PSYCH 303- Research Methods Final (Exam 2)

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In addition to being an ethical violation, why are data falsification and fabrication problematic?

Because they impede scientific progress

Which of the following is NOT true of the Belmont Report?

It was written primarily in response to medical experiments performed in Nazi-occupied Europe.

When conducting animal research, which guideline states that alternatives to animal research should be considered?

Replacement

Why is plagiarism a violation of ethics?

It violates an APA Standard

Which of the following events did NOT occur in the Tuskegee Study?

Participants in the study were given/infected with the disease.

In addition to the three principles derived from the Belmont Report, which of the following two principles were added in the principles put forth by the American Psychological Association?

The principle of integrity and fidelity/responsibility

Dr. Kline is planning on conducting a study next semester. He is curious as to whether sleep deprivation is associated with poorer cognitive performance. For example, if you sleep poorly the night before a big exam, will you do worse? Dr. Kline is especially curious about selective sleep deprivation, where people are kept from entering REM (rapid eye movement) sleep. Using an electroencephalograph (EEG) to monitor brain waves, he plans to let participants sleep until they enter REM sleep and then he will wake them. After the participants are awake for one minute, Dr. Kline plans to let them return to sleep. As they enter REM sleep again, he will wake them again and follow the same procedure. He plans to do this through the entire eight-hour sleep session. The following morning, participants will be asked to take a sample SAT test.

As a psychologist who primarily does research, Dr. Kline is most concerned with which APA standard of ethics?

8

n which of the following ways is an IACUC different from an IRB?

IACUCs monitor the care and treatment of animals throughout the study; IRBs do not monitor the care of human participants throughout the study.

A local committee that reviews research that is conducted on animals is known as ________.

IACUC

Dr. Kline is planning on conducting a study next semester. He is curious as to whether sleep deprivation is associated with poorer cognitive performance. For example, if you sleep poorly the night before a big exam, will you do worse? Dr. Kline is especially curious about selective sleep deprivation, where people are kept from entering REM (rapid eye movement) sleep. Using an electroencephalograph (EEG) to monitor brain waves, he plans to let participants sleep until they enter REM sleep and then he will wake them. After the participants are awake for one minute, Dr. Kline plans to let them return to sleep. As they enter REM sleep again, he will wake them again and follow the same procedure. He plans to do this through the entire eight-hour sleep session. The following morning, participants will be asked to take a sample SAT test.

Dr. Kline is deciding whether he needs to give participants a reason for waking them up several times during the night. He knows that he cannot tell them the real reason, but he is unsure whether he should deceive them (give them a false reason why he is waking them up) or provide them with no cover story at all. Which of the following issues should be considered most heavily when deciding whether or not to use deception?

Whether he can conduct the study just as well without deception

Written consent would not be required in any of the following situations with the EXCEPTION of:

A confidential study examining income level and voting behavior

Ethical decision making done by researchers can change in response to all of the following EXCEPT:

The possibility of additional grant funding

Which of the following studies would probably NOT require an in-person IRB meeting to obtain approval?

An anonymous survey asking whether students want the campus mascot be changed

The aim of the Tuskegee Study was to examine which disease?

Syphilis

The belief that the participants in a research study should be representative of the type of people who would also benefit from the findings of the research stems from which principle of the Belmont Report?

the principle of justice

In considering whether research is ethical, which of the following are balanced against each other?

Risk to participants versus value of the knowledge gained

Which of the following is NOT an example of coercion?

A researcher offering 3 points of extra credit to college students to participate in a study

Which of the following ethical violations proposed by the Belmont Report was NOT committed in the Tuskegee Study?

Participants were not treated by actual doctors.

Which of the following is true of students’ views of deception and harm in research studies?

Students can find deception to be stressful.

Which of the following is NOT a reason that psychologists might fabricate or falsify their data?

A journal might require it

Dr. Kline is planning on conducting a study next semester. He is curious as to whether sleep deprivation is associated with poorer cognitive performance. For example, if you sleep poorly the night before a big exam, will you do worse? Dr. Kline is especially curious about selective sleep deprivation, where people are kept from entering REM (rapid eye movement) sleep. Using an electroencephalograph (EEG) to monitor brain waves, he plans to let participants sleep until they enter REM sleep and then he will wake them. After the participants are awake for one minute, Dr. Kline plans to let them return to sleep. As they enter REM sleep again, he will wake them again and follow the same procedure. He plans to do this through the entire eight-hour sleep session. The following morning, participants will be asked to take a sample SAT test.

