Psych 2 Chapter 10

Total Word Count: 8661
   Send article as PDF   

What is the primary difference between pretest/posttest designs and within-groups designs?
1.
The number of participants used
2.
The number of levels of the independent variable participants are exposed to
3.
There is no difference between the two designs
4.
The number of times the dependent variable is measured

2

RESEARCH STUDY 10.1
Dr. Lonsbary is a cognitive psychologist who is curious about how mood affects memory. She recruited 60 high school students and divided them into three groups. Group A listened to a five-minute piece of music intended to make them feel happy (a song titled "Don’t Worry, Be Happy"). Group B listened to a five-minute piece of music intended to make them feel sad (a song titled "Alone Again"). Group C listened to no music and instead was asked to sit quietly for five minutes (thought to make them feel neutral).
When a participant would come to her laboratory, Dr. Lonsbary would greet the participant and then ask him or her to draw a card. Participants who drew a 1, 2, or 3 were assigned to Group A. Participants who drew a 4, 5, or 6, were assigned to Group B. Participants who drew a 7, 8, or 9, were assigned to Group C. The participants were then given an unlabeled CD to listen to based on their group assignment. The CD contained either the song selection or five minutes of silence. They were then escorted into a different room, where they were greeted by a research assistant who conducted the experiment. The research assistant sat the participants in front of a computer screen and told them that a list of 25 words would be displayed on the screen. They were instructed to listen to the CD with headphones while trying to memorize the list of words. All participants were given the same list of 25 words to remember.
When five minutes had passed, the screen displayed a question asking them whether they felt happy, sad, or neutral. After the participant responded, a new screen was displayed asking them to type in all the words they could remember from the list of 25 words. All participants were given three minutes to type the words they remembered. Afterward, the participant was thanked and dismissed. In response to the mood question, a majority of Group A participants said they were happy, a majority of Group B participants said they were sad, and a majority of Group C participants said they were neutral in their mood. Dr. Lonsbary found the following results in response to the number of words remembered.

Group A (Happy) Group B (Sad) Group C (Neutral)
Number of Words Remembered 16 14 9

Groups A and B vs. Group C Statistically significant difference d = .36
Group A vs. Group C Statistically significant difference d = .30
Group B vs. Group C Statistically significant difference d = .41
Group A vs. Group B No statistically significant difference d = .09

Refer to Research Study 10.1 to answer the following sixteen questions.

In Dr. Lonsbary’s study, which of the following does NOT exist?
1.
A treatment group
2.
A placebo group
3.
A control variable
4.
A manipulation check

2

The ability for a study to reveal a statistically significant difference between the levels of an independent variable when one truly exists is known as:
1.
Covariance
2.
Statistical validity
3.
Effect size
4.
Power

4

RESEARCH STUDY 10.1
Dr. Lonsbary is a cognitive psychologist who is curious about how mood affects memory. She recruited 60 high school students and divided them into three groups. Group A listened to a five-minute piece of music intended to make them feel happy (a song titled "Don’t Worry, Be Happy"). Group B listened to a five-minute piece of music intended to make them feel sad (a song titled "Alone Again"). Group C listened to no music and instead was asked to sit quietly for five minutes (thought to make them feel neutral).
When a participant would come to her laboratory, Dr. Lonsbary would greet the participant and then ask him or her to draw a card. Participants who drew a 1, 2, or 3 were assigned to Group A. Participants who drew a 4, 5, or 6, were assigned to Group B. Participants who drew a 7, 8, or 9, were assigned to Group C. The participants were then given an unlabeled CD to listen to based on their group assignment. The CD contained either the song selection or five minutes of silence. They were then escorted into a different room, where they were greeted by a research assistant who conducted the experiment. The research assistant sat the participants in front of a computer screen and told them that a list of 25 words would be displayed on the screen. They were instructed to listen to the CD with headphones while trying to memorize the list of words. All participants were given the same list of 25 words to remember.
When five minutes had passed, the screen displayed a question asking them whether they felt happy, sad, or neutral. After the participant responded, a new screen was displayed asking them to type in all the words they could remember from the list of 25 words. All participants were given three minutes to type the words they remembered. Afterward, the participant was thanked and dismissed. In response to the mood question, a majority of Group A participants said they were happy, a majority of Group B participants said they were sad, and a majority of Group C participants said they were neutral in their mood. Dr. Lonsbary found the following results in response to the number of words remembered.

Group A (Happy) Group B (Sad) Group C (Neutral)
Number of Words Remembered 16 14 9

Groups A and B vs. Group C Statistically significant difference d = .36
Group A vs. Group C Statistically significant difference d = .30
Group B vs. Group C Statistically significant difference d = .41
Group A vs. Group B No statistically significant difference d = .09

Refer to Research Study 10.1 to answer the following sixteen questions.

