third stage

In the final stage of grief, people tend to

reach the accommodation stage where they pick up the pieces of their lives and construct new identities

The main purpose of hospice care is:

to provide a warm, supportive environment for the dying and help make life as full as possible

Which of the following is NOT included in the survivor’s first stage of grief?

anger

All of the following are circumstances when brain activity may be measured to determine death EXCEPT

when a person has requested this in his/her living will

At what age do children develop a concept of death?

5

According to Kübler-Ross, what is the fourth step people pass through as they move toward death?

depression

When medical staff act to end a person’s life before death would normally occur, this is called

voluntary active euthanasia

In early adulthood, the leading cause of death is

accidents

One survey of nurses in intensive care units found that ____% of nurses had deliberately hastened a patient’s death at least once.

20

What method of death for children ages 1 through 9 has nearly tripled since 1960?

homicides

In middle adulthood, the leading cause of death is

life-threatening diseases

According to Kübler-Ross, when dying people feel sadness over future losses, know that death will bring an end to their relationships, know they will never see future generations, know death is inescapable, and experience a profound sadness over the unalterable conclusion of their life, this is called

preparatory depression

Who was the famous doctor in the 1990s who developed the "suicide machine"?

Jack Kevorkian

Which individual has had the greatest influence in our understanding of the way people confront death?

Kübler-Ross

When electrical brain waves have ceased, this is called

brain death

Although one-third of patients ask not to be resuscitated, ___________ of these people’s physicians state that they know of their patients’ preferences.

less than half

A diagnosis of death based on the cessation of all signs of brain activity, as measured by electrical brain waves, is called

brain death

In the second stage of grief, people tend to

fully experience grief and acknowledge the reality that the separation from the dead person is permanent

According to Kübler-Ross, when dying people are fully aware that death is impending, are unemotional and uncommunicative, and have virtually no positive or negative feelings about the present or future, this is called

acceptance

The practice of assisting people who are terminally ill to die more quickly is called

eutanasia

The most frequent cause of death of adolescents is

accidents

A significant drop in performance in cognitive areas such as memory and reading may

foreshadow death within the next few years

The main purpose of hospice care is

to provide a warm, supportive environment for the dying and help make life as full as possible.

According to Kübler-Ross, what is the final step of the five-step process of dying?

acceptance

All of the following are frequent causes of death among adolescents EXCEPT

drug overdose

What do the letters "DNR" on a patient’s medical chart mean?

"Do Not Resuscitate"

What is the occurrence in adolescents where they tend not to think that death can happen to them, and, therefore, they get involved in risky behavior(s)?

personal fable

The suicide rate for men in late adulthood

climbs steadily, especially for men over the age of 85.

According to Kübler-Ross, what is the first step people pass through as they move toward death?

denial

Some medical experts argue that a person who suffers irreversible brain damage, who is in a coma, and who will never experience anything approaching a human life

can be considered dead

By the end of early adulthood, the most common reason for death is

disease

At what age are fears about death the greatest?

middle adulthood

The emotional response to one’s loss is called

grief

Gloria is an 85-year-old woman who has a long history of strokes that have debilitated her and left her bed-ridden. She has now just experienced another stroke and she knows her death is impending. She has no emotional reaction to this occurrence; however, she wants to be left alone. According to Kübler-Ross, it is likely that Gloria is experiencing which of the five stages of death and dying?

acceptance

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) usually occurs in babies ages

from 2 to 4 months

All of the following are reasons why people overspend at funerals EXCEPT

complexities of governmental regulations related to burying the dead.

According to Kübler-Ross, what is the second step people pass through as they move toward death?

anger

What is the most frequent cause of death during childhood?

automobile accidents, fires, and drowning

Research contradicts the common assumption that depression after the death of a loved one is widespread; only _________% of people show relatively deep depression following the loss of a loved one.

5 to 10

Which state in the United States passed a "right to die law" in 1998?