Which of the following is true regarding obtaining informed consent in Dr. Kline’s study?

He does need to obtain informed consent because there is a likelihood of risk in his study.

The American Psychological Association’s ethical guidelines have ________ principles and ________ standards.

5, 10

Dr. Kline is planning on conducting a study next semester. He is curious as to whether sleep deprivation is associated with poorer cognitive performance. For example, if you sleep poorly the night before a big exam, will you do worse? Dr. Kline is especially curious about selective sleep deprivation, where people are kept from entering REM (rapid eye movement) sleep. Using an electroencephalograph (EEG) to monitor brain waves, he plans to let participants sleep until they enter REM sleep and then he will wake them. After the participants are awake for one minute, Dr. Kline plans to let them return to sleep. As they enter REM sleep again, he will wake them again and follow the same procedure. He plans to do this through the entire eight-hour sleep session. The following morning, participants will be asked to take a sample SAT test.

Dr. Kline plans to use deception in his study and is thinking about a debriefing session. Which of the following is true of the debriefing?

participants must be told the reasons for the deception

Dr. Kline is planning on conducting a study next semester. He is curious as to whether sleep deprivation is associated with poorer cognitive performance. For example, if you sleep poorly the night before a big exam, will you do worse? Dr. Kline is especially curious about selective sleep deprivation, where people are kept from entering REM (rapid eye movement) sleep. Using an electroencephalograph (EEG) to monitor brain waves, he plans to let participants sleep until they enter REM sleep and then he will wake them. After the participants are awake for one minute, Dr. Kline plans to let them return to sleep. As they enter REM sleep again, he will wake them again and follow the same procedure. He plans to do this through the entire eight-hour sleep session. The following morning, participants will be asked to take a sample SAT test.

Upon receiving IRB approval, Dr. Kline trusts his graduate student to conduct the study. However, his graduate student does not conduct the study and instead provides Dr. Kline with invented results that support his hypotheses. This is known as which of the following?

Data Fabrication

Dr. Sheffield is a clinical psychologist who specializes in treating pathological gambling. Pathological gambling is defined as being unable to resist impulses to gamble. Bothered by not having a good measure that he can give to clients to determine whether they are suffering from this condition, he creates a new measure of pathological gambling. The measure has 15 questions, and it takes 20 minutes to complete.

To test his measure, Dr. Sheffield gives his measure to a group of his clients and at the same time measures how many times they have been gambling in the past month. He predicts that clients who score higher on his measure will also report gambling more times in the past month. This procedure is meant to provide evidence for which of the following?

criterion validity

Which of the following is NOT an example of physiological measurement?

number of panic attacks a patient reports

Dr. Sheffield is a clinical psychologist who specializes in treating pathological gambling. Pathological gambling is defined as being unable to resist impulses to gamble. Bothered by not having a good measure that he can give to clients to determine whether they are suffering from this condition, he creates a new measure of pathological gambling. The measure has 15 questions, and it takes 20 minutes to complete.

Dr. Sheffield has decided to test the discriminant validity of his new measure. He has a group of first-time Gamblers Anonymous (GA) attendants complete his measure and finds that they score higher than a group of people who do not attend the group. Which of the following results would provide evidence for discriminant validity?

He finds that the measure of gambling is not correlated with a measure of life satisfaction in the same two groups of people.

In interrogating the construct validity of a measure, which question should a researcher ask?

Is there enough evidence that this measure is valid?

Dr. Sheffield is a clinical psychologist who specializes in treating pathological gambling. Pathological gambling is defined as being unable to resist impulses to gamble. Bothered by not having a good measure that he can give to clients to determine whether they are suffering from this condition, he creates a new measure of pathological gambling. The measure has 15 questions, and it takes 20 minutes to complete.

If Dr. Sheffield’s measure does not actually measure pathological gambling, his measure is said to lack which of the following?

validity

What does it mean that "reliability is necessary but not sufficient for validity"?

If a measure is valid, it is also reliable

Why are convergent and discriminant validity often evaluated together

Both involve collecting information from a lot of psychological measures of theoretical interest.