Which of the following is a dependent variable in Dr. Lonsbary’s study?
1.
Time given to type the words remembered
2.
Time given to memorize the words
3.
Number of words remembered
4.
Number of words on the list

3

RESEARCH STUDY 10.1
Dr. Lonsbary is a cognitive psychologist who is curious about how mood affects memory. She recruited 60 high school students and divided them into three groups. Group A listened to a five-minute piece of music intended to make them feel happy (a song titled "Don’t Worry, Be Happy"). Group B listened to a five-minute piece of music intended to make them feel sad (a song titled "Alone Again"). Group C listened to no music and instead was asked to sit quietly for five minutes (thought to make them feel neutral).
When a participant would come to her laboratory, Dr. Lonsbary would greet the participant and then ask him or her to draw a card. Participants who drew a 1, 2, or 3 were assigned to Group A. Participants who drew a 4, 5, or 6, were assigned to Group B. Participants who drew a 7, 8, or 9, were assigned to Group C. The participants were then given an unlabeled CD to listen to based on their group assignment. The CD contained either the song selection or five minutes of silence. They were then escorted into a different room, where they were greeted by a research assistant who conducted the experiment. The research assistant sat the participants in front of a computer screen and told them that a list of 25 words would be displayed on the screen. They were instructed to listen to the CD with headphones while trying to memorize the list of words. All participants were given the same list of 25 words to remember.
When five minutes had passed, the screen displayed a question asking them whether they felt happy, sad, or neutral. After the participant responded, a new screen was displayed asking them to type in all the words they could remember from the list of 25 words. All participants were given three minutes to type the words they remembered. Afterward, the participant was thanked and dismissed. In response to the mood question, a majority of Group A participants said they were happy, a majority of Group B participants said they were sad, and a majority of Group C participants said they were neutral in their mood. Dr. Lonsbary found the following results in response to the number of words remembered.

Group A (Happy) Group B (Sad) Group C (Neutral)
Number of Words Remembered 16 14 9

Groups A and B vs. Group C Statistically significant difference d = .36
Group A vs. Group C Statistically significant difference d = .30
Group B vs. Group C Statistically significant difference d = .41
Group A vs. Group B No statistically significant difference d = .09

Refer to Research Study 10.1 to answer the following sixteen questions.

Dr. Lonsbary is considering doing a follow-up study in which instead of asking participants to listen to music to induce mood, she has them write either a story about a character who just won the lottery or a story about a character who just experienced the death of their spouse. This change in the mood variable is designed to enhance the study’s:
1.
External validity
2.
Construct validity
3.
Statistical validity
4.
Internal validity

1

Dr. Kline, an environmental psychologist, conducts a study to examine whether visiting zoos causes people to have more positive attitudes toward environmental conservation. He asks a group of 45 people attending the zoo on a Saturday morning about their attitudes. He finds that 69% of the people report having a positive attitude after their visit. Which of the following is NOT true of Dr. Kline’s study?
1.
He cannot make a causal statement.
2.
He does not have a dependent variable.
3.
He did not manipulate an independent variable.
4.
He is lacking a control group.

2

Experiments use random assignment to avoid which of the following?
1.
Carryover effects
2.
Random selection
3.
Demand characteristics
4.
Selection effects

4

RESEARCH STUDY 10.2
Dr. Acitelli studies sleep and sleep disorders. She is curious as to whether falling asleep in front of a television set causes people to fall asleep more slowly than falling asleep without watching TV. She recruits a sample of 60 middle-aged women from a local church who reported no history of sleep problems. She creates three conditions. All participants come to the sleep lab for three nights in a row and experience all three conditions. In the first condition (A), participants fall asleep in front of a television that is off. In the second condition (B), participants fall asleep in front of a television that is turned on to the same 24-hour news channel. In the third condition (C), participants fall asleep in front of a television that is turned on to the same 24-hour news channel but is muted. With the use of an electroencephalograph (EEG), the researcher measures how long it takes participants to fall asleep.

Refer to Research Study 10.2 to answer the following four questions.

Which of the following designs is Dr. Acitelli using?
1.
Posttest-only design
2.
Pretest/posttest design
3.
Repeated-measures design
4.
Concurrent-measures design

3

RESEARCH STUDY 10.1
Dr. Lonsbary is a cognitive psychologist who is curious about how mood affects memory. She recruited 60 high school students and divided them into three groups. Group A listened to a five-minute piece of music intended to make them feel happy (a song titled "Don’t Worry, Be Happy"). Group B listened to a five-minute piece of music intended to make them feel sad (a song titled "Alone Again"). Group C listened to no music and instead was asked to sit quietly for five minutes (thought to make them feel neutral).
When a participant would come to her laboratory, Dr. Lonsbary would greet the participant and then ask him or her to draw a card. Participants who drew a 1, 2, or 3 were assigned to Group A. Participants who drew a 4, 5, or 6, were assigned to Group B. Participants who drew a 7, 8, or 9, were assigned to Group C. The participants were then given an unlabeled CD to listen to based on their group assignment. The CD contained either the song selection or five minutes of silence. They were then escorted into a different room, where they were greeted by a research assistant who conducted the experiment. The research assistant sat the participants in front of a computer screen and told them that a list of 25 words would be displayed on the screen. They were instructed to listen to the CD with headphones while trying to memorize the list of words. All participants were given the same list of 25 words to remember.
When five minutes had passed, the screen displayed a question asking them whether they felt happy, sad, or neutral. After the participant responded, a new screen was displayed asking them to type in all the words they could remember from the list of 25 words. All participants were given three minutes to type the words they remembered. Afterward, the participant was thanked and dismissed. In response to the mood question, a majority of Group A participants said they were happy, a majority of Group B participants said they were sad, and a majority of Group C participants said they were neutral in their mood. Dr. Lonsbary found the following results in response to the number of words remembered.