Oregon

For most people facing death in early adulthood, which of the following is NOT important?

becoming involved in risky behavior

When a respirator or other medical equipment that is sustaining a patient’s life is removed, this is known as

passive euthanasia

The acceleration of decline in cognitive functioning related to impending death is called

terminal decline

The acknowledgement of the objective fact that one has experienced a death is called

bereavement

According to Kübler-Ross, what is the third step people pass through as they move toward death?

bargaining

An alternative to hospitalization in which dying people stay in their homes and receive treatment from their families and visiting medical staff is called

home care

Which of the following lies between passive euthanasia and voluntary active euthanasia?

assisted suicide

All of the following are reasons identified in your textbook why elderly men commit suicide except

loss of employment

According to Kübler-Ross, sadness based on events that have already occurred is called

reactive depression

What are the most likely causes of death in late adulthood?

cancer, stroke, and heart disease

What is another term for euthanasia?

mercy killing

What is the percentage of patient charts that reflect the individual’s wishes not to be resuscitated?

49%

In which of the following legal documents is the healthcare proxy authorized?

durable power of attorney

What percentage of people who die in the United States each year die in hospitals?

50%

The absence of a heartbeat and breathing is called

functional death.

Sammy is a 72-year-old man who has had several strokes, has lost his speech, use of his right hand, and is no longer ambulatory. Because of other complications, his doctor has informed him that he will never be able to return home, will most likely live out his remaining days in a nursing facility, and then possibly a hospice. If Sammy shows signs of profound sadness, Kübler-Ross’s theory would view it as

reactive depression

The average funeral in the United States costs

$7,000

By what age do children accept death as universal and final?

9

Psychiatrist Elisabeth Kübler-Ross developed a theory of death and dying that involves _____ steps?

5

The legal document designating what medical treatments people want or do not want if they cannot express their wishes is called a

living well

People who study death and dying are called

thanatologists

According to Kübler-Ross, when people protest and have objections to either learning about their impending death, or the manner of their impending death, this is called

denial

Alex is a 5-year-old preschool student whose hamster just died. All of the following are common reactions to the hamster’s death that Alex may demonstrate EXCEPT

Alex would want to bury the hamster because he realizes that it will never come back to life.

All of the following are considered forms of "death education" except

death education for people and families with pets

A person may be resuscitated and suffer little damage if his/her heart has stopped beating and breathing has stopped for _______ minutes.

5

The definition of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) is

the unexplained death of a seemingly healthy baby

According to theorist Charles Corr, people who are dying face a set of psychological tasks that include all of the following except

financially preparing for the security of loved ones

The care provided for the dying in institutions devoted to those who are terminally ill is called

hospice care.

What is the most frequent cause of death in middle adulthood?

heart attack or stroke

How many other countries in the world have a lower infant mortality rate for the first year of life than the United States?

35

If cancer, stroke, and heart disease were eliminated, demographers estimate that life of an average 70-year-old would be extended approximately

7 years

The __________ ________ suggests that keys to understanding development are observable actions and outside stimuli in the environment.

behavioral perspective

The device where a computer constructs an image of the brain by combining thousands of individual x-rays taken at slightly different angles is called a(n) _________.

CAT scan

Researchers conduct an experiment in which one group is exposed to Treatment A and the other group is exposed to Treatment B. The treatments are the

independent variable

What is the term that means a broad explanation and prediction about phenomena of interest?

theory

In a study of the behavioral adjustment of a group of children placed in foster care, the children were assessed once a year over a period of 10 years. This is an example of a ______ study.

longitudinal

The concept of "reciprocal transaction" is attributed to which developmentalist and theory?

