Psych 335 Final Exam Questions CHAP 11

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In addition to partial paralysis after a stroke, Mr. V. showed a loss of

understanding of the long-term implications of his stroke

The text author asserts that ________ have key consequences for survival and reproduction.

emotional behaviors

The major components of an emotional response include

behavior, autonomic activity, and hormonal secretions.

The autonomic component of an emotional response functions to
a. mobilize energy for vigorous movement.

mobilize energy for vigorous movement

Which of the following is a key function of the hormonal secretions that accompany an emotion?

formation of glucose within the muscles

Most of the research on emotions has focused on

anger and fear.

The emotional components that comprise fear are integrated by neurons within the

amygdala.

Damage to the ________ would be expected to disrupt the integration of fear.

amygdala

Neurons within the amygdala are activated by

detection of emotionally relevant stimuli.

The amygdala is

located within the temporal lobes.

The ________ amygdaloid nucleus is important for the expression of emotional responses to aversive stimuli

central

Behavioral, autonomic, and hormonal emotional responses are elicited by activation of the

central nucleus of the amygdala.

Based on the evidence cited in your text, which brain region would be considered as a key target for pharmacological modification to provide relief for a person suffering from overly intense emotional reactions?

the central nucleus of the amygdala

Infusion of excitatory amino acid glutamate into the central nucleus of the amygdala of a rat would be expected to elicit

behavioral signs of fear.

Inactivation of the central amygdaloid nucleus results in

reduced blood levels of stress hormones

Exposure to ________ will automatically produce a fear reaction in most species

loud unexpected noises

Infusion of ________ into the central nucleus of the amygdala would be expected to promote fear and agitation.

glutamate

In experiments by LeDoux and others on classically conditioned emotional responses in rats, the unconditional emotional response is elicited by

foot shock.

n experiments on classically conditioned emotional responses in rats, the conditioned stimulus is

a loud tone.

Rats previously exposed to a tone followed by a brief intense electrical shock will show ________ when subsequently exposed to the tone (without shock).

behavioral arrest (freezing)

A species-typical defensive response for a rat would include

freezing of motor movements

The expression of emotional responses is inhibited by inputs from the

ventromedial prefrontal cortex

Humans report fear upon electrical stimulation of the

amygdala.

Some careers involve daily exposure to dangerous situations, which can lead to emotional burnout. A person with damage to the amygdala would have a selective advantage for

high-wire artist working on the 4th of July in a rainstorm

Alzheimer’s disease patients who show degeneration of the ________ are more likely to forget emotionally traumatic events such as the Kobe earthquake in 1995.

amygdala

formal definition of aggressive behaviors

includes those behaviors involved in predation.

Which of the following is true of threat behaviors?

Threat behaviors resolve conflicts without hurting the involved organisms.

________ involves an attack by one animal on a member of another species in order to eat them.

Predation

Which of the following distinguishes predation from most types of aggression?

The aim of a predatory attack is to kill and consume a food source

The drug ________ would be expected to inhibit aggression

fluoxetine (Prozac

Elevated brain levels of the transmitter ________ function to inhibit aggression

serotonin

Electrical stimulation of the ventral periaqueductal gray matter in the cat can produce

predatory behavior

Electrical stimulation of the dorsal periaqueductal gray matter in the cat produces

defensive rage behavior

Imagine that all members of your class have been tested to determine the level of the serotonin metabolite 5-HIAA in their cerebrospinal fluid. Which of the following would you predict using this information?

Male classmates with low 5-HIAA levels are unlikely to be alive ten years from now.

The text author suggests that serotonin exerts a controlling effect on

risky behaviors.

A human male who has a long record of assault, arson, and murder would be expected to show ________ levels of ________ in his cerebrospinal fluid.

d. reduced; 5-HIAA

In the chapter vignette on violence and aggression, Steve

received a life sentence in prison.

Twin studies suggest a major role for ________ in antisocial behavior.

genetics

Phineas Gage, who was injured when a steel rod was accidentally driven through his skull, exhibited capricious, emotional behavior (in part) as a result of widespread damage to his

ventromedial prefrontal cortex.

Recent research suggests that emotions may play the most important role in the formation of

moral judgments

Functional imaging studies of the brain during decision-making suggest that personal moral dilemmas strongly activate the

ventromedial prefrontal cortex.

A general function of the prefrontal cortex may be to

dampen or inhibit emotional reactions.