Group A (Happy) Group B (Sad) Group C (Neutral)
Number of Words Remembered 16 14 9

Groups A and B vs. Group C Statistically significant difference d = .36
Group A vs. Group C Statistically significant difference d = .30
Group B vs. Group C Statistically significant difference d = .41
Group A vs. Group B No statistically significant difference d = .09

Refer to Research Study 10.1 to answer the following sixteen questions.

Prior to conducting the current study, Dr. Lonsbary asked her research assistant to use the same mood manipulation with a sample of 30 college students to determine if people’s moods really did change after listening to the music. Running this preliminary study helps establish which of the following?
1.
Statistical validity
2.
Construct validity
3.
External validity
4.
Internal validity

2

A more general term for practice effects and carryover effects is:
1.
Order effects
2.
Within-person effects
3.
Between-person effects
4.
Design effects

1

When conducting an experiment, what is provided by the independent variable?
1.
Confirmation of internal validity
2.
Random assignment
3.
Proof of temporal precedence
4.
A comparison group

4

A threat to internal validity occurs only if a potential design confound varies ________ with the independent variable.
1.
Systematically
2.
Spontaneously
3.
Especially
4.
Haphazardly

1

RESEARCH STUDY 10.1
Dr. Lonsbary is a cognitive psychologist who is curious about how mood affects memory. She recruited 60 high school students and divided them into three groups. Group A listened to a five-minute piece of music intended to make them feel happy (a song titled "Don’t Worry, Be Happy"). Group B listened to a five-minute piece of music intended to make them feel sad (a song titled "Alone Again"). Group C listened to no music and instead was asked to sit quietly for five minutes (thought to make them feel neutral).
When a participant would come to her laboratory, Dr. Lonsbary would greet the participant and then ask him or her to draw a card. Participants who drew a 1, 2, or 3 were assigned to Group A. Participants who drew a 4, 5, or 6, were assigned to Group B. Participants who drew a 7, 8, or 9, were assigned to Group C. The participants were then given an unlabeled CD to listen to based on their group assignment. The CD contained either the song selection or five minutes of silence. They were then escorted into a different room, where they were greeted by a research assistant who conducted the experiment. The research assistant sat the participants in front of a computer screen and told them that a list of 25 words would be displayed on the screen. They were instructed to listen to the CD with headphones while trying to memorize the list of words. All participants were given the same list of 25 words to remember.
When five minutes had passed, the screen displayed a question asking them whether they felt happy, sad, or neutral. After the participant responded, a new screen was displayed asking them to type in all the words they could remember from the list of 25 words. All participants were given three minutes to type the words they remembered. Afterward, the participant was thanked and dismissed. In response to the mood question, a majority of Group A participants said they were happy, a majority of Group B participants said they were sad, and a majority of Group C participants said they were neutral in their mood. Dr. Lonsbary found the following results in response to the number of words remembered.

Group A (Happy) Group B (Sad) Group C (Neutral)
Number of Words Remembered 16 14 9

Groups A and B vs. Group C Statistically significant difference d = .36
Group A vs. Group C Statistically significant difference d = .30
Group B vs. Group C Statistically significant difference d = .41
Group A vs. Group B No statistically significant difference d = .09

Refer to Research Study 10.1 to answer the following sixteen questions.

Which of the following is an independent variable in Dr. Lonsbary’s study?
1.
Feeling happy
2.
Type of card drawn
3.
Participant’s mood
4.
Number of groups participants were assigned to

3

RESEARCH STUDY 10.1
Dr. Lonsbary is a cognitive psychologist who is curious about how mood affects memory. She recruited 60 high school students and divided them into three groups. Group A listened to a five-minute piece of music intended to make them feel happy (a song titled "Don’t Worry, Be Happy"). Group B listened to a five-minute piece of music intended to make them feel sad (a song titled "Alone Again"). Group C listened to no music and instead was asked to sit quietly for five minutes (thought to make them feel neutral).
When a participant would come to her laboratory, Dr. Lonsbary would greet the participant and then ask him or her to draw a card. Participants who drew a 1, 2, or 3 were assigned to Group A. Participants who drew a 4, 5, or 6, were assigned to Group B. Participants who drew a 7, 8, or 9, were assigned to Group C. The participants were then given an unlabeled CD to listen to based on their group assignment. The CD contained either the song selection or five minutes of silence. They were then escorted into a different room, where they were greeted by a research assistant who conducted the experiment. The research assistant sat the participants in front of a computer screen and told them that a list of 25 words would be displayed on the screen. They were instructed to listen to the CD with headphones while trying to memorize the list of words. All participants were given the same list of 25 words to remember.
When five minutes had passed, the screen displayed a question asking them whether they felt happy, sad, or neutral. After the participant responded, a new screen was displayed asking them to type in all the words they could remember from the list of 25 words. All participants were given three minutes to type the words they remembered. Afterward, the participant was thanked and dismissed. In response to the mood question, a majority of Group A participants said they were happy, a majority of Group B participants said they were sad, and a majority of Group C participants said they were neutral in their mood. Dr. Lonsbary found the following results in response to the number of words remembered.

Group A (Happy) Group B (Sad) Group C (Neutral)
Number of Words Remembered 16 14 9

Groups A and B vs. Group C Statistically significant difference d = .36
Group A vs. Group C Statistically significant difference d = .30
Group B vs. Group C Statistically significant difference d = .41
Group A vs. Group B No statistically significant difference d = .09

Refer to Research Study 10.1 to answer the following sixteen questions.

