Psych 2 Chapter 7

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When you are interrogating the external validity of a sample, which is the most important question to ask?
1.
How were the participants measured?
2.
How was the sample collected?
3.
How many people are in the population?
4.
How many people are in the sample?

2

What is the most common sampling technique in behavioral research?
1.
Simple random sampling
2.
Purposive sampling
3.
Cluster sampling
4.
Convenience sampling

4

Which of the following is true of a nonrepresentative sample in a research claim?
1.
You should ask whether it is relevant to what the researchers are measuring.
2.
You should automatically disregard the claim.
3.
You should ask whether more participants are necessary.
4.
You should automatically accept the claim.

1

Having a representative sample is most important in which of the following example claims?
1.
"People who have religious experiences report feeling more comfortable with the idea of death."
2.
"Fifty-nine percent of college athletes feel that playing professionally is an attainable goal."
3.
"Having a boss compliment you at work causes you to work more efficiently."
4.
"Expressing uncertainty about relationship commitment prior to marriage is associated with greater marital happiness."

2

RESEARCH STUDY 7.1
Professor Kramer has decided to measure how happy his students are with his teaching this semester. He is teaching two classes this semester—Psychology and Law and Introduction to Neuroscience. He gives his students a survey.

Refer to Research Study 7.1 to answer the following six questions.

In the above scenario, Dr. Kramer plans to give his survey only to his Psychology and Law students because he sees them on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays and he can spare the class time (unlike in his Introduction to Neuroscience class, which only meets on Tuesdays and Thursdays). Which of the following is true?
1.
This will lead to a biased sample because of self-selection.
2.
This will lead to a biased sample because the Psychology and Law students have a lot of time to complete the survey.
3.
This will lead to a biased sample because the type of students who take Psychology and Law may be different from the type of students who take Introduction to Neuroscience.
4.
The will lead to a sample that is representative of both of his classes.

3

Dr. Jackson is a personality psychologist who is interested in studying the characteristics of people who report being abducted by UFOs. She finds several people in a support group to research and asks them if they can provide the names and contact information of other people who have also been abducted. Upon contacting these new participants, she asks them to refer her to even more people they may know who have been abducted. This is an example of what kind of sampling?

1.
Self-selection sampling
2.
Snowball sampling
3.
Purposive sampling
4.
Convenience sampling

2

If researchers measure every member of a population, they have:

1.
Biased the study
2.
Collected a sample
3.
Increased internal validity
4.
Conducted a census

4

Which of the following is true of sample size?
1.
It primarily affects construct validity.
2.
It primarily affects internal validity.
3.
It primarily affects external validity.
4.
It primarily affects statistical validity.

4

RESEARCH STUDY 7.1
Professor Kramer has decided to measure how happy his students are with his teaching this semester. He is teaching two classes this semester—Psychology and Law and Introduction to Neuroscience. He gives his students a survey.

Refer to Research Study 7.1 to answer the following six questions.

In the above scenario, Dr. Kramer could reasonably use his sample to say something about which of the following populations of interest EXCEPT?
1.
All students taking an Introduction to Neuroscience class
2.
All students who are political science majors
3.
All students at the university
4.
All students he has ever taught

2

How are quota sampling and stratified random sampling similar?
1.
Both result in representative samples.
2.
Both result in nonrepresentative samples.
3.
Both identify subgroups that need to studied.
4.
Both randomly sample subgroups to be studied.

3

For his research methods class project, Hiro is studying the effect of pet ownership on stress levels. Although a lot of research has been done on dog and cat owners, not much is known about other pets, so Hiro decides to study hamster owners. Which of the following would demonstrate a purposive sampling technique?
1.
His participants are all the people who have purchased hamsters at his local pet store in the past year.
2.
He asks hamster owners to give him the names of other hamster owners.
3.
He recruits his hamster owners by e-mailing members of the National Hamster Owners Association and asking for participants.
4.
He is interested in hamster owners and not pet owners in general.