________ is an example of a personal moral dilemma

throwing another person onto a grenade in order to save a larger group

The combination of inadequate activation of the ________ and enhanced activation of the ________ may result in excessive anger that results in harm to other persons

prefrontal cortex; amygdala

The prefrontal cortex is ________ by ________ projection neurons

activated; serotonergic

Aggressive behavior is most strongly related to

reproduction.

Aggressiveness is reduced in adult rodents by castration whereas injections of testosterone reinstate adult male rodent aggression. These effects are an example of a(n) ________ hormone effect

activational

The capacity of early testosterone exposure to sensitize brain circuits for aggression is an example of a(n) ________ hormone effect

organizational

Intermale aggression will be reinstated in castrated male rats after implants of testosterone into the

medial preoptic area.

A male mouse housed alone in a home cage will readily attack a male mouse placed into the home cage, but will not attack a female mouse. Which of the following is a key factor as to whether the resident male mouse decides to attack or not attack the strange male mouse?

The mouse must be able to detect male pheromones

Intermale aggression is reduced in

mice whose vomeronasal nerves have been surgically damaged.

A female rodent exposed to high levels of testosterone while in the mother’s uterus is likely to

show more interfemale aggression as an adult.

Female rhesus monkeys are more likely to engage in fights with male monkeys

near the time of ovulation

Female rhesus monkeys are more likely to engage in fights with male monkeys

near the time of ovulation.

Female rhesus monkeys are more likely to engage in fights with other females

just prior to menstruation.

Which of the following is true of the impact of testosterone on aggressive behavior in males?

Castration of sex-offenders may reduce aggressive sexual attacks

Prenatal exposure to androgens

increases aggression behavior in all studied species.

Studies of hormone status and antisocial behavior in U.S. military veterans suggest that higher levels of antisocial activity are noted in

low socioeconomic status men with high testosterone levels

An example of an environmental effect on testosterone secretion would be when

losing a tennis match results in lowered blood levels of testosterone

The proposition that facial expressions of emotion are innate is supported by the observation that

the same facial expression for an emotion is observed in all cultures.

Darwin argued that the expression of emotion in humans

evolved from similar expressions in other animals

A key function of the right hemisphere is

the recognition of emotions.

The ability to recognize emotions expressed by others is most likely to be impaired after damage to the

right hemisphere

PET studies indicate that the comprehension of emotion from tone of voice increased the activity of the

right frontal cortex.

PET studies indicate that the comprehension of emotion on the basis of word meaning increased the activity of the

left and right frontal cortex

The amygdala is involved in the recognition of ________communicated via ________.

fear; facial expression

Pure word deafness is produced by damage to the ________ cortex

left temporal

The observation that a person with ________ cannot understand speech but can infer emotion from ________ suggests that word recognition and emotional vocal recognition are independent functions.

pure word deafness; tone of voice

Which of the following is true of the role of the amygdala for the recognition of emotion?

Amygdala damage impairs the ability to use facial expressions for emotion recognition.

Because the amygdala receives input from cortical and subcortical sources, a person made blind by cortical damage ________.

can recognize facial emotional expressions

Rapid recognition of facial emotional expression is mediated by signals carried by the ________ system.

magnocellular

The emotion of disgust involves activation of neurons within the

insular cortex

Which disorder would greatly impair the capacity of a person to succeed in acting

emotional facial paresis

he muscular movements that are involved in laughter are controlled by neurons within the

anterior cingulate cortex

The unique aspect of Patient S.P. is that after removal of her right amygdala, she

was unable to recognize her own facial emotional expressions

A chimeric face

is created by pasting different facial images to form a single unit.

The amygdala is involved in ________, but not in ________.

recognition of facial expression; emotional expression

According to the James-Lange theory, feelings of emotions are

produced by feedback from the behaviors and physiological responses caused by emotion-producing situations

Which statement best illustrates the James-Lange theory of emotion

Laugh and you will be happy

According to the James-Lange theory of emotion, which of the following is most important for the subjective experience of an emotion?

sensory feedback from muscles and internal organs

Which of the following results from studies of people with spinal cord injuries supports the James-Lange theory of emotion?

People who could not feel reactions from most of their bodies reported that they no longer felt intense emotions.

Studies by Ekman and colleagues suggest that

simulated facial emotional expression changes sympathetic activity.