Which of the following should Dr. Lonsbary NOT conclude from her study?
1.
Being in an angry mood likely has the same effect on memory as being in a sad mood.
2.
Being in a mood other than neutral causes people to have a better memory.
3.
Listening to music can cause changes in mood.
4.
Being in a happy mood does not cause more of a change in memory than being in a sad mood.

1

An independent-groups design is also known as a ________.
1.
Within-groups design
2.
Between-subjects design
3.
Matched-groups design
4.
Mixed design

2

Which of the following is NOT a disadvantage of within-groups designs?
1.
There is a potential for demand characteristics.
2.
These designs rely on fewer participants.
3.
There is a potential for order effects.
4.
Depending on the independent variable, these designs are not always possible.

2

Which of the following is a threat to internal validity found in within-groups designs but not in independent-groups designs?
1.
Design confounds
2.
Practice effects
3.
Demand characteristics
4.
Selection effects

2

Which of the following is NOT true of selection effects?
1.
They are unimportant for interrogating internal validity.
2.
They can occur when experimenters allow participants to choose their own treatment group.
3.
They are a type of confound.
4.
They can occur when researchers assign one type of person to one treatment group and another type of person to another treatment group.

1

Using a matched-group design is especially important in which of the following cases?
1.
When you have at least three levels/conditions of the independent variable
2.
When you have a complex dependent variable
3.
When you do not have a control group
4.
When you have only a few people in your study

4

Random selection enhances ________ and random assignment enhances ________.
1.
External validity; internal validity
2.
Internal validity; internal validity
3.
External validity; external validity
4.
Internal validity; external validity

1

RESEARCH STUDY 10.1
Dr. Lonsbary is a cognitive psychologist who is curious about how mood affects memory. She recruited 60 high school students and divided them into three groups. Group A listened to a five-minute piece of music intended to make them feel happy (a song titled "Don’t Worry, Be Happy"). Group B listened to a five-minute piece of music intended to make them feel sad (a song titled "Alone Again"). Group C listened to no music and instead was asked to sit quietly for five minutes (thought to make them feel neutral).
When a participant would come to her laboratory, Dr. Lonsbary would greet the participant and then ask him or her to draw a card. Participants who drew a 1, 2, or 3 were assigned to Group A. Participants who drew a 4, 5, or 6, were assigned to Group B. Participants who drew a 7, 8, or 9, were assigned to Group C. The participants were then given an unlabeled CD to listen to based on their group assignment. The CD contained either the song selection or five minutes of silence. They were then escorted into a different room, where they were greeted by a research assistant who conducted the experiment. The research assistant sat the participants in front of a computer screen and told them that a list of 25 words would be displayed on the screen. They were instructed to listen to the CD with headphones while trying to memorize the list of words. All participants were given the same list of 25 words to remember.
When five minutes had passed, the screen displayed a question asking them whether they felt happy, sad, or neutral. After the participant responded, a new screen was displayed asking them to type in all the words they could remember from the list of 25 words. All participants were given three minutes to type the words they remembered. Afterward, the participant was thanked and dismissed. In response to the mood question, a majority of Group A participants said they were happy, a majority of Group B participants said they were sad, and a majority of Group C participants said they were neutral in their mood. Dr. Lonsbary found the following results in response to the number of words remembered.

Group A (Happy) Group B (Sad) Group C (Neutral)
Number of Words Remembered 16 14 9

Groups A and B vs. Group C Statistically significant difference d = .36
Group A vs. Group C Statistically significant difference d = .30
Group B vs. Group C Statistically significant difference d = .41
Group A vs. Group B No statistically significant difference d = .09

Refer to Research Study 10.1 to answer the following sixteen questions.

Dr. Lonsbary’s study contains which of the following techniques designed to address a threat to construct validity?
1.
A manipulation check
2.
Counterbalancing
3.
A placebo group
4.
A demand characteristic

1

RESEARCH STUDY 10.1
Dr. Lonsbary is a cognitive psychologist who is curious about how mood affects memory. She recruited 60 high school students and divided them into three groups. Group A listened to a five-minute piece of music intended to make them feel happy (a song titled "Don’t Worry, Be Happy"). Group B listened to a five-minute piece of music intended to make them feel sad (a song titled "Alone Again"). Group C listened to no music and instead was asked to sit quietly for five minutes (thought to make them feel neutral).
When a participant would come to her laboratory, Dr. Lonsbary would greet the participant and then ask him or her to draw a card. Participants who drew a 1, 2, or 3 were assigned to Group A. Participants who drew a 4, 5, or 6, were assigned to Group B. Participants who drew a 7, 8, or 9, were assigned to Group C. The participants were then given an unlabeled CD to listen to based on their group assignment. The CD contained either the song selection or five minutes of silence. They were then escorted into a different room, where they were greeted by a research assistant who conducted the experiment. The research assistant sat the participants in front of a computer screen and told them that a list of 25 words would be displayed on the screen. They were instructed to listen to the CD with headphones while trying to memorize the list of words. All participants were given the same list of 25 words to remember.
When five minutes had passed, the screen displayed a question asking them whether they felt happy, sad, or neutral. After the participant responded, a new screen was displayed asking them to type in all the words they could remember from the list of 25 words. All participants were given three minutes to type the words they remembered. Afterward, the participant was thanked and dismissed. In response to the mood question, a majority of Group A participants said they were happy, a majority of Group B participants said they were sad, and a majority of Group C participants said they were neutral in their mood. Dr. Lonsbary found the following results in response to the number of words remembered.