Dr. Valencia is considering conducting a study examining whether narcissistic people have poorer social interactions than those who are not narcissistic. One of her first tasks is to determine which of her participants are narcissistic and which are not. She decides to use the scale created by a colleague, the Mayo scale. Question 1 reads, "I tend not to think about other people as much as I think about myself." Question 2 reads, "I do not have a high opinion of myself." Question 3 reads, "I think other people think I am really special."

Dr. Valencia calculates a correlation coefficient (r) to examine the relationship between Question 1 and Question 2 and between Question 1 and Question 3. She finds a correlation coefficient of r = -0.73 between Questions 1 and 2 and a correlation coefficient of r = 0.74 between Questions 1 and 3. Which of the following is true of her findings?

There appears to be good internal reliability in the scale.

Dr. Valencia is considering conducting a study examining whether narcissistic people have poorer social interactions than those who are not narcissistic. One of her first tasks is to determine which of her participants are narcissistic and which are not. She decides to use the scale created by a colleague, the Mayo scale. Question 1 reads, "I tend not to think about other people as much as I think about myself." Question 2 reads, "I do not have a high opinion of myself." Question 3 reads, "I think other people think I am really special."

Before using the measure in her study, Dr. Valencia gives the measure to a group of students on Tuesday. She gives the measure to them again on Thursday. She then compares the scores between the two days. This is a test of which of the following?

Test-retest reliability

Establishing construct validity is most important for which of the following?

an abstract concept

For her research methods class, Serena plans to interview several teachers about their attitude toward teaching children who have attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This is an example of what type of measurement?

Self-report measurement

For his research methods class, Felipe plans to watch how teachers treat children in their classrooms who have ADHD. He will evaluate how positively or negatively the children are treated. This is an example of what type of measurement?

observational measurement

Dr. Sheffield is a clinical psychologist who specializes in treating pathological gambling. Pathological gambling is defined as being unable to resist impulses to gamble. Bothered by not having a good measure that he can give to clients to determine whether they are suffering from this condition, he creates a new measure of pathological gambling. The measure has 15 questions, and it takes 20 minutes to complete.

Dr. Sheffield has now decided that he wants to test his measure on some university students (who some estimates say have a 6% prevalence rate of compulsive gambling). He has a group of 100 university students complete his measure. He also has them complete two other measures (one that measures addictive behavior in general and one that measures general attitudes toward gambling). He finds that his new measure is positively associated with each of these other measures. This procedure has provided evidence for the ________ of Dr. Sheffield’s measure.

Convergent validity

Which of the following is true of operational definitions?

The specification of operational definitions is one of the creative aspects of the research process.

Todd is also studying the effect of popularity on academic success for his research methods project. He decides to measure popularity by asking each elementary school student to tell him how many friends he or she has. He assumes that more friends means the student is more popular. Which of the following best describes this variable?

a ratio scale of measurement

An educational psychologist is testing the discriminant validity of a new measure of numerical learning difficulties. He gives his measure to a group of students along with another measure of verbal learning difficulties, which he predicts should not be strongly related to numerical learning difficulties. Which of the following correlations would the psychologist hope to find in order to establish discriminant validity?

r= -0.18

Your friend Dominic is complaining about having to take the Graduate Record Examination (GRE), a test similar to the ACT and SAT that is required to go to graduate school. He complains that it doesn’t really measure how well he will likely do in graduate school. Dominic is questioning the ________ of the test.

Criterion validity

What is the difference between a ratio scale of measurement and an interval scale of measurement?

A ratio scale of measurement has a zero value that actually means "nothing" or "the absence of something," but an interval scale does not.

Dr. Sheffield is a clinical psychologist who specializes in treating pathological gambling. Pathological gambling is defined as being unable to resist impulses to gamble. Bothered by not having a good measure that he can give to clients to determine whether they are suffering from this condition, he creates a new measure of pathological gambling. The measure has 15 questions, and it takes 20 minutes to complete.

To test his measure, Dr. Sheffield gives his measure to a group of people in Gamblers Anonymous (GA) and another group in Alcoholics Anonymous (AA). He finds that people in the GA group have higher scores on his new measure than people in the AA group. Why did Dr. Sheffield do this?

to obtain evidence for criterion validity

Another word for discriminant validity is ________ validity.

divergent

Dr. Valencia is considering conducting a study examining whether narcissistic people have poorer social interactions than those who are not narcissistic. One of her first tasks is to determine which of her participants are narcissistic and which are not. She decides to use the scale created by a colleague, the Mayo scale. Question 1 reads, "I tend not to think about other people as much as I think about myself." Question 2 reads, "I do not have a high opinion of myself." Question 3 reads, "I think other people think I am really special."