3

The difference between a cluster sample and a stratified random sample is:
1.
Cluster samples use oversampling; stratified random samples use undersampling
2.
There is no difference between them
3.
Cluster samples use randomly selected clusters; stratified random samples use pre-determined strata
4.
Cluster samples study all possible clusters; stratified random samples randomly select strata

3

Dr. Cyril conducts a simple random sample of 500 men who became fathers for the first time in the last year. He finds that 23% of them report being unsure of their ability to be good fathers, plus or minus 4%. If Dr. Cyril increased his sample size to 1,000, which of the following would happen?
1.
External validity would become less important.
2.
Statistical validity would become negatively affected.
3.
The true estimate would increase.
4.
The margin of error would become smaller.

4

Online surveys commonly suffer from which of the following?
1.
Self-selection
2.
Poor reliability
3.
Over sampling
4.
Probability sampling

1

Which of the following does NOT result in a biased sample?
1.
Convenience sample
2.
Systematic sample
3.
Snowball sample
4.
Purposive sample

2

Another term for probability sampling is:
1.
Purposive sampling
2.
Convenience sampling
3.
Cluster sampling
4.
Random sampling

4

Why are techniques like cluster sampling and multistage sampling just as externally valid as simple random sampling?
1.
They all measure every member of the population of interest.
2.
They all use lists of all population members.
3.
They all contain elements of random selection.
4.
They all rely on large samples.

3

Which of the following is true regarding interrogating frequency claims?
1.
Their accuracy can usually be determined.
2.
The chief concern is to evaluate the sampling technique.
3.
The most important thing to consider is the size of the sample.
4.
Frequency claims cannot be interrogated.

2

Why do studies that use probability samples have excellent external validity?
1.
They have good internal validity too.
2.
They study every member of the population of interest.
3.
All members of the population are equally likely to be represented in the sample.
4.
They are more complicated to do.

3

For his research methods class project, Hiro is studying the effect of pet ownership on stress levels. Although a lot of research has been done on dog and cat owners, not much is known about other pets so Hiro decides to study hamster owners. Which of the following would demonstrate a snowball sampling technique?
1.
He asks hamster owners to give him the names of other hamster owners.
2.
His participants are all the people who have purchased hamsters at his local pet store in the past year.
3.
He is interested in hamster owners and not pet owners in general.
4.
He recruits his hamster owners by e-mailing members of the National Hamster Owners Association and asking for participants.

1

Which of the following statements is true of random assignment and random sampling?
1.
Random assignment is necessary for internal validity, whereas random assignment is necessary for external validity.
2.
They both mean the same thing.
3.
They both are necessary for frequency claims.
4.
Random sampling is more important than random assignment.

1

A biased sample consists of too many ________ cases.
1.
Ideal
2.
Basic
3.
Complicated
4.
Unusual

4

Oversampling is a variant used in which of the following sampling techniques?
1.
Simple random sampling
2.
Convenience sampling
3.
Stratified random sampling
4.
Cluster sampling

3

RESEARCH STUDY 7.1
Professor Kramer has decided to measure how happy his students are with his teaching this semester. He is teaching two classes this semester—Psychology and Law and Introduction to Neuroscience. He gives his students a survey.

Refer to Research Study 7.1 to answer the following six questions.

In the above scenario, 43 of 50 Introduction to Neuroscience students and 46 of 48 Psychology and Law students complete the survey. Based on this information, which of the following can Dr. Kramer say?
1.
His sample is representative
2.
His sample is larger than his population
3.
His sample came from his population of interest
4.
His sample is biased

3

A population is to ________ as a sample is to ________.
1.
Entire; part
2.
Census; people
3.
Researchers; participants
4.
Internal; external

1

In which of the following cases would a large sample especially be needed?
1.
A study of first-time fathers
2.
A study of people who have been in a car accident
3.
A study of college students
4.
A study of children whose parents are both serving time in prison