Ekman’s research on the recognition of facial emotion expression

showed that all cultures are able to recognize six basic emotions

Most studies of emotion have focused on ________ emotions.

negative

The ________ nucleus of the amygdala is the most important part of the brain for the expression of emotional responses provoked by aversive stimuli

central

Outputs from the ________ mediate the increased vigilance noted during fear.

locus coeruleus

Lesions of the periaqueductal gray matter interfere with the ________in rats.

freezing response

Damage to the ________ cortex impairs the extinction of a conditioned emotional response.

ventromedial prefrontal

Feelings of fear in humans are produced by electrical stimulation of the ________.

amygdala

________ is one type of behavior that serves to prevent an attack by another animal

Submissive

The neurotransmitter serotonin typically ________ aggression

inhibits (or suppresses)

Low levels of brain ________ are correlated with risky behavior in males

5-HIAA

________ is a drug that can reduce symptoms of irritability and aggressiveness

Fluoxetine (or any serotonin agonist)

Damage to the vmPFC caused by a railroad accident caused ________ to be childish, irresponsible, and whimsical.

Phineas Gage

Deciding whether to throw a person onto a railroad track to save others is an example of a(n) ________ moral dilemma

personal

The fact that early androgen exposure in rats increases the likelihood of adult aggressive behavior is an example of a(n) ________ hormone effect

organizational

The aggression levels in both males and females is increased by exposure to ________.

androgen

________ argued that human emotional expression evolved from similar expressions in other animals

Darwin

Disgusting stimuli activate the activity of cells in the ________.

insular cortex

Individuals who have ________ have difficulty in moving the facial muscles voluntarily.

volitional facial paresis

The ________ half of the face is more expressive than is the other half.

left

The prominent physiologist ________ strongly criticized the James-Lange theory of emotion.

Walter Cannon

Injections of ________ can inhibit facial muscle movement and facial emotional expression.

Botox

Describe the three components of an emotional response.

Feelings are distinct from the responses that accompany an emotion. The three components are behavioral, autonomic, and hormonal. Behavioral responses include motor movements, facial expressions, posture, and tone of voice. Autonomic responses include specific changes in the sympathetic nervous system that provide energy for responding. Hormonal responses that reinforce the autonomic responses include release of norepinephrine and epinephrine as well as glucocorticoids

Describe evidence supporting the involvement of the amygdala in emotional behavior

Stimuli that convey threat activate the central nucleus (CE) of the amygdala. Electrical stimulation of the CE induces signs of fear and anxiety and can induce ulcers. Damage to CE diminishes the behavioral and hormonal responses to fear stimuli. The CE appears to integrate the behavioral, autonomic, and hormonal components of fear

Describe the types of emotional stimuli that activate cells within the amygdala.

Amygdala cells change their firing rate in response to the presentation of emotionally relevant stimuli. These responses cut across sensory domains (vision, audition) and can be conditioned (the sight of a syringe that was previously used to inject bitter substances in the mouth of the subject

Identify two species-typical forms of aggression and the hormones that modulate these behaviors.

Intermale aggression occurs between two members of the same sex and species. It is dependent on early testosterone exposure and later adulthood levels of testosterone. Interfemale aggression is less common but can occur in primates just prior to menstruation

Describe the changes in personality in Phineas Gage that occurred after his brain injury

Prior to the injury of his frontal lobes, Gage was a railway track supervisor. His injury involved the passage of a iron rod through his cheek, thus damaging his ventromedial prefrontal cortex bilaterally. After his injury, Gage was thoughtless and irresponsible, and prone to outbursts of temper. He was unable to make or carry out plans, and was unable to continue as a supervisor.

Describe the role of the right hemisphere in the recognition of emotions. Identify two strategies that have been used to study this topic.

The facial displays of emotion are more intense on the left side of the face, suggesting an important role of the right hemisphere for producing emotional displays. People show a left-ear and left visual field advantage for the recognition of emotional expressions. One strategy is to compare the ability of persons with right hemisphere damage to judge facial expressions for emotional content (they are impaired). Another is to examine the changes in brain activity within the hemispheres using a PET scanner as people judge the emotional content of words (right hemisphere is more activated).

Discuss the James-Lange theory of emotion and cite evidence that supports this theory

The James-Lange theory argues that environmental events trigger patterns of visceral responding and that our brains subsequently decode the pattern to arrive at an emotional experience. A key piece of support for the theory comes from Hohman (1966), who assessed the impact of spinal cord injury on emotional experience. The higher the level of the transection, the greater the interruption of sensory information to the brain and the greater the decrement in the intensity of experienced emotion.

Explain the significance of Hohman’s (1966) study of spinal cord transection for the James-Lange theory of emotion

A key piece of support for James-Lange theory comes from Hohman (1966), who assessed the impact of spinal cord injury on emotional experience: the higher the level of the transection, the greater the interruption of sensory information to the brain, and the greater the decrement in the intensity of experienced emotion

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