Group A (Happy) Group B (Sad) Group C (Neutral)
Number of Words Remembered 16 14 9

Groups A and B vs. Group C Statistically significant difference d = .36
Group A vs. Group C Statistically significant difference d = .30
Group B vs. Group C Statistically significant difference d = .41
Group A vs. Group B No statistically significant difference d = .09

Refer to Research Study 10.1 to answer the following sixteen questions.

Prior to conducting the current study, Dr. Lonsbary asked her research assistant to use the same mood manipulation with a sample of 30 college students to determine if people’s moods really did change after listening to the music. This preliminary study is known as a:
1.
Pretest-only study
2.
Concurrent measure study
3.
Pretest/posttest study
4.
Pilot study

4

Generally, what is the main priority for experimental studies?
1.
Statistical validity
2.
Internal validity
3.
Construct validity
4.
External validity

2

Dr. Alfonse, a developmental psychologist, conducts a study to determine whether children prefer books with drawn illustrations or with photographs. A group of 45 first-graders are shown two copies of a book (Little Red Riding Hood) at the same time. Although the story is the same, one book is illustrated with drawings and the other is illustrated with photos. Students are then asked to indicate which book they prefer. This is an example of which of the following designs?
1.
Posttest-only design
2.
Concurrent-measures design
3.
Repeated-measures design
4.
Longitudinal design

2

RESEARCH STUDY 10.1
Dr. Lonsbary is a cognitive psychologist who is curious about how mood affects memory. She recruited 60 high school students and divided them into three groups. Group A listened to a five-minute piece of music intended to make them feel happy (a song titled "Don’t Worry, Be Happy"). Group B listened to a five-minute piece of music intended to make them feel sad (a song titled "Alone Again"). Group C listened to no music and instead was asked to sit quietly for five minutes (thought to make them feel neutral).
When a participant would come to her laboratory, Dr. Lonsbary would greet the participant and then ask him or her to draw a card. Participants who drew a 1, 2, or 3 were assigned to Group A. Participants who drew a 4, 5, or 6, were assigned to Group B. Participants who drew a 7, 8, or 9, were assigned to Group C. The participants were then given an unlabeled CD to listen to based on their group assignment. The CD contained either the song selection or five minutes of silence. They were then escorted into a different room, where they were greeted by a research assistant who conducted the experiment. The research assistant sat the participants in front of a computer screen and told them that a list of 25 words would be displayed on the screen. They were instructed to listen to the CD with headphones while trying to memorize the list of words. All participants were given the same list of 25 words to remember.
When five minutes had passed, the screen displayed a question asking them whether they felt happy, sad, or neutral. After the participant responded, a new screen was displayed asking them to type in all the words they could remember from the list of 25 words. All participants were given three minutes to type the words they remembered. Afterward, the participant was thanked and dismissed. In response to the mood question, a majority of Group A participants said they were happy, a majority of Group B participants said they were sad, and a majority of Group C participants said they were neutral in their mood. Dr. Lonsbary found the following results in response to the number of words remembered.

Group A (Happy) Group B (Sad) Group C (Neutral)
Number of Words Remembered 16 14 9

Groups A and B vs. Group C Statistically significant difference d = .36
Group A vs. Group C Statistically significant difference d = .30
Group B vs. Group C Statistically significant difference d = .41
Group A vs. Group B No statistically significant difference d = .09

Refer to Research Study 10.1 to answer the following sixteen questions.

Which of the following allows Dr. Lonsbary to conclude that she met the covariance rule for causality?
1.
Having people listen to music or silence before they wrote down the list of words they remembered
2.
Putting the 60 participants into equal groups
3.
Making sure that all participants were asked to remember the same list of words
4.
Noting that there is a difference between the number of words recalled by the happy and neutral people

4

RESEARCH STUDY 10.2
Dr. Acitelli studies sleep and sleep disorders. She is curious as to whether falling asleep in front of a television set causes people to fall asleep more slowly than falling asleep without watching TV. She recruits a sample of 60 middle-aged women from a local church who reported no history of sleep problems. She creates three conditions. All participants come to the sleep lab for three nights in a row and experience all three conditions. In the first condition (A), participants fall asleep in front of a television that is off. In the second condition (B), participants fall asleep in front of a television that is turned on to the same 24-hour news channel. In the third condition (C), participants fall asleep in front of a television that is turned on to the same 24-hour news channel but is muted. With the use of an electroencephalograph (EEG), the researcher measures how long it takes participants to fall asleep.

Refer to Research Study 10.2 to answer the following four questions.