Dr. Valencia decides to test the internal reliability of her measure. Which of the following results would make her happy?

a= 0.95

Dr. Valencia is considering conducting a study examining whether narcissistic people have poorer social interactions than those who are not narcissistic. One of her first tasks is to determine which of her participants are narcissistic and which are not. She decides to use the scale created by a colleague, the Mayo scale. Question 1 reads, "I tend not to think about other people as much as I think about myself." Question 2 reads, "I do not have a high opinion of myself." Question 3 reads, "I think other people think I am really special."

Dr. Valencia is concerned about the validity of the measure of narcissism recommended by her colleague. She sends a copy of the measure to the faculty members in her psychology department to look at and they all tell her it looks like it will measure narcissism. She now has evidence of which of the following?

face validity

Asking many similar questions when trying to measure a concept is done to:

cancel out measurement error

Dr. Sheffield is a clinical psychologist who specializes in treating pathological gambling. Pathological gambling is defined as being unable to resist impulses to gamble. Bothered by not having a good measure that he can give to clients to determine whether they are suffering from this condition, he creates a new measure of pathological gambling. The measure has 15 questions, and it takes 20 minutes to complete.

To test his measure, Dr. Sheffield gives his measure to a group of people in Gamblers Anonymous (GA) and another group of people in Alcoholics Anonymous (AA). He finds that people in the GA group have higher scores on his new measure than people in the AA group. This procedure is known as a:

Known-groups paradigm

Your friend Dominic is complaining about having to take the Graduate Record Examination (GRE), a test similar to the ACT and SAT that is required to go to graduate school. Your friend Shakendra tells him he shouldn’t complain, as statistics show that GRE scores are related to graduate school GPA. Shakendra is speaking to the ________ of the test.

Criterion validity

What type of research misconduct involves representing the ideas or words of others as one’s own?

plagiarism

____ is a form of stealing and occurs when a person takes credit for another person’s intellectual property.

Plagiarism

Which of the following is NOT one of the "three R’s" provided by the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals?

restoration

The "three R’s" concern finding alternatives to animals in research (_______), a minimization of animal distress (_______), and finding a way to use the fewest animals possible (_______).

-replacement -refinement -reduction

Professor Kwan studies violence and designs a study of the effects of video game violence on children. She recruits low-income, Hispanic children from schools near the university to participate. Each child is assigned to play either a violent or non-violent video game two hours each evening for a month. The children’s teachers are asked to assess changes in behavior. Which of the Belmont Report Principles is violated by the choice of participants?

Principle of Justice

Which of the following are two ethical issues raised by Milgram’s studies of obedience?

the stress experienced by the teachers and the lasting effects of the study on the teachers

Professor Kwan studies violence and designs a study of the effects of video game violence on children. She recruits low-income, Hispanic children from schools near the university to participate. Each child is assigned to play either a violent or non-violent video game two hours each evening for a month. The children’s teachers are asked to assess changes in behavior. To assure good participation, the participants are offered a chance to win a family trip to a major theme park. Which of the APA’s Five General Principles is violated by this incentive?

respect for people’s rights and dignity

Which of the following groups is NOT recognized in the Belmont Report as entitled to special protection?

Vetrans

Several groups of participants are protected in the Belmont Report because of concerns about the ability of those groups to give truly informed consent:

-children -prisoners -people with intellectual or developmental disabilities

Dr. Sanders conducted a study that investigated the happiness of people listening to different kinds of music. He predicted that people would report being happier when they were listening to rock music than when they were listening to country music. Dr. Sanders threw out the data from several participants who reported being very happy while listening to country music because he thought that they weren’t being honest. Dr. Sanders has committed what kind of ethical violation?

-data falsification

_________ occurs when researchers influence the study’s results by selectively deleting observations or by influencing their research subjects to act in the hypothesized way.

data falsification

Following a study using deception, how does the researcher attempt to restore an honest relationship with the participant?

by debriefing each participant in structured conversation

Debriefing- The researcher must describe _________, explain _______, and explain the _______ of the research.

-the nature of the deception -why it was necessary -importance

In a study of a new drug for asthma, a researcher finds that the group receiving the drug is doing much better than the control group, whose members are receiving a placebo. Which principle of the Belmont Report requires the researcher to also give the control group the opportunity to receive the new drug?

beneficience

To conform to the principle of beneficence, researchers must ensure ________ and may not withhold _________.

