PSYCH 245

Total Word Count: 9514
   Send article as PDF   

1. Which of the following is an example of being a producer of research?
a. Administering an anxiety questionnaire
b. Applying a new therapy technique
c. Writing an opinion article about a psychological study
d. Undergoing a brain scan
e. None of the above are examples of being a producer of research

a. Administering an anxiety questionnaire

2. Which of the following is NOT an example of being a producer of research?
a. Administering a questionnaire of PTSD symptoms
b. Observing the behavior of rats who have been socially isolated
c. Attending a psychological conference
d. Measuring dopamine levels in patients with schizophrenia
e. All of the above are examples of being producers of research

c. Attending a psychological conference

3. Students who are interested in being consumers of research might choose all of the following professions EXCEPT:
a. A speech therapist
b. An FBI agent
c. A guidance counselor
d. A product tester
e. An advertising executive

d. A product tester

4. Michael is a psychology student. Why is it important for him to know how to be a producer of research?
a. Because he might have to write an APA-style paper
b. Because he might need to conduct a study as part of a class
c. Because he may work in a professor’s research lab
d. Because he may apply to graduate school in a research area
e. All of the above are important

e. All of the above are important

5. Elliott is double majoring in English and psychology. He plans on being a high school English teacher and is only majoring in psychology because he finds the classes interesting. All of the following are important reasons for him to be a good consumer of research EXCEPT:
a. Because he will likely be asked to read research studies in his future psychology classes
b. Because he will likely encounter research studies described in popular magazines he reads
c. Because he will likely need to conduct research related to enhancing his teaching
d. Because he will likely need to be a producer of researcher as well
e. All of the above are reasons for him to be a good consumer

d. Because he will likely need to be a producer of researcher as well

6. For which of the following people is it important to learn how to be a consumer of research?
a. Teachers
b. Advertising executives
c. Human resource managers
d. Sales representatives
e. All of the above should learn to be good consumers of research

e. All of the above should learn to be good consumers of research

7. Which of the following is NOT a scientific cycle discussed in the text?
a. Journal-journalism cycle
b. Graduate-undergraduate cycle
c. Basic-applied cycle
d. Peer-review cycle
e. Theory-data cycle

b. Graduate-undergraduate cycle

8. According to the text, which of the scientific cycles is the most important cycle in science?
a. Journal-journalism cycle
b. Basic-applied cycle
c. Peer-review cycle
d. Theory-data cycle
e. They are all equally important

d. Theory-data cycle

RESEARCH STUDY 1.1
Deci and Ryan (1985, 2001) have proposed that there are three fundamental needs that are required for human growth and fulfillment: relatedness, autonomy, and competence. Susan predicts that students who have these needs met in their psychology class feel happier and more satisfied with the class. She collects data and finds that students who feel more related and competent do feel happier but that feeling more autonomous does not seem to matter. Susan thinks that maybe autonomy is only necessary when people are in situations in which they are not being evaluated.

9. Refer to Research Study 1.1 above to answer the following question.
This scenario is an example of which scientific cycle?
a. Journal-journalism cycle
b. Basic-applied cycle
c. Theory-data cycle
d. Peer-review cycle
e. Psychologist-student cycle

c. Theory-data cycle

RESEARCH STUDY 1.1
Deci and Ryan (1985, 2001) have proposed that there are three fundamental needs that are required for human growth and fulfillment: relatedness, autonomy, and competence. Susan predicts that students who have these needs met in their psychology class feel happier and more satisfied with the class. She collects data and finds that students who feel more related and competent do feel happier but that feeling more autonomous does not seem to matter. Susan thinks that maybe autonomy is only necessary when people are in situations in which they are not being evaluated.

10. Refer to Research Study 1.1 above to answer the following question.
Deci and Ryan’s general statement of how the three needs are related to growth and fulfillment is an example of which of the following?
a. A law
b. A theory
c. A hypothesis
d. Data
e. Research

b. A theory

RESEARCH STUDY 1.1
Deci and Ryan (1985, 2001) have proposed that there are three fundamental needs that are required for human growth and fulfillment: relatedness, autonomy, and competence. Susan predicts that students who have these needs met in their psychology class feel happier and more satisfied with the class. She collects data and finds that students who feel more related and competent do feel happier but that feeling more autonomous does not seem to matter. Susan thinks that maybe autonomy is only necessary when people are in situations in which they are not being evaluated.

11. Refer to Research Study 1.1 above to answer the following question.
Susan’s prediction that students who experience all of the three needs will experience greater satisfaction with their psychology class is an example of which of the following?
a. A law
b. A theory
c. A hypothesis
d. Data
e. Research

c. A hypothesis

RESEARCH STUDY 1.1
Deci and Ryan (1985, 2001) have proposed that there are three fundamental needs that are required for human growth and fulfillment: relatedness, autonomy, and competence. Susan predicts that students who have these needs met in their psychology class feel happier and more satisfied with the class. She collects data and finds that students who feel more related and competent do feel happier but that feeling more autonomous does not seem to matter. Susan thinks that maybe autonomy is only necessary when people are in situations in which they are not being evaluated.

12. Refer to Research Study 1.1 above to answer the following question.
After Susan collects and analyzes her data, which of the following is the next logical step?
a. Writing a paper challenging Self-Determination Theory, because only some of her data supported it
b. Ignoring the data that did not fit the theory
c. Finding a new collaborator
d. Recalculating her data to fit the theory
e. Altering or amending the theory to fit her data

e. Altering or amending the theory to fit her data

RESEARCH STUDY 1.1
Deci and Ryan (1985, 2001) have proposed that there are three fundamental needs that are required for human growth and fulfillment: relatedness, autonomy, and competence. Susan predicts that students who have these needs met in their psychology class feel happier and more satisfied with the class. She collects data and finds that students who feel more related and competent do feel happier but that feeling more autonomous does not seem to matter. Susan thinks that maybe autonomy is only necessary when people are in situations in which they are not being evaluated.

