psych 13-14

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The role of repressed childhood conflicts in personality disorders is most clearly emphasized by the ________ perspective
a. trait
b. social-cognitive
c. psychoanalytic
d. humanistic

c

Jaydon doesn’t realize that his alcohol abuse and neglect of his family is leading to the destruction of both his family and career. A psychoanalyst would suggest that Jaydon shows signs of a
a. strong ego.
b. weak id.
c. strong superego.
d. weak ego.

d

Freud suggested that adults with a passive personality marked by a childlike dependency demonstrate signs of
a. an oral fixation.
b. an inferiority complex.
c. reaction formation.
d. an Oedipus complex.

a

Bryce often acts so daring and overly confident that few people realize he is actually riddled with unconscious insecurity and self-doubt. Bryce best illustrates the use of a defense mechanism known as
a. regression.
b. projection.
c. displacement.
d. reaction formation.

d

Carl Jung emphasized the importance of ________ in personality functioning
a. inferiority feelings
b. psychosexual stages
c. the collective unconscious
d. unconditional positive regard

c

Hermann Rorschach introduced what has become the most widely used ________ test.
a. empirically derived
b. self-esteem
c. factor analytic
d. projective

d

Abraham Maslow suggested that individuals who are open, spontaneous, and not paralyzed by others’ opinions illustrate
a. extraversion.
b. reaction formation.
c. self-actualization.
d. an external locus of control.

c

Humanistic psychology has been most closely associated with an emphasis on the importance of
a. empirically derived tests.
b. reciprocal determinism.
c. a positive self-concept.
d. an external locus of control.

c

Which technique would psychologists use to assess whether a cluster of characteristics that includes ambition, determination, persistence, and self-reliance reflects a single personality trait?
a. projective testing
b. factor analysis
c. empirically derived testing
d. free association

b

During a phone call to the Psychic Network, Mark was told that "you often worry about things much more than you admit, even to your best friends." Mark’s amazement at the psychic’s apparent understanding of his personality best illustrates
a. the spotlight effect.
b. an external locus of control.
c. the Barnum effect.
d. the self-reference phenomenon.

c

11. One of the Big Five personality factors is
a. reciprocal determinism.
b. self-actualization.
c. agreeableness.
d. free association.

c

Sarah’s optimism is both a contributor to and a product of her successful career accomplishments. This best illustrates
a. self-serving bias.
b. reciprocal determinism.
c. unconditional positive regard.
d. the spotlight effect.

b

Marcy believes that the outcome of athletic contests depends so much on luck that it hardly pays to put any effort into her own athletic training. Her belief most clearly illustrates
a. the spotlight effect.
b. the Barnum effect.
c. the false consensus effect.
d. an external locus of control.

d

Although she is intelligent and a good athlete, Abigail believes that her low grades in school and losing the quarter-mile race are reflections of her own intellectual and athletic incompetence. Her conclusion best illustrates
a. the false consensus effect.
b. reciprocal determinism.
c. the spotlight effect.
d. a pessimistic attributional style.

d

When Vanessa noticed that she was wearing mismatched socks, she overestimated the extent to which others would also notice. Her reaction best illustrates
a. the spotlight effect.
b. defensive self-esteem.
c. reciprocal determinism.
d. the Barnum effect.

a

Freud thought that the part of a dream that we remember is a censored version ofa. unconditional positive regard.
b. the spotlight effect.
c. unconscious wishes.
d. self-serving bias.

c

According to psychoanalytic theory, boys’ fear of castration is most closely associated with
a. an oral fixation.
b. free association.
c. the spotlight effect.
d. the Oedipus complex.

d

Bonnie is afraid to express anger at her overbearing and irritating supervisor at work, so she is critical of her children instead. A psychoanalyst would suggest that Bonnie’s reaction to her children illustrates
a. identification.
b. reaction formation.
c. displacement.
d. projection.

c

Children who have witnessed a parent’s murder report memories that most clearly challenge Freud’s concept of
a. erogenous zones.
b. reaction formation.
c. displacement.
d. repression.

d

According to Maslow, the desire for identity, meaning, and purpose beyond the self refers to the motive for
a. erogenous zones.
b. reaction formation.
c. displacement.
d. repression.

c

Who emphasized the importance of unconditional positive regard in healthy personality development?
a. Gordon Allport
b. Albert Bandura
c. Carl Rogers
d. Alfred Adler

c

The MMPI was originally developed to identify.
a hierarchy of needs.
b. psychosexual stages.
c. unconditional positive regard.
d. emotional disorders.

