Psych 2 – Chapter 8

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RESEARCH STUDY 8.1
Dr. Oswald conducts a study examining the relationship between the number of friends one has and the experience of daily stress and life satisfaction. She randomly samples 1,500 elderly men and women in the Memphis, Tennessee, area in the southern United States. Below are her findings.

< Life satisfaction and experience of daily stress: r = −.57 ( p = .01)
< Number of friends one has and experience of daily stress: r = .09, not sig.
< Number of friends one has and life satisfaction: r = .36 ( p = .04)

Refer to Research Study 8.1 to answer the following sixteen questions.

Dr. Oswald creates a scatterplot of the relationship between the experience of daily stress and life satisfaction. In doing so, she realizes there are three scores that seem to be very extreme and are nowhere near the other points on the scatterplot. Specifically, it appears that three people report very high levels of daily stress and very low levels of life satisfaction. Dr. Oswald should probably consider these scores ________.
1.
Outliers
2.
Moderators
3.
Random
4.
Curvilinear scores

1

A study finds a correlation coefficient of r = .32. This number gives you information about which of the following?
1.
Strength and direction of the relationship
2.
Type of relationship and importance
3.
Statistical validity and external validity
4.
Statistical significance and effect size

1

When examining an association claim using a bar graph, an association is indicated by which of the following?
Selected Answer: [None Given]
Answers: 1.
The number of bars in the graph
2.
The number of observations that make each bar
3.
The direction of the bars
4.
A difference in the height between the bars

4

RESEARCH STUDY 8.1
Dr. Oswald conducts a study examining the relationship between the number of friends one has and the experience of daily stress and life satisfaction. She randomly samples 1,500 elderly men and women in the Memphis, Tennessee, area in the southern United States. Below are her findings.

< Life satisfaction and experience of daily stress: r = −.57 ( p = .01)
< Number of friends one has and experience of daily stress: r = .09, not sig.
< Number of friends one has and life satisfaction: r = .36 ( p = .04)

Refer to Research Study 8.1 to answer the following sixteen questions.

Comparing all three correlations, Dr. Oswald will be most able to accurately predict life satisfaction from the experience of daily stress because:
1.
The relationship was statistically significant
2.
The relationship was reported first
3.
The relationship has the largest effect size
4.
The relationship is negative

3

Why are curvilinear relationships hard to detect with correlation coefficients (r)?
1.
Because r always assumes a zero association
2.
Because r always assumes a negative relationship
3.
Because curvilinear relationships require a large amount of scores
4.
Because r always looks for the best straight line to fit the data

4

When examining an association in which one variable is categorical and one is quantitative, which of the following is NOT likely to be used?
1.
A scatterplot
2.
A correlation
3.
A t test
4.
A bar graph

1

RESEARCH STUDY 8.1
Dr. Oswald conducts a study examining the relationship between the number of friends one has and the experience of daily stress and life satisfaction. She randomly samples 1,500 elderly men and women in the Memphis, Tennessee, area in the southern United States. Below are her findings.

< Life satisfaction and experience of daily stress: r = −.57 ( p = .01)
< Number of friends one has and experience of daily stress: r = .09, not sig.
< Number of friends one has and life satisfaction: r = .36 ( p = .04)

Refer to Research Study 8.1 to answer the following sixteen questions.

Matt, Dr. Oswald’s research assistant, is discussing the findings of the study with some other students. He claims that the experience of more daily stress causes people to have lower life satisfaction. Which of the following causal criteria did Matt meet?
1.
External validity
2.
The covariance of cause and effect
3.
Temporal precedence
4.
Internal validity

2

Which of the following graph formats is the best way to examine an association claim between a categorical variable and a quantitative variable?
1.
A line graph
2.
A scatterplot
3.
A bar graph
4.
A pie chart

3

RESEARCH STUDY 8.1
Dr. Oswald conducts a study examining the relationship between the number of friends one has and the experience of daily stress and life satisfaction. She randomly samples 1,500 elderly men and women in the Memphis, Tennessee, area in the southern United States. Below are her findings.

