Psych 200 final exam ch 14 #1-90

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The multidisciplinary, scientific study of old age is called:
A) gerontology.
B) psychology.
C) demography.
D) geography.

A) gerontology.

The term "ageism" refers to:
A) the veneration of the elderly.
B) judging people on the basis of chronological age.
C) the view of society held by older people.
D) the demographics of the population pyramid.

B) judging people on the basis of chronological age.

Using elderspeak when engaging in conversation with an older adult:
A) is demeaning.
B) helps the individual comprehend the meaning of the conversation.
C) aids in hearing all words spoken.
D) endears the speaker to the elder.

A) is demeaning.

Martha at age 75 is typical of people her age. She believes that when compared to others of the same age:
A) everyone is faring quite similarly.
B) they are doing better than she is; she has more problems.
C) she is doing well but they have more problems and are self-absorbed.
D) everyone gets what he or she deserves and she deserves more.

A) Everyone is faring quite similarly

Anxiety about the possibility that other people have prejudiced beliefs is known as:
A) ageism.
B) elderspeak.
C) geriatrics.
D) stereotype threat.

D) stereotype threat.

The main reason we may not notice the young-old is that:
A) they do not fit our stereotypes of the elderly.
B) there are relatively few of them.
C) they are a problem-prone minority.
D) they are not integrated into the community.

A) they do not fit our stereotypes of the elderly.

What percent of the United States population is over age 65?
A) 2
B) 13
C) 29
D) 42

B) 13

What is the relationship between recent changes in demography and ageism?
A) Changes in demography have increased ageism.
B) Changes in demography have decreased ageism.
C) Changes in ageism have increased the importance of demography.
D) Changes in ageism have decreased the importance of demography.

When our present population is sorted according to age, the resulting graph is approaching a demographic:
A) pyramid.
B) square.
C) circle.
D) oval.

B) square.

When graphing population changes in developed nations, a population problem that may arise is:
A) zero-growth rate.
B) another "baby boom."
C) a surge in multiple births.
D) a lack of babies.

D) a lack of babies.

A dependency ratio is calculated by comparing the number of ______ with the number of ______.
A) children; adults
B) dependents; self-supporting individuals
C) children; elderly
D) middle-aged adults; elderly

B) Dependents; self-supporting individuals

The current dependency ratio is better than it has been for a century because:
A) nursing homes provide for the care of many elderly.
B) of the small size of the Depression-era cohort.
C) of the increasing birth rate since 1985.
D) many more elderly are putting off retirement to later ages.

B) of the small size of the Depression-era cohort

What percentage of adults over 65 in North America is living in a hospital or nursing home?
A) three
B) five
C) ten
D) four

D) four

Limiting the time a person spends being ill or infirm is referred to as:
A) compression of morbidity.
B) progeria.
C) dependency ratio.
D) senescence.

A) Compression of morbidity

Which senses become less sharp in late adulthood?
A) smell and taste
B) hearing and vision
C) touch and smell
D) All of the answers are correct.

D) All of the answers are correct.

Research in sensory functions in later adulthood indicates that:
A) about 50 percent of adults have uncorrectable visual impairment.
B) hearing remains virtually unchanged.
C) hearing loss hampers one-word functioning.
D) most visual and auditory losses can be compensated for.

D) most visual and auditory losses can be compensated for

A thickening of the lens of the eye, causing vision to become cloudy, opaque, and distorted, is called:
A) glaucoma.
B) dry eye syndrome.
C) cataracts.
D) macular degeneration.

C) cataracts.

Beatrice has vision problems due to a build-up of fluid within her eyes. She is suffering from:
A) cataracts.
B) nearsightedness.
C) astigmatism.
D) glaucoma.

D) glaucoma.

The most common cause of blindness in the elderly is:
A) cataracts
B) macular degeneration
C) glaucoma
D) farsightedness

B) macular degeneration

Those speaking to the elderly need to:
A) speak in a higher register.
B) speak more rapidly and distinctly.
C) increase the logical pauses.
D) stretch out the words.