Given that there are three conditions/levels of the independent variable, how many orders of the conditions are possible in Dr. Acitelli’s study?
1.
Three
2.
Nine
3.
Twelve
4.
Six

4

RESEARCH STUDY 10.1
Dr. Lonsbary is a cognitive psychologist who is curious about how mood affects memory. She recruited 60 high school students and divided them into three groups. Group A listened to a five-minute piece of music intended to make them feel happy (a song titled "Don’t Worry, Be Happy"). Group B listened to a five-minute piece of music intended to make them feel sad (a song titled "Alone Again"). Group C listened to no music and instead was asked to sit quietly for five minutes (thought to make them feel neutral).
When a participant would come to her laboratory, Dr. Lonsbary would greet the participant and then ask him or her to draw a card. Participants who drew a 1, 2, or 3 were assigned to Group A. Participants who drew a 4, 5, or 6, were assigned to Group B. Participants who drew a 7, 8, or 9, were assigned to Group C. The participants were then given an unlabeled CD to listen to based on their group assignment. The CD contained either the song selection or five minutes of silence. They were then escorted into a different room, where they were greeted by a research assistant who conducted the experiment. The research assistant sat the participants in front of a computer screen and told them that a list of 25 words would be displayed on the screen. They were instructed to listen to the CD with headphones while trying to memorize the list of words. All participants were given the same list of 25 words to remember.
When five minutes had passed, the screen displayed a question asking them whether they felt happy, sad, or neutral. After the participant responded, a new screen was displayed asking them to type in all the words they could remember from the list of 25 words. All participants were given three minutes to type the words they remembered. Afterward, the participant was thanked and dismissed. In response to the mood question, a majority of Group A participants said they were happy, a majority of Group B participants said they were sad, and a majority of Group C participants said they were neutral in their mood. Dr. Lonsbary found the following results in response to the number of words remembered.

Group A (Happy) Group B (Sad) Group C (Neutral)
Number of Words Remembered 16 14 9

Groups A and B vs. Group C Statistically significant difference d = .36
Group A vs. Group C Statistically significant difference d = .30
Group B vs. Group C Statistically significant difference d = .41
Group A vs. Group B No statistically significant difference d = .09

Refer to Research Study 10.1 to answer the following sixteen questions.

Which of the following allows Dr. Lonsbary to conclude that she met the temporal precedence rule for causality?
Selected Answer: [None Given]
Answers: 1.
Making sure that all participants were asked to remember the same list of words
2.
Noting that there is a difference between the number of words recalled by the happy and neutral people
3.
Putting the 60 participants into equal groups
4.
Having people listen to music or silence before they wrote down the list of words they remembered

4

RESEARCH STUDY 10.1
Dr. Lonsbary is a cognitive psychologist who is curious about how mood affects memory. She recruited 60 high school students and divided them into three groups. Group A listened to a five-minute piece of music intended to make them feel happy (a song titled "Don’t Worry, Be Happy"). Group B listened to a five-minute piece of music intended to make them feel sad (a song titled "Alone Again"). Group C listened to no music and instead was asked to sit quietly for five minutes (thought to make them feel neutral).
When a participant would come to her laboratory, Dr. Lonsbary would greet the participant and then ask him or her to draw a card. Participants who drew a 1, 2, or 3 were assigned to Group A. Participants who drew a 4, 5, or 6, were assigned to Group B. Participants who drew a 7, 8, or 9, were assigned to Group C. The participants were then given an unlabeled CD to listen to based on their group assignment. The CD contained either the song selection or five minutes of silence. They were then escorted into a different room, where they were greeted by a research assistant who conducted the experiment. The research assistant sat the participants in front of a computer screen and told them that a list of 25 words would be displayed on the screen. They were instructed to listen to the CD with headphones while trying to memorize the list of words. All participants were given the same list of 25 words to remember.
When five minutes had passed, the screen displayed a question asking them whether they felt happy, sad, or neutral. After the participant responded, a new screen was displayed asking them to type in all the words they could remember from the list of 25 words. All participants were given three minutes to type the words they remembered. Afterward, the participant was thanked and dismissed. In response to the mood question, a majority of Group A participants said they were happy, a majority of Group B participants said they were sad, and a majority of Group C participants said they were neutral in their mood. Dr. Lonsbary found the following results in response to the number of words remembered.

Group A (Happy) Group B (Sad) Group C (Neutral)
Number of Words Remembered 16 14 9

Groups A and B vs. Group C Statistically significant difference d = .36
Group A vs. Group C Statistically significant difference d = .30
Group B vs. Group C Statistically significant difference d = .41
Group A vs. Group B No statistically significant difference d = .09

Refer to Research Study 10.1 to answer the following sixteen questions.

What type of design did Dr. Lonsbary use in her study?

1.
Within-groups design
2.
Pretest/posttest design
3.
Independent-groups design
4.
Matched-group design

3

Which of the following research designs is used to address possible selection effects?
1.
Pretest/posttest designs
2.
Correlational designs
3.
Matched-groups designs
4.
Posttest-only designs

3

Which of the following is NOT true of control variables?
1.
They are essential in experimental designs.
2.
They help establish internal validity.
3.
They help define the control group.
4.
They are kept the same for all participants.

3

RESEARCH STUDY 10.1
Dr. Lonsbary is a cognitive psychologist who is curious about how mood affects memory. She recruited 60 high school students and divided them into three groups. Group A listened to a five-minute piece of music intended to make them feel happy (a song titled "Don’t Worry, Be Happy"). Group B listened to a five-minute piece of music intended to make them feel sad (a song titled "Alone Again"). Group C listened to no music and instead was asked to sit quietly for five minutes (thought to make them feel neutral).
When a participant would come to her laboratory, Dr. Lonsbary would greet the participant and then ask him or her to draw a card. Participants who drew a 1, 2, or 3 were assigned to Group A. Participants who drew a 4, 5, or 6, were assigned to Group B. Participants who drew a 7, 8, or 9, were assigned to Group C. The participants were then given an unlabeled CD to listen to based on their group assignment. The CD contained either the song selection or five minutes of silence. They were then escorted into a different room, where they were greeted by a research assistant who conducted the experiment. The research assistant sat the participants in front of a computer screen and told them that a list of 25 words would be displayed on the screen. They were instructed to listen to the CD with headphones while trying to memorize the list of words. All participants were given the same list of 25 words to remember.
When five minutes had passed, the screen displayed a question asking them whether they felt happy, sad, or neutral. After the participant responded, a new screen was displayed asking them to type in all the words they could remember from the list of 25 words. All participants were given three minutes to type the words they remembered. Afterward, the participant was thanked and dismissed. In response to the mood question, a majority of Group A participants said they were happy, a majority of Group B participants said they were sad, and a majority of Group C participants said they were neutral in their mood. Dr. Lonsbary found the following results in response to the number of words remembered.