< Life satisfaction and experience of daily stress: r = −.57 ( p = .01)
< Number of friends one has and experience of daily stress: r = .09, not sig.
< Number of friends one has and life satisfaction: r = .36 ( p = .04)

Refer to Research Study 8.1 to answer the following sixteen questions.

Dr. Oswald creates a scatterplot of the relationship between the experience of daily stress and life satisfaction. In doing so, she realizes there are three scores that seem to be very extreme and are nowhere near the other points on the scatterplot. Specifically, it appears that three people report very high levels of daily stress and very low levels of life satisfaction. Which of the following statements is NOT true?
1.
These scores are more likely to have an effect because of the large sample size.
2.
These scores may be considered outliers.
3.
These scores may have strengthened the correlation between these two variables.
4.
These scores are more likely to have an effect because they are extreme on both variables.

1

In which of the following cases might a small effect still be important?
1.
When external validity is high
2.
When the sample is very large
3.
When the study has life-or-death implications
4.
When the finding is also statistically significant

3

Martin has found a correlation of r = .18 between the two variables of caffeine consumption and frontal lobe activity. This correlation is more likely to be statistically significant if:
1.
Martin measured frontal lobe activity extremely accurately
2.
The study can be applied to the real world
3.
Martin’s measure of caffeine consumption is categorical
4.
Martin used a larger number of subjects

4

Which of the following is true of statistical significance testing?
1.
It is only done when you have two quantitative variables.
2.
It can lead to an incorrect conclusion about the population.
3.
It is synonymous with measuring effect size.
4.
It is necessary for establishing external validity.

2

A study finds a correlation coefficient of r = .32. According to Cohen’s benchmarks, the magnitude of this effect is:
1.
Large
2.
Moderate
3.
Multiply determined
4.
Categorical

2

If a there is not a full range of scores on one of the variables, this is known as ________.
1.
An outlier effect
2.
Restriction of range
3.
Null effect
4.
Spurious data

2

RESEARCH STUDY 8.1
Dr. Oswald conducts a study examining the relationship between the number of friends one has and the experience of daily stress and life satisfaction. She randomly samples 1,500 elderly men and women in the Memphis, Tennessee, area in the southern United States. Below are her findings.

< Life satisfaction and experience of daily stress: r = −.57 ( p = .01)
< Number of friends one has and experience of daily stress: r = .09, not sig.
< Number of friends one has and life satisfaction: r = .36 ( p = .04)

Refer to Research Study 8.1 to answer the following sixteen questions.

Considering Dr. Oswald’s sample, which of the following statements is true?
1.
The association found in her study could probably generalize to people in New York City.
2.
The association found in her study could probably generalize to elderly persons living in nursing homes.
3.
The association found in her study could probably generalize to teenagers.
4.
The association found in her study could probably generalize to elderly people in other large cities in Tennessee.

4

RESEARCH STUDY 8.1
Dr. Oswald conducts a study examining the relationship between the number of friends one has and the experience of daily stress and life satisfaction. She randomly samples 1,500 elderly men and women in the Memphis, Tennessee, area in the southern United States. Below are her findings.

< Life satisfaction and experience of daily stress: r = −.57 ( p = .01)
< Number of friends one has and experience of daily stress: r = .09, not sig.
< Number of friends one has and life satisfaction: r = .36 ( p = .04)

Refer to Research Study 8.1 to answer the following sixteen questions.

Dr. Oswald has decided to examine one of her relationships with a scatterplot to double-check for a curvilinear relationship. Which relationship will be most important for her to examine?
1.
Number of friends one has and experience of daily stress
2.
Number of friends one has and life satisfaction
3.
Life satisfaction, experiences of daily stress, and number of friends one has simultaneously
4.
Life satisfaction and experience of daily stress

1

Which of the following is NOT a question you should ask about the statistical validity of an association claim?
1.
What is the effect size?
2.
Are there subgroups?
3.
Could outliers be affecting the relationship?
4.
Is random assignment affecting the findings?