D) stretch out the words

Elderly people who are hard of hearing:
A) are likely to get a hearing aid.
B) compensate with extra social give-and-take.
C) are often excluded from social give-and-take.
D) suffer less from their impairment than those with poor vision.

C) are often excluded from social give-and-take.

Which of the following is crucial when older people have sensory loss?
A) acceptance
B) reduction in time spent out of the home
C) compensation
D) greater dependency

A) acceptance

Primary aging refers to age-related changes that:
A) inevitably take place as time goes by.
B) occur prior to middle adulthood.
C) take place as a consequence of a person’s unhealthy behaviors.
D) are entirely genetic in origin.

A) inevitably take place as time goes by.

The irreversible changes that naturally occur with time are called ______ aging.
A) normal
B) primary
C) secondary
D) geriatric

B) primary

The changes of primary aging are:
A) caused by disease.
B) reversible.
C) preventable.
D) universal.

D) universal.

Consequences of a particular chronic disease are characteristic of what type of aging?
A) normal
B) primary
C) secondary
D) geriatric

C) secondary

The leading cause of death for men and women is:
A) cardiovascular disease.
B) cancer.
C) Alzheimer disease.
D) pneumonia.

A) cardiovascular disease.

Which of the following describes the relationship of age and chronic disease?
A) Chronic disease increases with age.
B) Chronic disease decreases with age.
C) There is no relationship between chronic disease and age.
D) Chronic disease increases with age in men, but decreases with age in women.

A) Chronic diseases increases with age

Aging and disease are related in that the elderly:
A) never recover from their illnesses.
B) are more likely to die of a particular disease.
C) all suffer from several diseases.
D) are less susceptible to disease.

B) are more likely to die of a particular disease.

The chief reason the elderly have difficulty in getting enough nutrients is the:
A) reduced efficiency of the digestive system.
B) effects of arthritis.
C) use of vitamin supplements.
D) large number of calories they must consume.

A) reduced efficiency of the digestive system.

As people age, vitamin and mineral needs may increase because:
A) aging bodies use up the vitamins stored during younger years.
B) the body’s ability to use nutrients is reduced.
C) breathing and heart rates increase, requiring more food.
D) food preferences change.

B) the bodies ability to use nutrients is reduced

Taking aspirin regularly, as many of the elderly do, increases the need for:
A) laxatives.
B) calcium.
C) vitamin C.
D) protein.

C) vitamin C.

Which of the following is a true statement about nutrition?
A) Calorie restriction for humans is a practical solution to the problem of aging.
B) Daily caloric requirements decrease with age.
C) Mammals that eat a restricted number of calories tend to die younger.
D) The need for vitamins and minerals decreases with age.

B) Daily caloric requirements decrease with age.

The advice a doctor is most likely to give to an elderly patient is to:
A) consume a healthy diet.
B) take large doses of multivitamins.
C) eat anything you choose in any quantity you choose.
D) take vitamins E and C to slow the aging process.

A) consume a healthy diet.

Maximum life span is defined as the:
A) number of years a newborn is likely to live.
B) risk of mortality.
C) average age at death.
D) upper limit to which members of a species can live.

D) upper limit to which members of a species can live.

The number of years an average newborn of a given species lives is the:
A) maximum life span.
B) average life expectancy.
C) species life expectancy.
D) minimum life span.

B) average life expectancy.

Maximum life span is said to be ______ years for humans.
A) 13
B) 55
C) 122
D) 180

C) 122

The average life expectancy for men is ______ years, for women ______ years.
A) 75; 81
B) 81: 75
C) 65; 84
D) 84; 65

A) 75; 81

An important reason that average life expectancy over the past century has risen is that:
A) infant and child mortality rates have been reduced.
B) medical advances have extended the lives of the old.
C) people are marrying later in life.
D) couples are having fewer children.