13. Refer to Research Study 1.1 above to answer the following question.
Susan’s hypothesis was not completely supported by her data. What does this mean?
a. Susan must have collected the data incorrectly.
b. Susan must have analyzed the data incorrectly.
c. The theory may need to be amended.
d. The theory is completely wrong.
e. Susan should stick to being a consumer of research.

c. The theory may need to be amended.

14. _____________ is the approach of collecting data and using it to develop, support, and/or challenge a theory.
a. Parsimony
b. Falsifiability
c. Theorizing
d. Empiricism
e. Application

d. Empiricism

15. Occam’s razor states that the simplest solution is the best, all things being equal. This speaks to a theory’s:
a. Parsimony
b. Falsifiability
c. Theorizing
d. Empiricism
e. Application

a. Parsimony

16. Benjamin is a social psychologist who studies marriage. He believes that marital satisfaction has two components: the ability to trust one’s partner and a belief that one can be a good spouse. This is known as:
a. A law
b. A theory
c. A hypothesis
d. Data
e. Research

b. A theory

17. Benjamin is a social psychologist who studies marriage. He believes that marital satisfaction has two components: the ability to trust one’s partner and a belief that one can be a good spouse. He conducts a study to test his ideas. Assuming that his data match his theory, which of the following statements should he make?
a. "The data prove my theory"
b. "My theory is generalizable"
c. "The data provide support for my theory"
d. "The data complicate my theory"
e. None of the above

c. "The data provide support for my theory"

18. Which of the following is true of the relationship between hypotheses and theories?
a. Hypotheses are a step taken to determine if a theory is accurate.
b. Theories are used to determine if a hypothesis is accurate.
c. Multiple theories are needed to test whether a hypothesis is accurate.
d. Hypotheses and theories are synonymous terms.
e. None of the above are true.

a. Hypotheses are a step taken to determine if a theory is accurate.

Both James and Thomas have theories that explain why listening to classical music while reading is associated with increased recall of the material. James’s theory is much simpler than Thomas’s. Thomas created his theory a few months before James did. Which of the following is true?
a. James’s theory would be considered better because it is more parsimonious.
b. James’s theory would be considered better because it was thought of more recently.
c. Thomas’s theory would be considered better because he thought of it first.
d. Thomas’s theory would be considered better because it is more complex.
e. James’s and Thomas’s theories should be considered equal.

a. James’s theory would be considered better because it is more parsimonious.

20. Which of the following is an example of applied research?
a. A social psychologist who is interested in the components of self-concept
b. An educational psychologist who looks for a way to increase math skills in 8-year-olds
c. A personality psychologist who studies the difference between introverts and extroverts
d. A cognitive psychologist who looks at the difference in problem-solving abilities of men and women
e. None of the above

b. An educational psychologist who looks for a way to increase math skills in 8-year-olds

21. Which of the following is NOT an example of applied research?
a. An industrial-organizational psychologist who is interested in the components of job satisfaction
b. A clinical psychologist who examines the effectiveness of art therapy in decreasing symptoms of ADHD
c. A sports psychologist who examines how mind-set ("train well" versus "win") affects athletic performance
d. A cognitive psychologist who examines people’s ability to distinguish between colors based on light exposure
e. All of the above are examples of applied research

d. A cognitive psychologist who examines people’s ability to distinguish between colors based on light exposure

22. Which of the following is an example of basic research?
a. An industrial-organizational psychologist who is interested in the components of job commitment
b. A clinical psychologist who examines the effectiveness of drama therapy in helping children who have been abused
c. An educational psychologist who examines how mind-set ("intelligence is innate" or "intelligence can be achieved") affects academic performance
d. An experimental psychologist who examines people’s ability to perceive a "sweet" taste
e. All of the above are examples of applied research

d. An experimental psychologist who examines people’s ability to perceive a "sweet" taste

23. Research that is done specifically to solve a practical problem, like increasing memory ability or decreasing symptoms of depression, is known as:
a. Basic research
b. Applied research
c. Empirical research
d. Practical research
e. Translational research

b. Applied research

24. Research that is done specifically to add to our general understanding of psychology, like distinguishing the components of extraversion or predicting the time it takes a person to determine whether an object is a face or another object, is known as:
a. Basic research
b. Applied research
c. Empirical research
d. Practical research
e. Translational research

a. Basic research

25. Which of the following is true of the difference between basic and applied research?
a. There is a give-and-take relationship between these two types of research.
b. Applied research is more important than basic research.
c. Basic research is more difficult to conduct than applied research.
d. Applied research is done by consumers of research.
e. None of the above are true.

a. There is a give-and-take relationship between these two types of research.

26. Vinai learns that people with schizophrenia have a problem labeling their emotions. Using this information, he designs a research study to examine whether teaching schizophrenic patients to label the emotions of people they see in movie clips helps them to better label their own emotions. This is an example of:
a. Basic research
b. Applied research
c. Empirical research
d. Practical research
e. Translational research

e. Translational research

27. According to the text, the bridge between basic and applied research is known as:
a. Empirical research
b. Practical research
c. Translational research
d. Elementary research
e. Compound research

c. Translational research

28. Journals and magazines are similar in all the following ways EXCEPT:
a. Both tend to have articles written by several different contributors.
b. Both tend to be released monthly or quarterly.
c. Both tend to have their articles peer reviewed.
d. All of the above are true.
e. None of the above are true.

c. Both tend to have their articles peer reviewed.

29. Which of the following is the reason that scientific journals use peer review?
a. It is cost effective.
b. It is more efficient/faster.
c. It encourages collaboration among researchers.
d. It ensures that the studies published are of the highest quality.
e. All of the above are true.

d. It ensures that the studies published are of the highest quality.