Vygotsky; sociocultural

Freud believed that the _________ contains infantile wishes, desires, demands, and needs that are hidden from conscious awareness because they are disturbing.

unconscious

What approach examines cognitive development through the lens of brain processes?

cognitive neuroscience

Jose and Maria are preparing for the arrival of their first child, and are considering moving from their small rural town to a larger city to gain access to more social services, better schools, and a greater variety of local newspapers and television stations. This is an example of which of Bronfenbrenner’s five levels?

exosystem

A specific time during development when a particular event has its greatest consequences and the presence of certain kinds of environmental stimuli is necessary for development to proceed normally is called

critical period

Broad, organized explanations and predictions concerning phenomena of interest are called _________________ and provide a framework for understanding the relationships among an unorganized set of facts or principles.

theories

What is the type of research in which people of different ages are compared at the same point in time?

cross-sectional

________ development involves the ways that growth and change in intellectual capabilities influence a person’s behavior.

Cognitive

Biological and environmental influences that are similar for individuals in a particular age group, regardless of where they are raised, are called ______influences.

age-graded

Which theory emphasizes how cognitive development proceeds as a result of social interactions between members of a culture?

sociocultural

In order to learn about children’s toy preferences, researchers interview children at a local preschool and base their inferences on the children’s responses. This is an example of _______ research.

survey

In ____________, each stage is _______________.

discontinuous change; distinct.

Early developmentalists focused their attention on

infancy and adolescence

Development that occurs in distinct steps or stages, with each stage bringing about behavior that is assumed to be qualitatively different from behavior at earlier stages is called _________ change.

discontinuous

The ________ is Freud’s representation of incorporating the distinction between right and wrong.

superego

__________ focuses on the processes that allow people to know, understand, and think about the world.

The cognitive perspective

Who was one of the first to recognize, acknowledge the importance of, and help us understand the importance of culture’s influence on development?

Vygotsky

While it is natural to wonder which perspective on development provides the most accurate question this is not an appropriate question for several reasons. Which of the following reasons is not identified in the text?

All perspectives emphasize similar aspects of development so they are equivalent

_________ development involves the way in which individuals’ interactions with others and their social relationships grow, change and remain stable over the course of life.

Social

Who wrote the groundbreaking work titled On the Origin of Species and is responsible for the birth of the evolutionary perspective?

Darwin

Suri identifies with her mother as a role model. She has passed through Freud’s _______ stage of psychosexual development.

phallic

Walter is a college student who is about to graduate from college. At what age would he say a substantial change is occurring in his life?

when he leaves college and enters the workforce at age 22

The concept of race is exceedingly imprecise for all of the following reasons EXCEPT

names can best reflect different races and ethnic groups.

What approach builds on Piaget’s research, and views cognition as made up of different types of individual skills, while using terminology from information processing approaches?

neo-piagetian

According to the textbook, which statement best reflects how many researchers view development?

occurring throughout the lifespan

Erikson argued that each of his stages presents a(n) ________ that the individual must resolve.

crisis

Which of Bronfenbrenner’s levels addresses the everyday, immediate environment in which children lead their daily lives?

microsystem

What type of evidence is based on careful, systematic procedures?

scientific

A form of learning in which a voluntary response is strengthened or weakened by its association with positive or negative consequences is called

operant conditioning

In ___________, development is ________, with achievements at one level building on those of previous levels.

continuous change; gradual

Freud proposed a theory that suggests that unconscious forces act to influence personality and behavior. This is called the ______ perspective.

psychoanalytic

The vast majority of lifespan development focuses on

human development

What is the method of research borrowed from the field of anthropology and used to investigate cultural questions?

ethnography

A student reads a flyer on the campus bulletin board that says a researcher is searching for students to volunteer for a long-term study. Participation includes completing testing that measures traits such as temperament, attitudes, and adaptability, as well as being available for follow-up for the next 10 years. The researcher who is developing this study is most likely interested in ___________ development

personality

_______ development is the field of study that examines patterns of growth, change, and stability in behavior that occur throughout the entire lifespan.

lifespan

Researchers conduct an experiment in which one group is exposed to Treatment A and the other group is exposed to Treatment B. If the group exposed to Treatment A is designated as the treatment group, the group exposed to Treatment B is the

control group

Which form of the behavioral perspective learning styles has come to a predominant position in recent decades and is based on learning through imitation?

social-cognitive theory

______ _______ is a formal technique for promoting the frequency of desirable behaviors and decreasing the incidence of unwanted ones.