A) infant and child mortality rates have been reduced.

People who live to see their 100th birthday are referred to as:
A) centenarians.
B) centurians.
C) decadecadians.
D) the oldest-old.

A) centenarians.

Mrs. Calderi is 70 years old and, as a typical person in late adulthood, she:
A) is in the best of health with only minor aches and pains.
B) feels deserted by everyone and lonely most of the time.
C) is quite happy and enjoying her life.
D) finds her daily activities to be severely limited.

C) is quite happy and enjoying life

If you want to extend your life by slowing down the aging process, the most promising method is:
A) massive intake of antioxidant foods.
B) vigorous exercise daily.
C) eating balanced meals, taking vitamins and exercising 30 minutes daily.
D) calorie restriction.

D) calorie restriction.

Individuals who practice calorie restriction as a method of slowing down the aging process eat:
A) about 800 calories per day.
B) about 1,000 calories per day.
C) about 1,200 calories per day.
D) about 1,400 calories per day.

B) about 1,000 calories per day

A marked decrease in motor reaction time and brain processing in older adults may be attributed to:
A) the usage of both hemispheres of the brain.
B) shrinkage of the prefrontal cortex and the hypothalamus.
C) increased production of neurotransmitters.
D) more neural fluid that slows cerebral blood flow.

B) shrinkage of the prefrontal cortex and the hypothalamus.

Shrinkage of the prefrontal cortex is a natural result of aging that can cause which of the following?
A) lack of inhibition
B) poor muscular coordination
C) susceptibility to strokes
D) impairment of vision

A) Lack of inhibition

A general decline of cognitive abilities after the age of 65 is typically attributed to:
A) reduced processing speed.
B) lack of selectivity and confusion.
C) not enough inhibition.
D) excessive inhibition and rigid thinking.

A) reduced processing speed

The primary reason older people receive less input into their brains is that:
A) they are less interested in life.
B) their senses decline, reducing the sensory input.
C) their threshold increases.
D) they are not able to store information.

B) their senses decline, reducing the sensory input

Ralph was in a minor car accident in the grocery store parking lot. He backed his car into another car that was also backing out of a parking space. The other driver honked but Ralph didn’t stop. Why not?
A) Ralph technically had the right-of-way.
B) The honking did not cross his sensory threshold.
C) Ralph became confused by driving backwards, confusing the gas pedal with the brake.
D) His sensory memory perceived the honk but thought it was directed at someone else.

B) the honking did not cross his sensory threshold

When Justin’s mother said to her elderly father, "Dad, Justin wants to share his baseball story with you!" he replied, "I don’t care about history anymore." Why would her father respond in that way?
A) Reduced auditory input prevented him from hearing the entire communication.
B) His memory of baseball has faded so he did not understand what she said.
C) His working memory could not contain the entire spoken message.
D) His sensory threshold was very sensitive.

A) reduced auditory input prevented him from hearing the entire communication

Loss of working memory is particularly likely to affect the ability to:
A) retain the image of a picture just seen.
B) remember public events of the past.
C) recognize friends on the street.
D) repeat a series of numbers just heard.

D) repeat a series of numbers just heard

One function of working memory is:
A) temporary storage of information for conscious use.
B) long-term storage of unconscious information.
C) storage of visual and auditory afterimages.
D) prevention of memory loss.

A) temporary storage of information for conscious use

Which of the following components of the human information-processing system functions as executive?
A) working memory
B) knowledge base
C) tertiary memory
D) control processes

D) control processes

Storage mechanisms, retrieval strategies, selective attention, and logical analysis are all considered:
A) implicit memories.
B) explicit memories.
C) control processes.
D) unconscious processes.