30. Nadia submits her article to a scientific journal for publication. Who makes the final decision on whether an article is published in that scientific journal?
a. The editor of the journal
b. Nadia, the author of the article
c. A panel of experts
d. The publisher of the journal
e. All of the above decide whether it will be published

a. The editor of the journal

31. Which aspect of the peer-review cycle allows for the greatest amount of honesty in reviews?
a. The number of peer reviewers
b. The anonymity of the peer reviewers
c. The possibility of rejection
d. The frequency of publication
e. All of the above are true

b. The anonymity of the peer reviewers

32. Dr. Gonzalez is a peer reviewer for a manuscript submitted to a journal. He is likely to provide comments on all of the following EXCEPT:
a. The novelty of the research
b. How interesting the research is
c. How well the research was conducted
d. The prestige/reputation of the author
e. How important the results are

d. The prestige/reputation of the author

33. Dr. Stewart is an editor of a psychology journal. She wants to ensure that reviewers give honest reviews of the papers they are asked to read. Which of the following could she do to increase the likelihood of honest feedback?
a. Increase the number of peer reviewers
b. Decrease the number of peer reviewers
c. Use reviewers from fields other than psychology
d. Make sure the identity of peer reviewers is unknown
e. Give reviewers a longer amount of time to read papers

d. Make sure the identity of peer reviewers is unknown

34. Articles that could be considered journalism:
a. Are typically written by scientists
b. Are typically written for scientists
c. Are hard to access
d. Require specialized education to read
e. None of the above could be considered journalism

d. Require specialized education to read

35. The quality of journalists’ coverage of a science story will depend on two factors:
a. The importance and accuracy of the story
b. The length and source of the story
c. The education and experience of the journalist
d. The education and experience of the scientist
e. All of the above are factors

a. The importance and accuracy of the story

1. A psychiatrist is testing a drug that treats depression. He has given the drug to all his patients and all of them have experienced a decrease in depressive symptoms. Although this is interesting, his experience is limited because he does not have a:
a. Reliable way to measure depressive symptoms
b. Comparison group that did not receive the drug
c. Hypothesis
d. Psychotherapy to supplement the drug
e. None of the above

b. Comparison group that did not receive the drug

RESEARCH STUDY 2.1
Charlotte is studying subliminal messages and weight loss. She is curious whether people who hear in the music on their iPods subliminal messages that encourage weight loss ("don’t eat that food," "you want to be thin") lose more weight than people who do not have subliminal messages in their music. She studies 40 people and finds the following results:

Number Who Lost Weight Number Who Did Not Lose Weight
Exposed to Subliminal Messages
(Cell A) 15 people
(Cell C) 5 people
Not Exposed to Subliminal Messages
(Cell B) 10 people
(Cell D) 10 people

2. Refer to Research Study 2.1 above to answer the following question.
To understand whether the subliminal messages have an effect, Charlotte needs to consider all of the following cells in the chart above EXCEPT:
a. Cell A
b. Cell B
c. Cell C
d. Cell D
e. She must consider all of the cells

e. She must consider all of the cells

RESEARCH STUDY 2.1
Charlotte is studying subliminal messages and weight loss. She is curious whether people who hear in the music on their iPods subliminal messages that encourage weight loss ("don’t eat that food," "you want to be thin") lose more weight than people who do not have subliminal messages in their music. She studies 40 people and finds the following results:

Number Who Lost Weight Number Who Did Not Lose Weight
Exposed to Subliminal Messages
(Cell A) 15 people
(Cell C) 5 people
Not Exposed to Subliminal Messages
(Cell B) 10 people
(Cell D) 10 people

3. Refer to Research Study 2.1 above to answer the following question.
A change to which of the following cells will result in a different interpretation of the results of subliminal messages?
a. Cell A
b. Cell B
c. Cell C
d. Cell D
e. A change in any of the cells will affect the interpretation

e. A change in any of the cells will affect the interpretation

4. Vanessa claims that she sleeps better when she falls asleep to music. She has a comparison group, because she has noticed that she does not listen to music every night, only when she remembers to plug in her iPod. She typically remembers her iPod on nights when she is able to finish studying earlier. What problem do you see in Vanessa’s reasoning about sleeping better to music?
a. Vanessa may be sleeping better because she is less distracted by studying/going to bed sooner.
b. Vanessa’s belief that she sleeps better with music is not falsifiable.
c. Vanessa is biased because she sleeps in the same bed every night.
d. Vanessa cannot make the claim about sleeping better to music because she has not asked a psychologist.
e. There is no problem with Vanessa’s reasoning.

a. Vanessa may be sleeping better because she is less distracted by studying/going to bed sooner.

5. An alternative explanation for an outcome is known as a/an:
a. Confound
b. Alternative
c. Confederate
d. Secondary explanation
e. None of the above

a. Confound

6. Controlled studies are superior to personal experience because:
a. They include at least one comparison group
b. They avoid confounds
c. They use confederates
d. Both a and b
e. All of the above

d. Both a and b

7. What does it mean that behavioral research is probabilistic?
a. Conclusions drawn from behavioral research are probably true.
b. Inferences drawn from behavioral research are not expected to explain all cases.
c. Behavioral research requires multiple studies to be convincing.
d. A and B are true.
e. B and C are true.

e. B and C are true.

8. Angela reads about a study in which cell phone use is associated with migraine headaches. She says, "Well, that study is not valid because I use a cell phone more than anyone I know and I never get migraines." Based on her comment, Angela may be forgetting which of the following?
a. The study is in a prestigious magazine.
b. The study has been replicated.
c. The study did not properly define cell phone use.
d. Science is probabilistic.
e. Science is based on empiricism.

d. Science is probabilistic.