-participant’s well-being -treatments that are known to be beneficial to study participants

Professor Kwan studies violence and designs a study of the effects of video game violence on children. She recruits low-income, Hispanic children from schools near the university to participate. Each child is assigned to play either a violent or non-violent video game two hours each evening for a month. The children’s teachers are asked to assess changes in behavior. Some of the children assigned to play the violent video games begin acting out at school and get suspended. Which part of the Belmont Report and APA Ethical Standard 8 was violated when the researcher didn’t consider this possible harm to participants in planning the study?

beneficence and nonmaleficence

The principle of beneficence requires that the researcher consider ________.

risks and benefits before beginning a study

Which of the following is NOT one of the categories of ethical violations that occurred in the Tuskegee Syphilis Study?

The investigators fabricated data

Which of the following is NOT a required member of an institutional review board (IRB)?

the researcher whose study is under review

The IRB is intended to offer a neutral, multiperspective judgment on each study’s ethicality, and scientists are unable to

offer neutral assessments of their own work.

Dr. Kim is researching treatments for childhood cancer. There is some risk that patients who undergo Dr. Kim’s new therapy may be harmed by the procedure. However, based upon preliminary lab testing, the patients might benefit substantially from his treatment. If you were on the IRB evaluating Dr. Kim’s research proposal to test his new treatment, what would make you more likely to approve the proposal?

You decide that the potential benefits of the study outweigh the potential risks.

It is the job of IRBs to make sure that research is done in an ethical way, which includes ______.

ensuring that the potential benefits of a study outweigh the potential risks.

Professor Silva is a clinical psychologist who teaches a course in abnormal psychology at the university. He maintains a clinical practice and several of his current students are his clients. Which of the APA’s Five General Principles does this violate

fidelity and responsibility

Five General Ethical Principles — This principle is concerned with establishing relationships of trust and accepting responsibility for professional behavior.

Fidelity and Responsibility

Professor Hammond studies ethical behavior and designs a study to examine the amount of cheating at her school. At the beginning of class each day, she passes around a chart showing the dates of the class meetings, with boxes for students to initial if present. She photocopies the sheet after each class so that she can find if any students initial for days in the past that they were absent. She waits for interesting results before writing a proposal for the IRB. Which standard of Ethical Standard 8 of the APA does waiting to propose the study violate?

Institutional Approval

Institutional approval must be obtained prior to

conducting research.

Professor Hammond studies ethical behavior and designs a study to examine the amount of cheating at her school. At the beginning of class each day, she passes around a chart showing the dates of the class meetings, with boxes for students to initial if present. She photocopies the sheet after each class so that she can find if any students initial for days in the past that they were absent. The students are not aware that they were participating in the study until the end of the quarter. What standard of Ethical Standard 8 does this violate?

Informed Consent to Research

Professor Kwan studies violence and designs a study of the effects of video game violence on children. She recruits low-income, Hispanic children from schools near the university to participate. Each child is assigned to play either a violent or non-violent video game two hours each evening for a month. The children’s teachers are asked to assess changes in behavior. Data analysis shows no effect of game type, but Professor Kwan knows that several children didn’t follow the procedure so he makes up data for them and then shows a significant effect. Which part of APA Ethical Standard 8 did the data violate?

Reporting of Research Results

Deception in a psychology experiments ______________.

is sometimes ethical if there is no other way to study a certain phenomenon, researchers minimize the potential for the participants to be distressed by the deception, and researchers fully debrief the participant after the study

According to tThe APA principles and federal guidelines require researchers to

avoid using deceptive research designs except as a last resort and to debrief participants after the study

A researcher suggests to potential study participants that if they do not participate they will suffer negative consequences. This undue influence is called ____________.

Coercion

The Principle of Respect for Persons — As part of treating a participant as an autonomous agent, a researcher may not use

pressure to elicit participation

In order to study a sample of participants from only one ethnic group, researchers must first demonstrate that the problem being studied is especially prevalent in that ethnic group. This is an application of which principle from the Belmont Report?

justice

The principle of justice requires

a fair balance between people who participate in research and the people who benefit from it

Which of the following pieces of information should be provided to potential research participants as part of the informed consent process?

information about the risks and benefits of participating in the research study

The Principle of Respect for Persons — Informed consent requires that participants agree to

participate after being told about the study and its risks and benefits.