C) control processes

Control processes depend on which part of the brain?
A) the amygdala
B) the cerebellum
C) the prefrontal cortex
D) hypothalamus

C) the prefrontal cortex

An elderly man is diagnosed with a serious disease and the doctor recommends a treatment plan. Compared to a younger adult, the man is more likely to:
A) ask for a second opinion.
B) accept the doctor’s recommendations.
C) read as much about the disease as he can.
D) analyze various treatment options.

B) accept the doctor’s recommendations.

With age, what happens to the brain?
A) Some parts shrink.
B) Activity level sometimes increases, sometimes decreases, and sometimes stays the same.
C) Using both hemispheres simultaneously becomes more likely.
D) All of the answers occur with age.

D) all of the answers occur with age

When Schaie tested adults on the five primary mental abilities, the average scores after age 60:
A) declined in only one or two areas.
B) declined in all areas.
C) showed no change until age 75.
D) remained the same as at age 50.

B) declined in all areas

In Schaie’s Seattle Longitudinal Study, the cognitive decline of late adulthood was most evident in which of the following?
A) fluid intelligence
B) verbal meaning
C) processing speed
D) inductive reasoning

C) processing speed

The overall slowdown in cognitive abilities in the days or months before death is referred to as:
A) response drop.
B) memory loop.
C) terminal decline.
D) deceleration.

C) terminal decline

Dementia is:
A) benign forgetfulness.
B) a problem that affects most of the elderly.
C) a problem that affects only the elderly.
D) the pathological loss of brain functioning.

D) the pathological loss of brain functioning.

Combining information from medical records, test results, and interviews with people who knew them well, researchers found what percentage of people in their study over age 70 had some form of dementia?
A) 5
B) 12
C) 23
D) 14

D) 14

What percent of people under the age of 70 have dementia?
A) 1
B) 5
C) 10
D) 14

A) 1

It is probably valid to estimate the total number of U.S. residents with dementia at about which of the following numbers?
A) 1 million
B) 2 million
C) 3 million
D) 4 million

D) 4 million

Older adults who might be mildly impaired are not considered demented because of which of the following reasons?
A) They are under age 70.
B) They are not willing to be tested.
C) They are still able to function.
D) They are still able to state their name.

C) They are still able to function.

The most common cause of dementia is:
A) normal aging.
B) Alzheimer disease.
C) many strokes.
D) Parkinson’s disease.

B) Alzheimer disease.

Autopsies show the brains of Alzheimer victims:
A) have a proliferation of plaques and tangles.
B) show damage from strokes.
C) have shrunk to half of normal size.
D) appear to be normal.

A) have a proliferation of plaques and tangles

Alzheimer disease accounts for what percentage of dementia worldwide?
A) 45 percent
B) 50 percent
C) 60 percent
D) 65 percent

B) 50 percent

When Alzheimer disease appears in middle age, it:
A) is benign.
B) progresses more rapidly.
C) progresses more slowly.
D) causes death within a year.

B) progresses more rapidly.

The first stage of Alzheimer disease is characterized by:
A) deficits in concentration.
B) absentmindedness about recent events.
C) personality changes.
D) generalized confusion.

B) absentmindedness about recent events.

In the final stage of Alzheimer disease, patients:
A) may eat only a single food or forget to eat at all.
B) require full-time care.
C) no longer talk.
D) All of the answers are correct.

C) no longer talk.

Death typically occurs how long after the first signs of Alzheimer appear?
A) 5 to 10 years
B) 10 to 15 years
C) 15 to 20 years
D) 20 to 25 years

B) 10 to 15 years

Vascular dementia is caused by:
A) Alzheimer disease.
B) inadequate nutrition.
C) insufficient supply of blood to the brain.
D) environmental toxins.

C) insufficient supply of blood to the brain.

Joan suffered a ministroke that left her mildly impaired. Much to her delight and her family’s delight, she soon recovered. What is her likely prognosis?
A) She will continue with a full, active life because she has been cured.
B) She will continue with an active life but suffers some loss of function that her family denies.
C) She will need physical therapy to prevent future problems.
D) She will most likely have other strokes; the first one was a warning.