9. The two biases of intuition discussed in the text are:
a. Thinking the easy way and thinking what we want to think
b. The present-present bias and the confederate bias
c. Probabilistic thinking and nonintuitive thinking
d. Overconfidence bias and oversimplification bias
e. None of the above

a. Thinking the easy way and thinking what we want to think

10. James is asked about what is the best way to study for an exam. He responds that the best way to study is by making flash cards. He easily thinks of all the times he used flash cards and he made A’s. However, he fails to take into consideration all the times he made A’s and did not use flash cards and the times he used flash cards and did not do well. His faulty thinking is an example of:
a. Oversimplification bias
b. Availability heuristic
c. Present/present bias
d. Asking biased questions
e. Cherry-picking evidence

c. Present/present bias

11. Edward believes that there are a lot of differences between men and women on a variety of different dimensions. He believes this because when he thinks about books that have been written on men and women, he can recall only books that say men and women are different (e.g., Men Are from Mars, Women Are from Venus) and cannot recall any that say men and women are the same. His reliance on what comes to mind is an example of which of the following?
a. The pop-up principle
b. Cherry-picking of evidence
c. Confirmatory hypothesis testing
d. Overconfidence
e. None of the above

a. The pop-up principle

12. The problem with the pop-up principle is which of the following?
a. We do not examine all of the evidence, only what we can quickly think of.
b. We rely on the opinions of others rather than on our own opinions.
c. It keeps us from examining our own experience.
d. We will never be right in our conclusions.
e. None of the above is the problem with the pop-up principle.

a. We do not examine all of the evidence, only what we can quickly think of.

13. Asking questions to get the answers we want is known as:
a. The pop-up principle
b. Availability heuristic
c. Cherry-picking of evidence
d. Confirmatory hypothesis testing
e. Overconfidence

d. Confirmatory hypothesis testing

14. Which of the following is NOT an example of "thinking what we want"?
a. Cherry-picking of evidence
b. Availability heuristic
c. Confirmatory hypothesis testing
d. Overconfidence
e. All of the above are examples of "thinking what we want"

b. Availability heuristic

15. Sasha believes that she is a nice person. To confirm this, she asks all her friends whether she is a nice person and they all agree that she is. Sasha concludes that she is a nice person and says she has evidence of it. However, she does not ask any of her enemies whether they think she is a nice person. This is an example of which of the following?
a. Cherry-picking of evidence
b. Availability heuristic
c. Fourth cell reasoning
d. Overconfidence
e. All of the above are examples of "thinking what we want"

a. Cherry-picking of evidence

16. Sasha believes that she is a nice person. To confirm this, she asks all her friends whether she is a nice person and they all agree that she is. Sasha concludes that she is a nice person and says she has evidence of it. However, she does not ask any of her enemies whether they think she is a nice person. Sasha would likely draw a different conclusion if she did which of the following?
a. Asked her friends to answer her question in anonymous multiple-choice format
b. Asked her enemies if she was a nice person
c. Counted up all the times she was nice in the past
d. Asked all her friends the same question again in another 6 months
e. Considered all the times she was nice to her enemies

b. Asked her enemies if she was a nice person

17. Patrick is confident that his short-term memory is better than most people’s. He knows this because compared with his friends, he can remember more names than they do. Which of the following should we do?
a. Believe that his short-term memory is better that most people’s because confident people are more often accurate
b. Believe that his short-term memory is better than most people’s because he has a comparison group
c. Not believe that his short-term memory is better than most people’s because confidence does not ensure accuracy
d. Not believe that his short-term memory is better than most people’s because there are few individual differences in short-term memory

c. Not believe that his short-term memory is better than most people’s because confidence does not ensure accuracy

18. Which of the following can be said of most authorities?
a. They do not cherry-pick evidence.
b. They do not base their opinions on their own experience.
c. They do not base their opinions on their intuition.
d. They base their conclusions only on well-conducted research.
e. None of the above can be said.

e. None of the above can be said.

19. You and your friends go to see a speaker on campus, Dr. Darian, an "expert" on getting into graduate school. Which of the following should make you less skeptical about his advice?
a. His recommendations are based on techniques that have worked for his students.
b. His recommendations are based on the techniques that helped him get into graduate school.
c. His recommendations are based on research he conducted for his dissertation.
d. His recommendations are similar to what you knew before you came to the talk.
e. None of the above should make you less skeptical of his advice.

c. His recommendations are based on research he conducted for his dissertation.

20. Where do psychological scientists commonly publish their work?
a. Edited books
b. Popular magazine
c. Scientific journals
d. Both a and c
e. All of the above

d. Both a and c

21. Which of the following is true of the distinction between scientific journals and popular magazines?
a. Scientific journals are published quarterly; popular magazines are published monthly.
b. Scientific journals are published for scientists; popular magazines are published for the general public.
c. Scientific journal articles are peer reviewed; popular magazine articles are not.
d. Both a and c are true.
e. Both b and c are true.

e. Both b and c are true.

22. Diego is interested in examining the relationship between a person’s attachment style and his or her relationship satisfaction. He finds 65 studies that have examined this topic. He combines the results of all these studies and calculates an effect size. His research is most accurately described as:
a. A meta-analysis
b. A review journal article
c. An empirical journal article
d. A chapter in an edited book
e. A PsychWiki

a. A meta-analysis

23. Ellie is looking for a summary of research on the effects of childhood abuse on adult functioning. Which of the following scientific sources would NOT be an ideal source?
a. A meta-analysis
b. A review journal article
c. An empirical journal article
d. A chapter in an edited book
e. All of the above are ideal sources

c. An empirical journal article

24. Compared with doing a generic Internet search, why is PsycINFO a superior way to find scientific sources?
a. It is free.
b. It provides you with research abstracts.
c. It can be done on any computer.
d. It searches research scientists’ websites.
e. PsycINFO is not a superior way to find scientific sources.

b. It provides you with research abstracts.