Which of the following is NOT an example of information researchers must be careful to protect to ensure research participants’ confidentiality?

answers to completely anonymous questionnaire

Informed Consent (Standard 8.02) — Any records that might allow an individual’s data to be identified must be

protected.

When an experimenter actively lies to a participant, this is considered which of the following?

deception through commission

Deception (Standard 8.07) — Both the APA principles and federal guidelines allow the use of deception _______. Deception by commission is ___________.

-under certain circumstances. -the purposeful misleading of participants.

Which principle from the Belmont Report and the APA’s Ethical Principles do animal rights activists draw upon to argue against the use of animals in experiments?

-justice

The argument is that the principle of justice requires that the research participants be drawn from the population that will ________; using ______ in research for the benefit of humans violates this principle.

-benefit from the research -animals

Research using animals must be approved by _______________.

an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC)

Animal Research (Standard 8.09) — Research involving animals must be approved by an

Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC)

When using a measure to assess a trait that is expected to remain stable over time, a researcher would expect to get consistent results each time the measure is used. This type of reliability is known as which of the following?

test-retest

For traits that are expected to remain stable over time, the measurement results for these traits ______

should remain stable over time

What information can you learn from a scatterplot that you cannot learn from the correlation coefficient?

the values for each pair of measurements

Both scatterplots and correlation coefficients show the direction and strength, but only the _______ allows you to see each plotted point. Neither the scatterplot or correlation coefficient will show _____.

-scatterplot -whether the relationship is statistically significant

Dr. Kamran studies domestic violence and has designed a self-report scale that is meant to assess men’s negative attitudes toward women. To validate her scale, she administers it to two groups of recently incarcerated male prisoners: prisoners convicted of domestic violence and prisoners convicted of other crimes. Dr. Kamran finds a statistically significant difference in the mean scores of the two groups. What technique is Dr. Kamran using to validate her scale?

known-group paradig,

The Department of Motor Vehicles receives a complaint that some of their employees who administer the road test pass a much higher percentage of test-takers than other employees. In this example, what aspect of the road test is being questioned?

the interrupter reliability of the road test

Georgina graduated as valedictorian of her high school class because of her class ranking. What type of scale is used for the quantitative variable of class ranking?

ordinal scale

Dr. Johnson wants to do a study to investigate whether the physiological measure, heart rate variability, varies over time or whether it is a trait that stays stable within the same person over time. He records participants’ heart rate variability once at the beginning of the semester and once at the end of the semester. He finds a high positive correlation (r = .55) between the first and second time points. What would a scatterplot of these results (heart rate variability at the beginning of the semester on the x-axis, heart rate variability at the end of the semester on the y-axis) look like?

The cloud of points would slope upward from left to right

A positive correlation coefficient means that there is an ______ slope.

upward

Dr. Nolan gives his new anxiety measure to a group of his colleagues who are anxiety experts. They agree that the questions on the measure appear to assess anxiety symptoms. This suggests that Dr. Nolan’s measure has which of the following types of measurement validity?

Face validity

_______ means that a measure appears to be a plausible or reasonable measure of the variable.

face validity

Lorenzo is studying aggression in children. First, Lorenzo administers a questionnaire to the children that asks them about their feelings of aggression. Then Lorenzo and his lab partner observe the children while they play and record instances of aggression. The results of these two parts of the study are compared. Lorenzo runs a statistical test to find how consistent the responses are to different wordings of items on the questionnaire. What type of reliability is he examining?

internal

Which of the following would NOT be considered an operational definition of memory?

a cognitive process to retain and restore past information

A conceptual variable is at an abstract level and the operational definition is ______.

the way that the researcher decides to measure that conceptual variable

Professor Morgan questions whether the ratings he receives from his students on "teaching effectiveness" indicate how much the students learn in his class or whether they are just a reflection of how much his students like him. What aspect of the ratings is he questioning?

the measurement validity of ratings

Mendoza et al. (2009) introduced a coin rotation task as a convenient test of motor dexterity. It involves timed completion of twenty 180° rotations of a nickel using the thumb, index, and middle fingers. Research participants’ results on the coin rotation task are compared with their results on a test of grip strength — a measure of another construct: global upper-extremity strength. The correlation between the coin rotation task and the grip strength task were found to be not statistically significant. This comparison provides support for which type of measurement validity?