4

Dr. Oishi is an educational psychologist interested in students’ attitudes toward math and the effect of those attitudes on performance on standardized tests. He chooses his local school district to study. There are 15 middle schools, and he randomly chooses five. Then, of the 1,500 students in each of those five schools, he randomly recruits 250 students. This is an example of which of the following sampling techniques?
1.
Snowball sample
2.
Cluster sample
3.
Multistage sample
4.
Systematic sample

3

RESEARCH STUDY 7.1
Professor Kramer has decided to measure how happy his students are with his teaching this semester. He is teaching two classes this semester—Psychology and Law and Introduction to Neuroscience. He gives his students a survey.

Refer to Research Study 7.1 to answer the following six questions.

In the above scenario, if all the students in Dr. Kramer’s two classes complete the survey, then Dr. Kramer has done which of the following?
1.
Collected too much data
2.
Decreased the external validity of his study
3.
Enhanced sampling bias
4.
Relied on a census

4

Which of the following is true of probability sampling?
1.
It should be used when external validity is not the goal of the study.
2.
It results in larger samples than nonprobability sampling.
3.
It is the best way to obtain a representative sample.
4.
It is the same as random assignment.

3

RESEARCH STUDY 7.1
Professor Kramer has decided to measure how happy his students are with his teaching this semester. He is teaching two classes this semester—Psychology and Law and Introduction to Neuroscience. He gives his students a survey.

Refer to Research Study 7.1 to answer the following six questions.

In the above scenario, what is Dr. Kramer’s likely population of interest?
1.
All students at the university
2.
All students he is currently teaching
3.
All psychology majors
4.
All students in his Psychology and Law course

2

RESEARCH STUDY 7.1
Professor Kramer has decided to measure how happy his students are with his teaching this semester. He is teaching two classes this semester—Psychology and Law and Introduction to Neuroscience. He gives his students a survey.

Refer to Research Study 7.1 to answer the following six questions.

In the above scenario, Dr. Kramer needs to avoid which of the following if he hopes to avoid having a biased sample?
1.
Sampling only those students who volunteer to complete the survey
2.
Sampling only those students who sign the consent form
3.
Sampling only those students who finish the survey
4.
Sampling only those students who come to class frequently

4

If researchers measure every tenth member of a population, they have:
1.
Conducted a census
2.
Increased internal validity
3.
Collected a sample
4.
Biased the study

3

Convenience sampling relies on which of the following?
1.
Studying people who are easy to find
2.
Studying people who are typical
3.
Studying people who are willing to participate
4.
Studying people who are colleagues of the researcher

1

Which of the following is NOT an example of a probability sample?
1.
Systematic sample
2.
Convenience sample
3.
Simple random sample
4.
Cluster sample

2

Which of the following does NOT result in a representative sample?
1.
Systematic sample
2.
Simple random sample
3.
Stratified random sample
4.
Snowball sample

4

External validity is most important for which of the following claims?
1.
External validity is equally important for all claims
2.
Causal claims
3.
Association claims
4.
Frequency claims

4

Dr. Cyril conducts a simple random sample of 500 men who became fathers for the first time in the last year. He finds that 23% of them report being unsure of their ability to be good fathers, plus or minus 4%. What is another term for the 4% value?
1.
Margin of error
2.
Sampling bias
3.
Probability value
4.
Statistical significance

1

A sample is always ________ a population.
1.
More interesting than
2.
More expensive to measure than
3.
Smaller than
4.
More scientific than

3

Dr. Cyril conducts a simple random sample of 500 men who became fathers for the first time in the last year. He finds that 23% of them report being unsure of their ability to be good fathers, plus or minus 4%. What does this mean?
1.
The true percentage of fathers who feel this way is 23%.
2.
If the study was done many times, the estimate of father uncertainty would be between 19% and 27%.
3.
We can be 4% sure that the estimate of father uncertainty would be 23% of fathers.
4.
If this study was done many times, the estimate of father uncertainty would be 23% about 4% of the time.

2

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