25. Which of the following is the first section of an empirical journal article?
a. Introduction
b. Results
c. References
d. Abstract
e. Method

d. Abstract

26. Matthew is reading an empirical journal article and wants to know whether the authors used the Big Five Inventory (BFI-44) or the NEO-PI to measure extraversion. In which section would he find this information?
a. Introduction
b. Method
c. Results
d. Discussion
e. References

b. Method

27. Lana is writing her first empirical journal article. Although she thinks she knows why she found the results she did, she also wants to mention some alternative explanations for her findings. In which section will she mention these alternative explanations?
a. Introduction
b. Method
c. Results
d. Discussion
e. References

d. Discussion

28. Which of the following has the sections of an empirical journal article in the correct order?
a. References, abstract, Discussion, Method, Results
b. Introduction, Results, Discussion, Method, references
c. Introduction, Discussion, Method, Results, abstract
d. Abstract, references, introduction, Results, Discussion
e. Abstract, Method, Results, Discussion, references

e. Abstract, Method, Results, Discussion, references

29. Javier wants his lab partner to tell him if he thinks the article he found for their project is appropriate. Rather than have him read the article, which two parts of the paper could Javier have his lab partner read to get a summary of the article?
a. The abstract and the first paragraph of the introduction
b. The abstract and the first paragraph of the Discussion
c. The abstract and the Method section
d. The last paragraph of the introduction and the Results section
e. The last paragraph of the introduction and the references

b. The abstract and the first paragraph of the Discussion

30. Which of the following is NOT a section or subsection commonly found in an empirical journal article?
a. Abstract
b. Outcomes
c. Participants
d. Discussion
e. Procedure

b. Outcomes

31. When reading an empirical journal article "with a purpose," which two questions should you ask yourself as you read?
a. What is the argument? and What is the evidence to support the argument?
b. What were the methods? and What are the results?
c. What is the hypothesis? and What are the explanations?
d. What research exists on this topic? and What research needs to be conducted to answer the question?
e. None of the above

a. What is the argument? and What is the evidence to support the argument?

32. When reading an empirical journal article "with purpose," which section should you read first?
a. Abstract
b. Introduction
c. Method
d. Results
e. Discussion

a. Abstract

33. When reading an empirical journal article "with purpose," why should you read the abstract first?
a. Because it is the shortest section
b. Because it provides an overview of the article
c. Because it appears first in the paper
d. Because it is written by the journal’s editor
e. Because it appears in PsycINFO

a. Because it is the shortest section

34. Looking for which of the following in a trade book will give you a hint as to its scientific rigor?
a. Its cost
b. The number of pages
c. The number of references
d. The number of authors
e. Its year of publication

c. The number of references

35. Which of the following is a downside to using a wiki to conduct psychological research?
a. Their coverage of a topic is not necessarily comprehensive.
b. The page may not include references.
c. The page may include incorrect information.
d. A page may not have content that is specific to psychology.
e. All of the above are downsides.

e. All of the above are downsides.

1. The aim of the Tuskegee Study was to examine which disease?
a. Syphilis
b. Cancer
c. Tuberculosis
d. Smallpox
e. None of the above

a. Syphilis

2. Which of the following events did NOT occur in the Tuskegee Study?
a. Researchers told participants they were receiving treatment even though they were not.
b. Participants in the study were given/infected with the disease.
c. Participants were not told they had been infected with the disease.
d. Researchers prevented participants from seeking treatment.
e. All of the above occurred in the study.

b. Participants in the study were given/infected with the disease.

3. Which of the following ethical violations proposed by the Belmont Report was NOT committed in the Tuskegee Study?
a. Participants were harmed.
b. Participants were not treated respectfully.
c. Participants were not treated by actual doctors.
d. Participants were from a disadvantaged social group.
e. All of the violations above were committed.

c. Participants were not treated by actual doctors.

4. In considering whether research is ethical, which of the following are balanced against each other?
a. Inconvenience to participants versus benefit to the researcher
b. Time investment of the study versus complexity of the study
c. Importance of the research versus financial cost to conduct the study
d. Risk to participants versus value of the knowledge gained
e. None of the above

d. Risk to participants versus value of the knowledge gained

5. Which of the following is NOT true of the Belmont Report?
a. It was written at the request of the U.S. Congress.
b. It was created in 1976.
c. It was written in response to medical experiments performed in Nazi-occupied Europe.
d. It yielded three guiding principles of ethical research.
e. All of the above are true.

e. All of the above are true.

RESEARCH STUDY 4.1
Dr. Kline is planning on conducting a study next semester. He is curious as to whether sleep deprivation is associated with poorer cognitive performance. For example, if you sleep poorly the night before a big exam, will you do worse? Dr. Kline is especially curious about selective sleep deprivation, where people are kept from entering R.E.M. (rapid eye movement) sleep. Using an electroencephalograph (EEG) to monitor brain waves, he plans to let participants sleep until they enter R.E.M. sleep and then he will wake them. After 1 minute of being awake, he plans to let them return to sleep. As they enter R.E.M. sleep again, he wakes them up again and follows the same procedure. He plans to do this through the entire 8-hour sleep session. The following morning, participants will be asked to take a sample SAT test.

6. Refer to Research Study 4.1 above to answer the following question.
Dr. Kline asks his participants to provide informed consent. Doing this is adhering to which principle of the Belmont Report?
a. The Principle of Beneficence
b. The Principle of Justice
c. The Principle of Fidelity
d. The Principle of Integrity
e. The Principle of Respect for Persons

e. The Principle of Respect for Persons

RESEARCH STUDY 4.1
Dr. Kline is planning on conducting a study next semester. He is curious as to whether sleep deprivation is associated with poorer cognitive performance. For example, if you sleep poorly the night before a big exam, will you do worse? Dr. Kline is especially curious about selective sleep deprivation, where people are kept from entering R.E.M. (rapid eye movement) sleep. Using an electroencephalograph (EEG) to monitor brain waves, he plans to let participants sleep until they enter R.E.M. sleep and then he will wake them. After 1 minute of being awake, he plans to let them return to sleep. As they enter R.E.M. sleep again, he wakes them up again and follows the same procedure. He plans to do this through the entire 8-hour sleep session. The following morning, participants will be asked to take a sample SAT test.