Behavior modification

According to classical and operant conditioning, with their "black box" analyses, people and other organisms’ behavior and learning are understood in terms of ________, _______ stimuli.

observable; external

Researchers who are interested in the relationship between televised aggression and subsequent behavior have found that children who watch a good deal of televised aggression (murders, crime shows, shootings, etc.) tend to be more aggressive than those who watch little of this type of television programming. This is an example of a(n) ____________ study.

correlational

Which perspective seeks to identify behavior that is the result of our genetic inheritance from our ancestors?

evolutionary

What is the perspective that suggests that different levels of the environment simultaneously influence individuals?

bioecological approach

__________ is an example of a biological universal event that occurs at relatively the same time throughout all societies.

puberty

Which of the Bronfenbrenner’s five levels represents the larger cultural influences on an individual?

macrosystem

Adults demonstrating excessive activities such as eating, talking, or chewing gum may be experiencing a(n) __________ fixation.

oral

If a developmental researcher is studying what the earliest memories that can be recalled from infancy are, or what the intellectual consequences of watching television are, in what developmental area is the researcher interested?

cognitive

Behavior modification depends upon what principle?

operant conditioning

In an experiment, the ________ is what researchers measure and expect to change as a result of manipulation.

dependent variable

A lifespan developmentalist whose topical focus is the body’s makeup is interested in _____ development.

physical

Race is what kind of a concept?

biological

The procedure that experimenters need to use to make sure that participants in both the treatment and control groups are not aware of the purpose of the experiment is known as the

random assignment

Advocates of the __________ perspective believe that much of behavior is motivated by inner forces, memories, and conflicts of which a person has little awareness or control.

psychodynamic

If a researcher was interested in learning how children’s moral development changes between the ages of 3 and 5, the researcher may follow them until they are 5, testing them periodically. This research strategy is known as _________ research.

longitudinal

What is the observation of a naturally occurring behavior, without intervention in the situation?

naturalistic observation

"Nature" refers to

traits, abilities and capacities inherited from parents.

Which developmental approach looks at cognitive development through the lens of brain processes by considering internal mental processes focused on the neurological activity that underlies thinking, problem solving, and cognitive behavior?

cognitive neuroscience

Which period is considered a social construction and does not have a clear-cut boundary?

middle adulthood ends with retirement

When the behavior of one or more study participants is measured as they age, this is called ________ research.

longitudinal

Professor Smythe wants to conduct a study in a virtual charter school. She wants to examine and describe the comparative differences on cognitive development in students attending the virtual charter school with students attending more traditional schools. Ultimately, she plans to describe what, if any, changes are occurring, and why the changes create social difficulty. This is an example of what type of research?

qualitative

When discussing developmental diversity, what characteristic of good parenting do Mayan mothers consider essential?

constant contact between themselves and their infant children

Who is considered the predominant theorist in cognitive development?

Piaget

Approximately how many babies have been born through in vitro fertilization (IVF)?

1.5 million

What did Piaget call the process in which changes occur in the existing way a child thinks in response to encounters with new stimuli or events?

accommodation

As Warren looks back over his long life, he feels a sense of unity in his life’s accomplishments. He can be said to be in Erikson’s ________ stage of psychosocial development.

ego-integrity vs. despair

Which perspective considers the relationship between individuals and their physical, cognitive, personality, and social worlds?

contextual

What technique ensures that personal characteristics that might affect the outcome of the experiment are divided proportionally among the participants in the different groups, making groups equivalent?

random assignment

Researchers in the early learning department of a university are conducting a long-term study to see how problem-solving skills change over time as school-age students move from elementary school to high school to college. What type of development are the researchers most likely studying?

cognitive

What issue has dominated much work in lifespan development?

How much of people’s behavior is due to their genetically-determined nature and how much is due to nurture?

Piaget’s two basic principles of growth in children’s understanding of the world are

assimilation and accommodation

Which developmental psychologist developed an approach that emphasizes learning by observing the behavior of another person, called a model?