Group A (Happy) Group B (Sad) Group C (Neutral)
Number of Words Remembered 16 14 9

Groups A and B vs. Group C Statistically significant difference d = .36
Group A vs. Group C Statistically significant difference d = .30
Group B vs. Group C Statistically significant difference d = .41
Group A vs. Group B No statistically significant difference d = .09

Refer to Research Study 10.1 to answer the following sixteen questions.

Dr. Lonsbary’s decision to randomly assign participants to the three groups was done to avoid which of the following?
1.
An order effect
2.
A selection effect
3.
A practice effect
4.
A carryover effect

2

RESEARCH STUDY 10.2
Dr. Acitelli studies sleep and sleep disorders. She is curious as to whether falling asleep in front of a television set causes people to fall asleep more slowly than falling asleep without watching TV. She recruits a sample of 60 middle-aged women from a local church who reported no history of sleep problems. She creates three conditions. All participants come to the sleep lab for three nights in a row and experience all three conditions. In the first condition (A), participants fall asleep in front of a television that is off. In the second condition (B), participants fall asleep in front of a television that is turned on to the same 24-hour news channel. In the third condition (C), participants fall asleep in front of a television that is turned on to the same 24-hour news channel but is muted. With the use of an electroencephalograph (EEG), the researcher measures how long it takes participants to fall asleep.

Refer to Research Study 10.2 to answer the following four questions.

Given that Dr. Acitelli’s participants have agreed to participate for three nights each, which type of counterbalancing should she use?

1.
Full counterbalancing
2.
Carryover counterbalancing
3.
Minimal counterbalancing
4.
Partial counterbalancing

4

Which of the following is NOT a reason that a researcher might choose a pretest/posttest design?
1.
To make a strong causal claim
2.
To ensure that random assignment made the treatment/comparison groups equal
3.
To allow for the study of spontaneous behaviors
4.
To determine how groups change over the course of the experiment

3

RESEARCH STUDY 10.1
Dr. Lonsbary is a cognitive psychologist who is curious about how mood affects memory. She recruited 60 high school students and divided them into three groups. Group A listened to a five-minute piece of music intended to make them feel happy (a song titled "Don’t Worry, Be Happy"). Group B listened to a five-minute piece of music intended to make them feel sad (a song titled "Alone Again"). Group C listened to no music and instead was asked to sit quietly for five minutes (thought to make them feel neutral).
When a participant would come to her laboratory, Dr. Lonsbary would greet the participant and then ask him or her to draw a card. Participants who drew a 1, 2, or 3 were assigned to Group A. Participants who drew a 4, 5, or 6, were assigned to Group B. Participants who drew a 7, 8, or 9, were assigned to Group C. The participants were then given an unlabeled CD to listen to based on their group assignment. The CD contained either the song selection or five minutes of silence. They were then escorted into a different room, where they were greeted by a research assistant who conducted the experiment. The research assistant sat the participants in front of a computer screen and told them that a list of 25 words would be displayed on the screen. They were instructed to listen to the CD with headphones while trying to memorize the list of words. All participants were given the same list of 25 words to remember.
When five minutes had passed, the screen displayed a question asking them whether they felt happy, sad, or neutral. After the participant responded, a new screen was displayed asking them to type in all the words they could remember from the list of 25 words. All participants were given three minutes to type the words they remembered. Afterward, the participant was thanked and dismissed. In response to the mood question, a majority of Group A participants said they were happy, a majority of Group B participants said they were sad, and a majority of Group C participants said they were neutral in their mood. Dr. Lonsbary found the following results in response to the number of words remembered.

Group A (Happy) Group B (Sad) Group C (Neutral)
Number of Words Remembered 16 14 9

Groups A and B vs. Group C Statistically significant difference d = .36
Group A vs. Group C Statistically significant difference d = .30
Group B vs. Group C Statistically significant difference d = .41
Group A vs. Group B No statistically significant difference d = .09

Refer to Research Study 10.1 to answer the following sixteen questions.

Dr. Lonsbary’s study asked participants to report on their mood before completing the memory test. Her decision to include this step was done to address the study’s:
1.
Internal validity
2.
External validity
3.
Statistical validity
4.
Construct validity

3

RESEARCH STUDY 10.2
Dr. Acitelli studies sleep and sleep disorders. She is curious as to whether falling asleep in front of a television set causes people to fall asleep more slowly than falling asleep without watching TV. She recruits a sample of 60 middle-aged women from a local church who reported no history of sleep problems. She creates three conditions. All participants come to the sleep lab for three nights in a row and experience all three conditions. In the first condition (A), participants fall asleep in front of a television that is off. In the second condition (B), participants fall asleep in front of a television that is turned on to the same 24-hour news channel. In the third condition (C), participants fall asleep in front of a television that is turned on to the same 24-hour news channel but is muted. With the use of an electroencephalograph (EEG), the researcher measures how long it takes participants to fall asleep.