D) she will most likely have other strokes

Parkinson disease produces dementia as well as:
A) flabbiness in the muscles.
B) rigidity in the muscles.
C) many little strokes.
D) high blood pressure.

B) rigidity in the muscles

The main symptom in Lewy body dementia is:
A) loss of inhibition.
B) loss of memory.
C) loss of speech.
D) loss of small motor control.

A) loss of inhibition

A disease that can produce dementia is:
A) tuberculosis.
B) AIDS.
C) sickle-cell anemia.
D) pneumonia.

B) AIDS.

Multi-infarct dementia may be prevented by:
A) regular physical exercise.
B) memory exercises.
C) vitamin C.
D) taking early retirement.

A) regular physical exercise.

An elderly person who expresses serious worry about losing his or her intellectual abilities is most likely suffering from:
A) a brain tumor.
B) Parkinson’s disease.
C) depression.
D) Alzheimer disease.

C) depression.

Which produces symptoms that seem like dementia?
A) normal aging.
B) anxiety.
C) weight loss.
D) too much social interaction.

B) anxiety.

Many elderly people suffering from depression do not receive treatment because:
A) there is no effective treatment for the elderly.
B) treatment is too dangerous to their health.
C) their depression will disappear in time.
D) their depression goes undiagnosed.

D) their depression goes undiagnosed.

Which of the following can cause reversible dementia?
A) overmedication
B) undernourishment
C) alcohol abuse
D) dehydration
E) All of the answers are correct.

E) All of the answers are correct.

The fact that many elderly people take five or six different medications means that:
A) they are less likely to have adverse reactions.
B) their dosages should be increased.
C) the drugs can interact and produce adverse reactions.
D) they are especially aware of possible drug overdose.

C) the drugs can interact and produce adverse reactions.

Abraham Maslow maintained that older adults are:
A) more likely than younger people to reach self-actualization.
B) less likely than younger people to reach self-actualization.
C) just as likely as younger people to reach self-actualization.
D) too emotionally impaired to reach self-actualization.

A) more likely than younger people to reach self actualization

The fact that many older people begin to demonstrate an interest in painting, music, or woodworking supports the idea that older people:
A) find that boredom is a major problem.
B) develop an appreciation for the aesthetic.
C) still have a drive for power.
D) become less interested in other people.

B) develop an appreciation for the aesthetic

Don is a retired successful businessman who, for the first time in his life, planted a large vegetable garden. His hard work produced many vegetables that he shared with family and friends. His primary purpose for planting his garden was:
A) to reduce his grocery bill.
B) a heightened appreciation of nature.
C) to alleviate boredom.
D) a need to get out of the house.

B) heightened appreciation to nature

Audrey is 85 years old and has begun a life review. Her primary reason for doing this is probably to:
A) entertain younger generations.
B) embellish her past experiences.
C) put her life into perspective.
D) escape her present circumstances.

B) embellish her past experiences

Dorothy has begun keeping a detailed journal that includes stories of her childhood to early adulthood. She plans to pass her journal down to her grandchildren as a family history and so that they can know her in a more intimate way. Her journal writing is a form of:
A) aesthetics.
B) catharsis.
C) life review.
D) confession.

C) life review

Which of the following is associated with wisdom?
A) age
B) practical life experience
C) gender
D) intelligence

B) practical life experience

Research on wisdom finds that:
A) a minority of adults are wise.
B) wisdom is more common at age 30 than age 70.
C) most of the elderly are wise.
D) wisdom is never found in adults younger than 50.

A) a minority of adults are wise.

Elements of wisdom include:
A) a deep philosophical approach to life and age.
B) age and intelligence.
C) intuition and experience.
D) a broad practical approach to life and deep insight.

D) a broad practical approach to life and deep insight

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