Bandura

If the focus of a research study is to examine the ways in which college professors can help students remember information more easily, such a study would represent ________ research.

applied

If a child develops into a person who integrates into society and maintains a good awareness of safety, Freud may say that person has a well-developed

ego.

The approach stating that behavior is motivated by inner forces, memories, and conflicts that are generally beyond peoples’ awareness and control is called the

psychodynamic perspective

In the language of operant conditioning, behavior that receives no reinforcement or is punished is likely to be

extinguished

Genetically-determined traits not only directly influence a child’s ______, but also indirectly shape the child’s _________.

behavior; environment

To Freud, "superego" and ________ are interchangeable terms.

conscience

A _______ is a prediction stated in a way that permits it to be tested.

hypothesis

Operant conditioning was formulated and championed by

skinner

Judy was bitten by a small brown and white dog when she was a little girl, and now every time she sees a small dog approaching her, she is fearful. Watson would say that Judy’s reaction is a result of _________ conditioning.

classical

What is the method of research that involves extensive, in-depth interviews with a particular individual or small group of individuals?

case study

What kind of research investigation is conducted in a controlled setting explicitly designed to hold events constant?

laboratory study

The concept of childhood as a special period did not exist during the ________ century.

seventeenth

Ralph watches the other kindergarten students receive stickers and other rewards from the teacher for sitting at their desks and completing their work. Soon, Ralph begins to behave like the other kindergarten students. This is what type of learning?

modeling

Lifespan development spans a range of interests that specialists in development can consider. Which of the following areas could possibly be an area of interest?

Investigating behavior at the level of biological processes to determine whether the mother’s functioning before birth was affected by her conception outside the womb.

What type of developmental approach is cutting edge and at the forefront of research when working with genes associated with mental health disorders such as autism and schizophrenia?

cognitive neuroscience

Which type of research study is a compromise technique that essentially examines a number of different age groups at several points in time, and permits developmental researchers to tease out the consequences of age change versus age difference?

sequential

What type of research is designed to provide practical solutions to immediate problems?

applied

_________ is(are) a theory of how human thinking is organized into mental patterns that represent behaviors and actions.

Schemes

An information processing approach that builds on Piaget’s research is known as _______ theory because it considers cognition as made up of different types of individual skills.

neo-Piagetian

In Western culture, what age is considered young adulthood?

20

A type of learning in which an organism responds in a particular way to a neutral stimulus that normally does not bring about that type of response is called

classical conditioning

The predetermined unfolding of genetic information is known as

maturation

In _________ research, the researcher can tell if an association or relationship between two factors exists.

correlational

Which approach to development suggests that there are five levels of the environment that simultaneously influence individuals?

Bronfenbrenner’s bioecological approach

A researcher working with college-age football players is conducting a longitudinal study to examine an athlete’s decline in physical performance as the athlete ages. What type of development would the researcher most likely be studying?

physical

________ development involves the ways that the enduring characteristics that differentiate one person from another change over the life span.

Personality

Sigmund Freud is responsible for revolutionary ideas and the __________ theory.

psychoanalytic

Which theorist(s) championed the idea of self-actualization?

Rogers and Maslow

Social-cognitive learning theorists argue that the difference between people and animals is the occurrence of

mental activity

In its study of growth, change, and stability, lifespan development takes a(n) ______ approach.

infancy and adolescence

Environmental influences that shape behavior are referred to as

nurture

Freud believed that the goal of the pleasure principle was to

maximize satisfaction and reduce tension.

Erikson’s theory differs from Freud’s in that Erikson believed that development

continues throughout the life span

Freud believed that if children are unable to gratify themselves in a particular stage of development, or if they are over-gratified in a particular stage of development, ______ may occur.

fixation

Which aspect(s) of development are NOT adequately addressed by the information-processing approach?

creativity and social/cultural development

In an experiment where researchers manipulate the ______, the variable that the researchers measure to see if it changes is the ______.

independent variable; dependent variable

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