PSYCH 303 T2 MCquestions

Total Word Count: 2477
   Send article as PDF   

Subjects in Titchener’s laboratory were asked to
a.
swallow a stomach tube.
b.
record their sensations and feelings during urination and defecation.
c.
make notes of their sensations and feelings during sexual intercourse.
d.
attach measuring devices to their bodies to record their physiological responses during sexual intercourse.
e.
All of the choices are correct.

E

Titchener’s manner with his students during lectures was one of
a.
formality.
b.
concern.
c.
humility.
d.
good humor.
e.
All of the choices are correct.

A

One of the main reasons that Titchener’s thought was believed to closely parallel that of Wundt was that Titchener
a.
did not depart from Wundtian ideas in any significant manner.
b.
took great care to scrupulously present all of Wundt’s ideas, whether he agreed with them or not.
c.
did not, himself, have any creative ideas.
d.
translated Wundt’s books from German into English.
e.
was Wundt’s cousin.

D

This person was the first American woman to receive a Ph.D. degree in psychology.
a.
Karen Horney
b.
Cora Friedline
c.
Margaret Mead
d.
Christine Ladd-Franklin
e.
Margaret Floy Washburn

E

Titchener’s definition of the appropriate subject matter of psychology is
a.
conscious experience.
b.
behavioral events.
c.
mental and behavioral events.
d.
both conscious and unconscious experiences.
e.
anything that could be observed scientifically.

A

To confuse the mental process under study with the stimulus or object being observed was to commit
a.
introspective error.
b.
retrospective error.
c.
stimulus error.
d.
inspection rather than introspection.
e.
retrospection rather than introspection.

C

The sum of our experiences accumulated over a lifetime is Titchener’s definition of
a.
mind.
b.
consciousness.
c.
memory.
d.
apperception.
e.
learning.

A

In his introspection experiments, Titchener wanted his subjects (observers) to
a.
try to create new images in consciousness from the presented stimuli.
b.
search for their inner self.
c.
have their galvanic skin response recorded while they gave their introspective reports.
d.
be passive recorders of the experiences registering on the conscious mind.
e.
remember their childhood experiences.

D

Toward the end of Titchener’s career, he came to favor the ____ method.
a.
psychophysiological
b.
psychoanalytic
c.
introspective
d.
behavioristic
e.
phenomenological

E

When Titchener died, the era of structuralism
a.
was turned over to the Chicago school of thought.
b.
collapsed.
c.
reverted to Wundtian psychology.
d.
was taken over by his student, E. B. Boring.
e.
continued vigorously for another decade.

B

The most important consequence of functionalism was
a.
the replacement of structuralism.
b.
the replacement of experimentalism.
c.
the status it gave to pragmatism.
d.
applied psychology.
e.
clinical psychology.

D

The most significant immediate antecedents of functionalism were
a.
Weber’s and Fechner’s work in psychophysics.
b.
Quetelet’s and Galton’s work in statistics.
c.
Wundt’s and Titchener’s systems.
d.
the comparative research of physiologists and Darwin’s work.
e.
the work of Darwin and Galton and comparative research.

E

____ was an early evolutionary theorist who argued that acquired characteristics could be inherited.
a.
Erasmus Darwin
b.
Charles Darwin
c.
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
d.
Bain
e.
Charles Lyell

C

A theory of evolution based on natural selection was developed independently by
a.
Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace.
b.
Charles Darwin and Charles Lyell.
c.
Joseph Hooker and Charles Darwin.
d.
Erasmus Darwin and Charles Darwin.
e.
Jean Lamarck and Charles Darwin.

A

The most fundamental point of Darwin’s theses was the
a.
fact of variation among members of the species.
b.
heritability of variations.
c.
process of natural selection.
d.
tenet of survival of the fittest.
e.
normal distribution of traits in a population.

A

A consequence of Darwin’s work for psychology was
a.
the legitimization of the collective unconscious.
b.
work in comparative physiology.
c.
the theory of eugenics.
d.
a focus on individual differences.
e.
statistical analyses.

D

Who was the first to show that human mental characteristics followed a normal distribution?
a.
Pearson
b.
Quetelet
c.
Huarte
d.
Galton
e.
Cattell

D

The term mental tests was coined by ____, but ____ originated this concept.
a.
Galton; Cattell
b.
Cattell; Galton
c.
Quetelet; Galton
d.
Galton; Quetelet
e.
Huarte; Quetelet

B

When Galton’s measures are compared to the same measures taken today, the data reveal
a.
the developmental rate was faster in Galton’s time.
b.
the developmental rate was slower in Galton’s time.
c.
developmental rates then and now are indistinguishable.
d.
Galton’s data can’t be compared with contemporary data.
e.
that weight correlates with intelligence.

B

The work of Romanes was especially flawed because of his
a.
assumption of a continuity of intelligence between animals and people.
b.
use of anthropometric methods.
c.
use of the anecdotal method.
d.
use of psychophysics methods.
e.
reliance on reaction times to sensory stimuli in humans and animals.