Refer to Research Study 10.2 to answer the following four questions.

Dr. Acitelli was concerned that asking participants how long it took them to fall asleep would lead them to suspect that was the purpose of the study. Her decision to measure how long it took participants to go to sleep using the EEG instead of self-report was meant to decrease which of the following?
1.
Order effects
2.
Counterbalancing effects
3.
Selection effects
4.
Demand characteristics

4

RESEARCH STUDY 10.1
Dr. Lonsbary is a cognitive psychologist who is curious about how mood affects memory. She recruited 60 high school students and divided them into three groups. Group A listened to a five-minute piece of music intended to make them feel happy (a song titled "Don’t Worry, Be Happy"). Group B listened to a five-minute piece of music intended to make them feel sad (a song titled "Alone Again"). Group C listened to no music and instead was asked to sit quietly for five minutes (thought to make them feel neutral).
When a participant would come to her laboratory, Dr. Lonsbary would greet the participant and then ask him or her to draw a card. Participants who drew a 1, 2, or 3 were assigned to Group A. Participants who drew a 4, 5, or 6, were assigned to Group B. Participants who drew a 7, 8, or 9, were assigned to Group C. The participants were then given an unlabeled CD to listen to based on their group assignment. The CD contained either the song selection or five minutes of silence. They were then escorted into a different room, where they were greeted by a research assistant who conducted the experiment. The research assistant sat the participants in front of a computer screen and told them that a list of 25 words would be displayed on the screen. They were instructed to listen to the CD with headphones while trying to memorize the list of words. All participants were given the same list of 25 words to remember.
When five minutes had passed, the screen displayed a question asking them whether they felt happy, sad, or neutral. After the participant responded, a new screen was displayed asking them to type in all the words they could remember from the list of 25 words. All participants were given three minutes to type the words they remembered. Afterward, the participant was thanked and dismissed. In response to the mood question, a majority of Group A participants said they were happy, a majority of Group B participants said they were sad, and a majority of Group C participants said they were neutral in their mood. Dr. Lonsbary found the following results in response to the number of words remembered.

Group A (Happy) Group B (Sad) Group C (Neutral)
Number of Words Remembered 16 14 9

Groups A and B vs. Group C Statistically significant difference d = .36
Group A vs. Group C Statistically significant difference d = .30
Group B vs. Group C Statistically significant difference d = .41
Group A vs. Group B No statistically significant difference d = .09

Refer to Research Study 10.1 to answer the following sixteen questions.

Which of the following is a NOT control variable in Dr. Lonsbary’s study?

1.
The number of words on the word list
2.
The amount of time allowed for remembering/typing the words
3.
The amount of time allowed for memorizing the words
4.
The mood of the participants

4

RESEARCH STUDY 10.1
Dr. Lonsbary is a cognitive psychologist who is curious about how mood affects memory. She recruited 60 high school students and divided them into three groups. Group A listened to a five-minute piece of music intended to make them feel happy (a song titled "Don’t Worry, Be Happy"). Group B listened to a five-minute piece of music intended to make them feel sad (a song titled "Alone Again"). Group C listened to no music and instead was asked to sit quietly for five minutes (thought to make them feel neutral).
When a participant would come to her laboratory, Dr. Lonsbary would greet the participant and then ask him or her to draw a card. Participants who drew a 1, 2, or 3 were assigned to Group A. Participants who drew a 4, 5, or 6, were assigned to Group B. Participants who drew a 7, 8, or 9, were assigned to Group C. The participants were then given an unlabeled CD to listen to based on their group assignment. The CD contained either the song selection or five minutes of silence. They were then escorted into a different room, where they were greeted by a research assistant who conducted the experiment. The research assistant sat the participants in front of a computer screen and told them that a list of 25 words would be displayed on the screen. They were instructed to listen to the CD with headphones while trying to memorize the list of words. All participants were given the same list of 25 words to remember.
When five minutes had passed, the screen displayed a question asking them whether they felt happy, sad, or neutral. After the participant responded, a new screen was displayed asking them to type in all the words they could remember from the list of 25 words. All participants were given three minutes to type the words they remembered. Afterward, the participant was thanked and dismissed. In response to the mood question, a majority of Group A participants said they were happy, a majority of Group B participants said they were sad, and a majority of Group C participants said they were neutral in their mood. Dr. Lonsbary found the following results in response to the number of words remembered.

Group A (Happy) Group B (Sad) Group C (Neutral)
Number of Words Remembered 16 14 9

Groups A and B vs. Group C Statistically significant difference d = .36
Group A vs. Group C Statistically significant difference d = .30
Group B vs. Group C Statistically significant difference d = .41
Group A vs. Group B No statistically significant difference d = .09

Refer to Research Study 10.1 to answer the following sixteen questions.

How many conditions/levels of the independent variable were in Dr. Lonsbary’s study?

1.
Two
2.
Five
3.
Three
4.
Nine

3

All of the following are advantages of within-groups designs EXCEPT:
Selected Answer: [None Given]
Answers: 1.
It gives researchers more power to find differences between conditions
2.
They require fewer participants
3.
Participants in the treatment/control groups will be equivalent
4.
It is less time-consuming for the participants

4

Scroll to Top