4

What is the relationship between moderators and external validity?
1.
Moderators suggest that an association between two variables will extend to another variable.
2.
Moderators are necessary for external validity to be established.
3.
Moderators suggest that associations may not generalize to all subgroups of people.
4.
Moderators suggest that associations may be spurious.

3

For a third variable to be plausible as the explanation in an established association, which of the following must also be true?
1.
The third variable must be related to both of the measured variables in the original association.
2.
The third variable must be measured on the same scale as the original measured variables.
3.
The third variable must have a positive relationship with the two measured variables in the original association.
4.
The third variable must be a categorical variable.

1

Statistical significance depends on which of the following?
1.
Number of outliers and direction of the association
2.
Sample size and number of variables analyzed
3.
Direction of the association and strength of the association
4.
Sample size and effect size

4

RESEARCH STUDY 8.1
Dr. Oswald conducts a study examining the relationship between the number of friends one has and the experience of daily stress and life satisfaction. She randomly samples 1,500 elderly men and women in the Memphis, Tennessee, area in the southern United States. Below are her findings.

< Life satisfaction and experience of daily stress: r = −.57 ( p = .01)
< Number of friends one has and experience of daily stress: r = .09, not sig.
< Number of friends one has and life satisfaction: r = .36 ( p = .04)

Refer to Research Study 8.1 to answer the following sixteen questions.

In evaluating Dr. Oswald’s study, you question the construct validity of the study. Which of the following questions would you be asking?
1.
Does the number of friends cause people to experience less stress?
2.
How reliable is the measure of daily stress?
3.
Which statistic did Dr. Oswald compute?
4.
How did Dr. Oswald recruit her participants?

2

When evaluating the external validity of an association claim, which of the following is the most important issue to consider?
1.
The size of the sample
2.
The number of subgroups
3.
The way the sample was selected from the population
4.
The size of the original population

3

All of the following are true of outliers EXCEPT:
1.
They are especially problematic when there are outliers on both variables.
2.
They can affect the direction of an association.
3.
They have the biggest effect when dealing with large sample sizes.
4.
They can affect the strength of an association.

3

Which of the following is true of moderators?
1.
They can inform external validity.
2.
They weaken statistical significance.
3.
They help establish a cause and effect relationship.
4.
They decrease effect size.

1

RESEARCH STUDY 8.1
Dr. Oswald conducts a study examining the relationship between the number of friends one has and the experience of daily stress and life satisfaction. She randomly samples 1,500 elderly men and women in the Memphis, Tennessee, area in the southern United States. Below are her findings.

< Life satisfaction and experience of daily stress: r = −.57 ( p = .01)
< Number of friends one has and experience of daily stress: r = .09, not sig.
< Number of friends one has and life satisfaction: r = .36 ( p = .04)

Refer to Research Study 8.1 to answer the following sixteen questions.

Dr. Oswald submits her study for publication in a scientific journal. If one of the peer reviewers is concerned about the external validity of her study, which of the following is the most important aspect of Dr. Oswald’s study to consider?
1.
The use of three measured variables
2.
The random sampling technique used to recruit the participants
3.
The number of people in the sample
4.
The number of significant findings

2

RESEARCH STUDY 8.1
Dr. Oswald conducts a study examining the relationship between the number of friends one has and the experience of daily stress and life satisfaction. She randomly samples 1,500 elderly men and women in the Memphis, Tennessee, area in the southern United States. Below are her findings.

< Life satisfaction and experience of daily stress: r = −.57 ( p = .01)
< Number of friends one has and experience of daily stress: r = .09, not sig.
< Number of friends one has and life satisfaction: r = .36 ( p = .04)

Refer to Research Study 8.1 to answer the following sixteen questions.