C

Perhaps the most important factor that enabled functionalist psychology to flourish in the United States was the
a.
social Zeitgeist.
b.
political Zeitgeist.
c.
economic Zeitgeist.
d.
American temperament as a whole.
e.
fruition of Darwin’s theory in the United States.

D

Who should social Darwinism bring to mind?
a.
James
b.
Darwin
c.
Spencer
d.
Galton
e.
Hollerith

C

Who pioneered an innovative method of information processing?
a.
Spencer
b.
Hollerith
c.
Dewey
d.
Babbage
e.
James

B

William James
a.
founded functional psychology.
b.
established an environment favorable for functionalism with his Principles of Psychology.
c.
wrested psychology away from synthetic philosophy.
d.
used pragmatism to recombine psychology and philosophy.
e.
effectively nullified the influence of Wundt on American psychologists.

B

For James, one’s stream of consciousness
a.
can be reduced to sensations by introspection.
b.
can be reduced to components by experimental methods without introspection.
c.
is distorted when analyzed into distinct elements.
d.
reflects the continuous movement of material from nonconscious to conscious.
e.
reflects the continuous synthesis of elements through the principles of association.

C

Woolley’s research on sex differences and alleged male superiority was
a.
refuted by contemporary research.
b.
the first experimental test of the variability hypothesis of male superiority.
c.
supported by contemporary research.
d.
attributed to genetic differences.
e.
challenged by the "men’s issues" movement.

B

The notion of a "motherhood instinct" was
a.
supported by Woolley’s research.
b.
refuted by Woolley’s research.
c.
supported by Hollingworth’s research.
d.
refuted by Hollingworth’s research.
e.
supported by Woolley’s research on the maternal behaviors displayed by mothers of gifted children.

D

The first American PhD in psychology was earned by
a.
Titchener.
b.
James.
c.
Hall.
d.
Cattell.
e.
Yerkes.

C

The first African American to earn a PhD in psychology was
a.
Bond.
b.
DuBois.
c.
Clark.
d.
Sumner.
e.
Howard.

D

The notion that children’s development reflects the history of the human race is the
a.
child study movement.
b.
primary law of evolution.
c.
collective unconscious.
d.
theoretical basis for Binet’s tests.
e.
recapitulation theory.

E

Why did the FDA take Coca Cola to court in 1911?
a.
because one of Coke’s ingredients was cocaine
b.
because one of Coke’s ingredients was caffeine
c.
because of illegal hiring practices
d.
because of irregularities in the pricing of their stock
e.
because they made

unsupported claims in advertising

B

According to Cattell, by 1895 psychology was
a.
a required subject for an undergraduate degree.
b.
being irreparably damaged by the Structuralist-functionalist quarreling.
c.
still synonymous with metaphysics for most Americans.
d.
most vigorously opposed by the traditional natural sciences.
e.
relatively unpopular in those few colleges that offered courses in it.

A

Galton’s influence on Cattell led to
a.
Cattell promoting the use of experimental and control groups.
b.
Cattell’s method of average error.
c.
Cattell’s work on the army Alpha and army Beta tests.
d.
Witmer’s work with dyslexic children.
e.
the study of large groups rather than single subjects.

E

The original purpose for the founding of The Psychological Corporation was to
a.
bolster the public image of psychologists after Cattell’s public dalliance with the occult.
b.
bolster the public image of psychologists after Cattell’s termination for disloyalty to the United States in World War I.
c.
deliver applied psychological services.
d.
create a corporation that would publish Cattell’s many books and journals.
e.
take revenge on G. Stanley Hall, who Cattell detested.

C

Binet and Simon’s test differed from those of Galton and Cattell in its
a.
emphasis on the relationship of higher cognitive processes to intelligence.
b.
emphasis on the evolution of children’s mental abilities.
c.
emphasis on the recapitulation of childhood abilities in adolescence.
d.
emphasis on using sensorimotor tests to assess mental abilities.
e.
inclusion of Hall’s questionnaires as a device for assessing mental abilities.

A

The construct called "IQ" was developed by
a.
Binet.
b.
Simon.
c.
Pearson.
d.
Cattell.
e.
Stern.

E

The fundamental difference between the Binet tests and the army Alpha and Beta tests was that
a.
Binet’s tests were in French; the army tests were in English.
b.
the army tests included sensorimotor skills and reaction times.
c.
Binet’s tests were individually administered; the army tests were for groups.
d.
the army tests could not assess mental ages lower than 17.
e.
Binet’s tests required literate subjects; the army tests did not.

C

One consequence of the adoption of the Stanford-Binet test in the United States is that
a.
public education has revolved around the IQ construct ever since.
b.
special education courses were established by 1919.
c.
Terman used it to study genius among cross-sections of ethnic groups.
d.
gifted programs were established by 1923.
e.
the campaign to identify learning disabilities was firmly established by 1920.

A

Witmer’s "clinical psychology" is today known as
a.
the child guidance movement.
b.
the child study movement.
c.
educational psychology.
d.
school psychology.
e.
genetic psychology.

D

The two most profound influences on the growth of clinical psychology as a specialty were
a.
World War I and World War II.
b.
World War II and the VA hospital system.
c.
the works of Binet and Freud.
d.
Witmer’s work and the world wars.
e.
the influx of German psychologists in the 1930s and the VA hospital system.