7. Refer to Research Study 4.1 above to answer the following question.
Imagine that Dr. Kline is a clinical psychologist who volunteers his time at a local prison counseling several inmates. Because of his connections there, he is considering using prisoners as his participants. Why is this choice potentially problematic?
a. According to the Belmont Report, prisoners are entitled to special protection.
b. Since he works at the prison, participants may feel there will be negative consequences if they do not participate.
c. Prisoners are unable to give informed consent.
d. Both a and b are potentially problematic.
e. All of the above are potentially problematic.

d. Both a and b are potentially problematic.

RESEARCH STUDY 4.1
Dr. Kline is planning on conducting a study next semester. He is curious as to whether sleep deprivation is associated with poorer cognitive performance. For example, if you sleep poorly the night before a big exam, will you do worse? Dr. Kline is especially curious about selective sleep deprivation, where people are kept from entering R.E.M. (rapid eye movement) sleep. Using an electroencephalograph (EEG) to monitor brain waves, he plans to let participants sleep until they enter R.E.M. sleep and then he will wake them. After 1 minute of being awake, he plans to let them return to sleep. As they enter R.E.M. sleep again, he wakes them up again and follows the same procedure. He plans to do this through the entire 8-hour sleep session. The following morning, participants will be asked to take a sample SAT test.

8. Refer to Research Study 4.1 above to answer the following question.
To address the Belmont Principle of Beneficence, Dr. Kline would need to ask which of the following questions?
a. Are the people in my study going to benefit as much as the people not in my study?
b. What can I do to decrease the potential harm experienced by my participants?
c. Can the participants in my study give full, informed consent?
d. Am I trained sufficiently to conduct this study?
e. Have I completed all the steps required by my Institutional Review Board?

b. What can I do to decrease the potential harm

RESEARCH STUDY 4.1
Dr. Kline is planning on conducting a study next semester. He is curious as to whether sleep deprivation is associated with poorer cognitive performance. For example, if you sleep poorly the night before a big exam, will you do worse? Dr. Kline is especially curious about selective sleep deprivation, where people are kept from entering R.E.M. (rapid eye movement) sleep. Using an electroencephalograph (EEG) to monitor brain waves, he plans to let participants sleep until they enter R.E.M. sleep and then he will wake them. After 1 minute of being awake, he plans to let them return to sleep. As they enter R.E.M. sleep again, he wakes them up again and follows the same procedure. He plans to do this through the entire 8-hour sleep session. The following morning, participants will be asked to take a sample SAT test.

9. Refer to Research Study 4.1 above to answer the following question.
Dr. Kline suspects that the people who will most benefit from his study are high school and college students, who are asked to perform cognitive functions in various states of sleep deprivation. Given this information, what type of participants should Dr. Kline recruit for his study?
a. People with a history of sleep deprivation
b. Children from a local daycare center
c. Students from a community college
d. Patients from Dr. Kline’s clinical psychology practice
e. All of the above would be acceptable

c. Students from a community college

RESEARCH STUDY 4.1
Dr. Kline is planning on conducting a study next semester. He is curious as to whether sleep deprivation is associated with poorer cognitive performance. For example, if you sleep poorly the night before a big exam, will you do worse? Dr. Kline is especially curious about selective sleep deprivation, where people are kept from entering R.E.M. (rapid eye movement) sleep. Using an electroencephalograph (EEG) to monitor brain waves, he plans to let participants sleep until they enter R.E.M. sleep and then he will wake them. After 1 minute of being awake, he plans to let them return to sleep. As they enter R.E.M. sleep again, he wakes them up again and follows the same procedure. He plans to do this through the entire 8-hour sleep session. The following morning, participants will be asked to take a sample SAT test.

10. Refer to Research Study 4.1 above to answer the following question.
Dr. Kline’s decision about the type of participants to recruit should be informed by which of the following principles of the Belmont Report?
a. The Principle of Fidelity
b. The Principle of Integrity
c. The Principle of Respect for Persons
d. The Principle of Beneficence
e. The Principle of Justice

e. The Principle of Justice

RESEARCH STUDY 4.1
Dr. Kline is planning on conducting a study next semester. He is curious as to whether sleep deprivation is associated with poorer cognitive performance. For example, if you sleep poorly the night before a big exam, will you do worse? Dr. Kline is especially curious about selective sleep deprivation, where people are kept from entering R.E.M. (rapid eye movement) sleep. Using an electroencephalograph (EEG) to monitor brain waves, he plans to let participants sleep until they enter R.E.M. sleep and then he will wake them. After 1 minute of being awake, he plans to let them return to sleep. As they enter R.E.M. sleep again, he wakes them up again and follows the same procedure. He plans to do this through the entire 8-hour sleep session. The following morning, participants will be asked to take a sample SAT test.

11. Refer to Research Study 4.1 above to answer the following question.
As a psychologist who primarily does research, Dr. Kline is most concerned with which APA standard of ethics?
a. 2
b. 4
c. 6
d. 8
e. 10

d. 8

RESEARCH STUDY 4.1
Dr. Kline is planning on conducting a study next semester. He is curious as to whether sleep deprivation is associated with poorer cognitive performance. For example, if you sleep poorly the night before a big exam, will you do worse? Dr. Kline is especially curious about selective sleep deprivation, where people are kept from entering R.E.M. (rapid eye movement) sleep. Using an electroencephalograph (EEG) to monitor brain waves, he plans to let participants sleep until they enter R.E.M. sleep and then he will wake them. After 1 minute of being awake, he plans to let them return to sleep. As they enter R.E.M. sleep again, he wakes them up again and follows the same procedure. He plans to do this through the entire 8-hour sleep session. The following morning, participants will be asked to take a sample SAT test.