In determining whether the relationship between two of her variables was statistically significant, which of the following must be considered?
Selected Answer: [None Given]
Answers: 1.
Direction of the association and strength of the association
2.
Sample size and effect size
3.
The number of outliers and the direction of the association
4.
Sample size and number of variables analyzed

2

Which of the following tells you that an association claim is being made?
1.
The validities that can be established
2.
The fact that the two variables are measured
3.
The graph used to interpret the results
4.
The statistic used to interpret the results

2

RESEARCH STUDY 8.1
Dr. Oswald conducts a study examining the relationship between the number of friends one has and the experience of daily stress and life satisfaction. She randomly samples 1,500 elderly men and women in the Memphis, Tennessee, area in the southern United States. Below are her findings.

< Life satisfaction and experience of daily stress: r = −.57 ( p = .01)
< Number of friends one has and experience of daily stress: r = .09, not sig.
< Number of friends one has and life satisfaction: r = .36 ( p = .04)

Refer to Research Study 8.1 to answer the following sixteen questions.

Dr. Oswald finds that the relationship between the number of friends one has and life satisfaction is stronger for men than for women. In this study, sex (male or female) is considered a/an:
1.
Cause
2.
Moderator
3.
Spurious variable
4.
Outlier

2

RESEARCH STUDY 8.1
Dr. Oswald conducts a study examining the relationship between the number of friends one has and the experience of daily stress and life satisfaction. She randomly samples 1,500 elderly men and women in the Memphis, Tennessee, area in the southern United States. Below are her findings.

< Life satisfaction and experience of daily stress: r = −.57 ( p = .01)
< Number of friends one has and experience of daily stress: r = .09, not sig.
< Number of friends one has and life satisfaction: r = .36 ( p = .04)

Refer to Research Study 8.1 to answer the following sixteen questions.

The "not sig." in Dr. Oswald’s findings indicates all of the following EXCEPT:
1.
She cannot reliably predict a study participant’s experience of daily stress from the participant’s number of friends.
2.
Effect size could not be calculated.
3.
There is not a statistically significant association between the two variables.
4.
It is likely that the association between number of friends one has and experience of daily stress is from a zero association population.

2

RESEARCH STUDY 8.1
Dr. Oswald conducts a study examining the relationship between the number of friends one has and the experience of daily stress and life satisfaction. She randomly samples 1,500 elderly men and women in the Memphis, Tennessee, area in the southern United States. Below are her findings.

< Life satisfaction and experience of daily stress: r = −.57 ( p = .01)
< Number of friends one has and experience of daily stress: r = .09, not sig.
< Number of friends one has and life satisfaction: r = .36 ( p = .04)

Refer to Research Study 8.1 to answer the following sixteen questions.

Considering Dr. Oswald’s study, her results could most safely be generalized to which of the groups below?
1.
Elderly people
2.
People with a high number of friends
3.
People in the southern United States
4.
People with high life satisfaction

1

Which of the following is true of the relationship between effect size and statistical significance?
1.
Larger effect sizes are advantageous for statistical significance.
2.
Effect size and statistical significance are synonymous terms.
3.
Statistical significance alone is sufficient to indicate effect size.
4.
An association’s effect size has no effect on statistical significance.

1

RESEARCH STUDY 8.1
Dr. Oswald conducts a study examining the relationship between the number of friends one has and the experience of daily stress and life satisfaction. She randomly samples 1,500 elderly men and women in the Memphis, Tennessee, area in the southern United States. Below are her findings.

< Life satisfaction and experience of daily stress: r = −.57 ( p = .01)
< Number of friends one has and experience of daily stress: r = .09, not sig.
< Number of friends one has and life satisfaction: r = .36 ( p = .04)

Refer to Research Study 8.1 to answer the following sixteen questions.

Dr. Oswald finds that the relationship between the number of friends one has and life satisfaction is stronger for men than for women. Why might Dr. Oswald have looked for this difference?
1.
To examine her study’s internal validity
2.
To determine whether the association was curvilinear
3.
To determine whether the association was spurious
4.
To examine her study’s external validity

4

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