B

By the second decade of the 20th century, psychologists agreed on the
a.
value of introspection.
b.
existence of mental elements.
c.
need for psychology to be a pure science.
d.
replacement of structuralism by functionalism.
e.
None of the choices are correct.

E

The early 20th-century Zeitgeist in science was marked by
a.
behaviorism.
b.
positivism.
c.
functionalism.
d.
experimentation.
e.
nihilism.

B

For Loeb, a tropism is a/an
a.
involuntary forced movement.
b.
reflex arc.
c.
indication of consciousness.
d.
reflex.
e.
toucan.

A

The case of Clever Hans served to
a.
illustrate the importance of objective, experimental study of animal behavior with proper control conditions.
b.
demonstrate transference between animals and humans.
c.
refute Lashley’s equipotentiality principle.
d.
focus public attention on introspection by analogy.
e.
demonstrate the importance of studying both human and animal subjects.

A

Habit strength is a function of repetition. This is an instance of
a.
Thorndike’s law of effect.
b.
Thorndike’s law of exercise.
c.
Pavlov’s law of reinforcement.
d.
Skinner’s principle of the extinction of competing responses.
e.
vicarious learning.

B

Thorndike’s revision of his law of effect stated that
a.
rewards are unrelated to the strength of connection between stimuli and responses.
b.
stimuli that satisfy physiological needs are most effective as rewards.
c.
punishing a response weakened a connection but not to the same degree that rewards strengthened a connection.
d.
the law of exercise was unrelated to it.
e.
All of the choices are correct.

C

Pavlov’s conditioned reflexes require ____ for learning to occur.
a.
reinforcement
b.
knowledge
c.
two or more unconditioned responses
d.
S-R connections
e.
reinforcements and S-R connections.

E

For Pavlov this is necessary for learning to take place.
a.
a ratio schedule of reinforcement
b.
reinforcement
c.
emission of a voluntary behavior
d.
clean dogs
e.
None of the choices are correct.

B

While Pavlov was exploring conditioning in Russia, an American named ____ also discovered the existence of conditioned reflexes.
a.
Walter Pillsbury
b.
John Watson
c.
Edward Thorndike
d.
Edwin Burket Twitmyer
e.
Willard Small

D

Bekhterev
a.
never used reinforcement for his conditioning.
b.
applied Pavlovian principles to the muscles.
c.
was a close friend of Pavlov.
d.
had a research program that blossomed when he emigrated to the U.S.
e.
None of the choices are correct.

B

In his 1914 book, Behavior: An Introduction to Comparative Psychology, Watson argued
a.
for positivism in psychology.
b.
for the acceptance of animal psychology.
c.
that mental concepts are "valueless to science."
d.
for a functional and pragmatic approach to psychology.
e.
for experimental research on human infants.

B

After his dismissal from Johns Hopkins, Watson
a.
abandoned his research on behavioral psychology.
b.
published in scholarly journals under a pseudonym.
c.
published for the American public through popular media.
d.
actively participated in academic lectures or writing.
e.
lectured at universities throughout Europe.

C

For Watson, the goal of psychology is
a.
a utopia based on operant conditioning principles.
b.
the prediction and control of behavior.
c.
the expansion of Pavlovian conditioning to voluntary behaviors.
d.
the reduction of cognitive processes to their biological correlates.
e.
a unitary scheme of animal responses.

B

The most important research method of the behaviorists was
a.
observation with the use of instruments.
b.
observation without the use of instruments.
c.
the verbal report method.
d.
the conditioned reflex method.
e.
testing methods.

D

Watson predicted that the laws of behavior would be identified when
a.
behaviors were reduced to their basic S-R units.
b.
the stimulus elements could be perfectly controlled.
c.
the smallest elements of responses were discovered.
d.
the response elements could be perfectly predicted.
e.
both b and d.

A

The Little Albert study
a.
was a prototype for the modern learned helplessness paradigm.
b.
was replicated by Mary Cover Jones.
c.
showed that fears could not be conditioned.
d.
demonstrated the value of punishment.
e.
has never been replicated.

E

Mary Cover Jones’s study of Peter
a.
was a forerunner of behavior therapy.
b.
showed that fears are instinctive.
c.
predates the Little Albert study.
d.
supports the notion of one-trial learning.
e.
has never been replicated.

A

A major criticism of Watson’s system is that it discounts
a.
sensation and perception.
b.
thought processes.
c.
emotions.
d.
social relationships.
e.
extrasensory perception.

A

The efficiency of learning is a function of the total amount of brain tissue; this is ____ law of ____.
a.
Watson’s; equipotentiality
b.
Lashley’s; equipotentiality
c.
Lashley’s; mass action
d.
Jastrow’s; cortical substitution
e.
Jastrow’s; mass action

C

McDougall believed that human behavior
a.
derives from innate tendencies.
b.
could not be studied.
c.
was a function of God’s will.
d.
could not be predicted or controlled.
e.
was solely determined by the environment.

A

Scroll to Top