12. Refer to Research Study 4.1 above to answer the following question.
Imagine that Dr. Kline is a clinical psychologist who volunteers his time at a local prison counseling several inmates. Because of his connections there, he is considering using prisoners as his participants. The institutional review board (IRB) that reviews his committee must have which of the following as a member?
a. A prisoner advocate
b. A criminal justice professor
c. The prison warden
d. A clinical psychologist
e. A prisoner

a. A prisoner advocate

RESEARCH STUDY 4.1
Dr. Kline is planning on conducting a study next semester. He is curious as to whether sleep deprivation is associated with poorer cognitive performance. For example, if you sleep poorly the night before a big exam, will you do worse? Dr. Kline is especially curious about selective sleep deprivation, where people are kept from entering R.E.M. (rapid eye movement) sleep. Using an electroencephalograph (EEG) to monitor brain waves, he plans to let participants sleep until they enter R.E.M. sleep and then he will wake them. After 1 minute of being awake, he plans to let them return to sleep. As they enter R.E.M. sleep again, he wakes them up again and follows the same procedure. He plans to do this through the entire 8-hour sleep session. The following morning, participants will be asked to take a sample SAT test.

13. Refer to Research Study 4.1 above to answer the following question.
Dr. Kline plans to tell his participants that the reason he is waking them up during the night is to recalibrate the EEG machine. This would be an example of which of the following?
a. Deception through omission
b. Deception through commission
c. Deception through permission
d. Deception through exception
e. None of the above

b. Deception through commission

RESEARCH STUDY 4.1
Dr. Kline is planning on conducting a study next semester. He is curious as to whether sleep deprivation is associated with poorer cognitive performance. For example, if you sleep poorly the night before a big exam, will you do worse? Dr. Kline is especially curious about selective sleep deprivation, where people are kept from entering R.E.M. (rapid eye movement) sleep. Using an electroencephalograph (EEG) to monitor brain waves, he plans to let participants sleep until they enter R.E.M. sleep and then he will wake them. After 1 minute of being awake, he plans to let them return to sleep. As they enter R.E.M. sleep again, he wakes them up again and follows the same procedure. He plans to do this through the entire 8-hour sleep session. The following morning, participants will be asked to take a sample SAT test.

14. Refer to Research Study 4.1 above to answer the following question.
Dr. Kline is deciding whether he needs to give participants a reason for waking them up several times during the night. He knows that he cannot tell them the real reason, but he is unsure whether he should deceive them (give them a false reason why he is waking them up) or provide them with no cover story at all. Which of the following issues should be considered most heavily when deciding whether or not to use deception?
a. Whether his IRB will approve the use of deception
b. Whether he can create a convincing story that his participants will believe
c. Whether he can conduct the study just as well without deception
d. Whether his participants will be angry when they find out he used deception
e. All of the above are equally important in making this decision

c. Whether he can conduct the study just as well without deception

RESEARCH STUDY 4.1
Dr. Kline is planning on conducting a study next semester. He is curious as to whether sleep deprivation is associated with poorer cognitive performance. For example, if you sleep poorly the night before a big exam, will you do worse? Dr. Kline is especially curious about selective sleep deprivation, where people are kept from entering R.E.M. (rapid eye movement) sleep. Using an electroencephalograph (EEG) to monitor brain waves, he plans to let participants sleep until they enter R.E.M. sleep and then he will wake them. After 1 minute of being awake, he plans to let them return to sleep. As they enter R.E.M. sleep again, he wakes them up again and follows the same procedure. He plans to do this through the entire 8-hour sleep session. The following morning, participants will be asked to take a sample SAT test.

15. Refer to Research Study 4.1 above to answer the following question.
Dr. Kline plans to use deception in his study and is thinking about a debriefing session. Which of the following is true of the debriefing?
a. Dr. Kline only needs to invite participants who were troubled by the study to the debriefing session.
b. Because his study has potential medical applications, the use of a debriefing session is optional.
c. During the debriefing, Dr. Kline only needs to tell the participants that there was deception.
d. Participants must be told the reasons for the deception.
e. All of the above are true.

d. Participants must be told the reasons for the deception.

RESEARCH STUDY 4.1
Dr. Kline is planning on conducting a study next semester. He is curious as to whether sleep deprivation is associated with poorer cognitive performance. For example, if you sleep poorly the night before a big exam, will you do worse? Dr. Kline is especially curious about selective sleep deprivation, where people are kept from entering R.E.M. (rapid eye movement) sleep. Using an electroencephalograph (EEG) to monitor brain waves, he plans to let participants sleep until they enter R.E.M. sleep and then he will wake them. After 1 minute of being awake, he plans to let them return to sleep. As they enter R.E.M. sleep again, he wakes them up again and follows the same procedure. He plans to do this through the entire 8-hour sleep session. The following morning, participants will be asked to take a sample SAT test.