divergent validity

Which of the following is an example of a physiological measure?

skin conductance

Julie has developed an intervention to improve the relationship between parents and pre-school-aged children. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of her intervention, Julie video records the parents interacting with their children at the end of the study. She has two research assistants watch the videos and rate the level of warmth in the interaction. Julie then correlates the ratings of the raters. She finds a high positive correlation (r = .87) between the two raters. What type of reliability is she examining?

interrater

Lorenzo is studying aggression in children. First, Lorenzo administers a questionnaire to the children that asks them about their feelings of aggression. Then Lorenzo and his lab partner observe the children while they play and record instances of aggression. What type of measure is the questionnaire?

self-report

In a study of aggression in children, a researcher has his undergraduate research assistants watch a group of children on the playground and record the number of instances of physical or verbal attacks. Which category of measured variable is this researcher using?

observational measures

Sun Mi is designing a questionnaire on loneliness. She is concerned that some features of loneliness are similar to depression and to low self-esteem. What type of validity does she need to show to demonstrate that her questionnaire assesses loneliness and not depression or low self-esteem?

discriminant vaildity

Which of the following is an example of a categorical variable?

declared major in college

_______ variables are those that fit into categories. Majors in college, such as psychology, business, or biology, are categorical.

categorical or nominal

Mendoza et al. (2009) introduced a coin rotation task as a convenient test of motor dexterity. It involves timed completion of twenty 180° rotations of a nickel using the thumb, index, and middle fingers. Research participants’ results on the coin rotation task are compared with their results on two widely used tests of motor dexterity: the finger-tapping task and the Grooved Pegboard task. What empirical way of assessing construct validity is being used?

convergent validity

If a measure correlates strongly with other measures of the same construct, it shows __________.

construct validity

Lorenzo is studying aggression in children. First, Lorenzo administers a questionnaire to the children that asks them about their feelings of aggression. Then Lorenzo and his lab partner observe the children while they play and record instances of aggression. The results of these two parts of the study are compared. The total number of instances of aggression for each child is used as the measure in the observational part of the study. What type of quantitative variable is this?

ratio scale

Dr. Johnson wants to do a study to investigate whether the physiological measure, heart rate variability, varies over time or whether it is a trait that stays stable within the same person over time. He records participants’ heart rate variability once at the beginning of the semester and once at the end of the semester. He finds a high positive correlation (r = .65) between the first and second time points. What type of reliability is he examining?

test-retest

Some colleges no longer require the SAT I or the ACT tests, instead basing their admissions on other factors, such as high school GPA. A large reason that they have done this is that they have found a low correlation between the scores on the tests and the students’ freshman year GPA. In other words, they were concerned that college entrance exams lacked which type of validity?

criterion validity

Julie has developed an intervention to improve the relationship between parents and pre-school-aged children. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of her intervention, Julie video records the parents interacting with their children at the end of the study. She has two research assistants watch the videos and rate the level of warmth in the interaction. Julie then correlates the ratings of the raters. She finds a high positive correlation (r = .87) between the two raters. What would a scatterplot of these results (ratings by the first research assistant on the x-axis, ratings of the second research assistant on the y-axis) look like?

The cloud of points would slope upward from left to right.

Which statistic is used to represent the internal reliability of multiple-item self-report scales?

Cronbach’s alpha

___________ is a statistic based on the average of inter-item correlations. It is used to assess internal reliability of a scale.

Cronbach’s alpha

Josiane has found an online test that claims to measure IQ. It consists of choosing the correct definitions for a series of words. She is concerned that it doesn’t include any tests of other things that are part of IQ, such as problem solving or visual-spatial ability. Which type of validity is she questioning?

content validity

Mendoza et al. (2009) introduced a coin rotation task as a convenient test of motor dexterity. It involves timed completion of twenty 180° rotations of a nickel using the thumb, index, and middle fingers. The results were compared to the results of another widely used test of motor dexterity, the finger-tapping task, in which participants tap their index fingers as many times as possible in 10 seconds. The results indicated that there was a statistically significant relationship between the finger-tapping task and the coin rotation task (r = -.40). What would a scatterplot of these results (coin rotation scores on the x-axis, finger-tapping scores on the y-axis) look like?

a cloud of points would slope downward from left to right

A negative correlation coefficient means that there is a ________ slope

downward

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