16. Refer to Research Study 4.1 above to answer the following question.
Upon receiving IRB approval, Dr. Kline trusts his graduate student to conduct the study. However, his graduate student does not conduct the study and instead provides Dr. Kline with invented results that support his hypotheses. This is known as which of the following?
a. Data fabrication
b. Data falsification
c. Plagiarism
d. Intellectual property destruction
e. None of the above

a. Data fabrication

17. According to the Belmont Report, which of the following groups of people is entitled to special protection?
a. College students
b. Members of minority racial groups
c. Parents
d. Immigrants
e. None of the above

e. None of the above

18. Which of the following is NOT an example of coercion?
a. A researcher hinting to participants that their employer will be told if they do not participate
b. A researcher offering 3 points of extra credit to college students to participate in a study
c. A researcher offering homeless participants $1,000 to participate in a study
d. All of the above are examples of coercion
e. None of the above are examples of coercion

b. A researcher offering 3 points of extra credit to college students to participate in a study

19. The need to balance the potential costs and benefits to participants taking part in a research study is done to address which principle of the Belmont Report?
a. The Principle of Respect for Persons
b. The Principle of Justice
c. The Principle of Beneficence
d. The Principle of Fidelity
e. The Principle of Integrity

c. The Principle of Beneficence

20. The belief that the participants in a research study should be representative of the type of people who would also benefit from the findings of the research stems from which principle of the Belmont Report?
a. The Principle of Justice
b. The Principle of Respect for Persons
c. The Principle of Beneficence
d. The Principle of Fidelity
e. The Principle of Integrity

a. The Principle of Justice

21. In addition to the three principles derived from the Belmont Report, which of the following two principles were added to the principle put forth by the American Psychological Association?
a. The Principle of Consent and Honesty
b. The Principle of Reliability and Validity
c. The Principle of Honor and Accountability/Commitment
d. The Principle of Integrity and Fidelity/Responsibility
e. None of the above

d. The Principle of Integrity and Fidelity/Responsibility

22. The American Psychological Association’s ethical guidelines have _________ principles and __________ standards.
a. 3, 10
b. 3, 8
c. 3, 5
d. 5, 10
e. 5, 8

d. 5, 10

23. All of the following are true of IRBs in the United States EXCEPT:
a. They can be found in settings other than colleges and universities
b. They are mandated by federal law
c. They must have a psychologist as a member
d. They must have at least five members
e. They tend to have detailed applications for researchers to complete

c. They must have a psychologist as a member

24. Prior to research being conducted, a research proposal must be submitted for IRB approval in all of the following cases EXCEPT:
a. An anonymous survey about attitudes toward college athletics
b. An anonymous study looking at gang behavior in recent parolees
c. A confidential study examining sleep patterns in newborns
d. A confidential study examining sexual behavior in mentally handicapped individuals
e. All of the above must be approved by an IRB

e. All of the above must be approved by an IRB

25. In which of the following situations would written informed consent not necessarily be required?
a. An observational study that measures walking speed of people entering and exiting buildings
b. An anonymous study that measures the relationship between time spent grocery shopping and money spent on groceries
c. A confidential study examining income level and voting behavior
d. Neither a nor b need written informed consent
e. None of the studies above would require written informed consent

d. Neither a nor b need written informed consent

26. What is the difference between data that is collected anonymously and data that is collected confidentially?
a. Anonymous research collects participants’ names but separates them from the data; confidential research does not collect participants’ names.
b. Confidential research collects participants’ names but separates them from the data; anonymous research does not collect participants’ names.
c. Anonymous research collects sensitive information about participants (e.g., sexual behavior, illegal behavior); confidential research collects nonsensitive information about participants.
d. Confidential research collects sensitive information about participants (e.g., sexual behavior, illegal behavior); anonymous research collects nonsensitive information about participants.
e. Anonymous research and confidential research are the same thing.

b. Confidential research collects participants’ names but separates them from the data; anonymous research does not collect participants’ names.

27. Which of the following is true of students’ views of deception and harm in research studies?
a. Students usually are tolerant of studies that use major deception.
b. Students are not tolerant of any degree of deception.
c. Students do not find deception to be stressful.
d. Students find the negative effects of deception to be worsened by debriefing.
e. None of the above are true.

e. None of the above are true.

28. Which of the following is the primary goal of debriefing?
a. To prevent researchers from being sued
b. To give participants insight into the nature of psychological science
c. To inform participants about the presence and purpose of deception in a study
d. Both b and c
e. All of the above

d. Both b and c

29. A local committee that reviews research that is conducted on animals is known as __________.
a. An IACUC
b. An AIRB
c. An AWA
d. An IRB
e. PETA

a. An IACUC

30. In which of the following ways is an IACUC different from an IRB?
a. IACUCs are optional at universities conducting animal research; IRBs are mandatory at universities conducting human research.
b. Seeking permission from an IACUC is recommended but not required for animal research; IRB approval is required for human research.
c. IACUCs monitor the care and treatment of animals throughout the study; IRBs do not monitor the care of human participants throughout the study.
d. IRBs must follow federal guidelines, but IACUCs do not have federal guidelines to follow.
e. All of the above are differences between IACUCs and IRBs.

c. IACUCs monitor the care and treatment of animals throughout the study; IRBs do not monitor the care of human participants throughout the study.

31. When conducting animal research, which guideline states that alternatives to animal research should be considered?
a. Refinement
b. Reduction
c. Replacement
d. Recycling
e. Resistance

c. Replacement

32. Which of the following has NOT been used as a defense of animal research by animal researchers?
a. Animal research has resulted in many benefits to both animals and humans.
b. Animal research requires less research funding than human research.
c. Animal researchers are in favor of protecting and even enhancing animal welfare.
d. Animal researchers continue to reduce the number of animals needed for animal research.
e. All of the above have been used as defenses.

b. Animal research requires less research funding than human research.

33. Why is plagiarism a violation of ethics?
a. Because it violates an APA standard
b. Because it violates a Belmont Principle
c. Because it is akin to stealing
d. Both a and c
e. All of the above

d. Both a and c

34. In addition to being an ethical violation, why are data falsification and fabrication problematic?
a. They are impossible to discover.
b. They impede scientific progress.
c. They are federal crimes.
d. Both a and b are problematic.
e. All of the above are problematic.

b. They impede scientific progress.

35. Which of the following is a reason that psychologists might fabricate or falsify their data?
a. They feel pressure to publish findings.
b. They are convinced of the correctness of their own hypotheses.
c. Research success has implications for promotion within their department.
d. Both a and b are reasons.
e. All of the above are reasons.

e. All of the above are reasons.

Scroll to Top