d

Around the world, people describe others’ personality traits in terms that are consistent with a set of factors called
a. defense mechanisms.
b. psychosexual stages.
c. the hierarchy of needs.
d. the Big Five.

d

The stability of personality during adulthood best illustrates the value of
a. unconditional positive regard.
b. an internal locus of control.
c. factor analysis.
d. trait theories.

d

We can better predict drivers’ behavior at traffic lights from knowing the color of the lights than from knowing the drivers’ personalities. This best illustrates the importance of
a. collectivism.
b. the spotlight effect.
c. self-transcendence.
d. situational influences.

d

The social-cognitive perspective highlights the interaction of personal traits with our environment, a process that Albert Bandura called
a. free association.
b. self-actualization.
c. reciprocal determinism.
d. reaction formation.

c

After experiencing prolonged and seemingly inescapable physical abuse from her husband, Kayla became increasingly depressed and hopelessly resigned to her suffering. Her reaction best illustrates
a. the spotlight effect.
b. an Electra complex.
c. learned helplessness.
d. defensive self-esteem.

c

Students perceive themselves as less likely than the average classmate to develop drinking problems or drop out of school. This best illustrates
a. the Barnum effect.
b. the spotlight effect.
c. the false consensus effect.
d. unrealistic optimism.

d

Card players who attribute their wins to their own skill and their losses to bad luck best illustrate
a. unconditional positive regard.
b. reciprocal determinism.
c. the spotlight effect.
d. self-serving bias.

d

Although Alex has frequently been caught stealing money and other valuables from friends as well as strangers, he does not feel guilty or remorseful about robbing these people. Alex most clearly demonstrates a(n)
a. inferiority complex.
b. external locus of control.
c. weak superego.
d. oral fixation.

c

Marilyn judges her professor’s strict class attendance policy to be an indication of his overcontrolling personality rather than a necessity dictated by the limited number of class sessions in a course that meets only once a week. Her judgment best illustrates
a. the mere exposure effect.
b. group polarization.
c. deindividuation.
d. the fundamental attribution error.

d

Bart complied with his friends’ request to join them in smashing decorative pumpkins early one Halloween evening. Later that night he was surprised by his own failure to resist their pressures to throw eggs at passing police cars. Bart’s experience best illustrates the
a. bystander effect.
b. foot-in-the-door phenomenon.
c. fundamental attribution error.
d. frustration-aggression principle.

b

Cognitive dissonance theory is most helpful for understanding the impact of
a. groupthink on social conflict.
b. deindividuation on the bystander effect.
c. team membership on social loafing.
d. role playing on attitude change.

d

In making wedding preparations, Jason conforms to the expectations of his future bride’s family simply to win their favor. His behavior illustrates the importance of
a. social facilitation.
b. normative social influence.
c. mirror-image perceptions.
d. the mere exposure effect

b

Participants in Milgram’s obedience experiments were informed that they were involved in a study of
a. aggression.
b. altruism.
c. learning.
d. visual perception.

c

Bonnie pedals an exercise bike at her health club much faster when other patrons happen to be working out on nearby equipment. This best illustrates
a. the bystander effect.
b. the foot-in-the-door phenomenon.
c. social facilitation.
d. group polarization.

c

When a group of racially prejudiced high school students discussed racial issues, their attitudes became even more prejudiced. This best illustrates
a. group polarization.
b. the bystander effect.
c. social facilitation.
d. deindividuation.

a

Kelly, a Republican, and Carlos, a Democrat, both believe that members of their own political party are more fair-minded and trustworthy than members of other parties. Their beliefs best illustrate
a. the two-factor theory.
b. the just-world phenomenon.
c. deindividuation.
d. ingroup bias.

d

When visiting the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp shortly after World War II, one German civilian was said to have remarked, "What terrible criminals these prisoners must have been to receive such treatment." This reaction is best explained in terms of
a. the mere exposure effect.
b. the just-world phenomenon.
c. the social-responsibility norm.
d. deindividuation.

b

After being heavily exposed to X-rated films, men are later ________ likely to perceive extramarital sex as troubling and ________ likely to perceive a woman’s friendliness as sexual interest.
a. more; less
b. less; more
c. more; more
d. less; less

b

When buying groceries, many shoppers prefer certain products simply because they have a familiar brand name. This preference best illustrates the importance of
a. social traps.
b. the mere exposure effect.
c. mirror-image perceptions.
d. deindividuation.

b

Which theory best explains why the excitement that lingers after a frightening event can facilitate passionate love?
a. social exchange theory
b. cognitive dissonance theory
c. the two-factor theory
d. equity theory

c

Mr. Hughes heard what sounded like cries for help from a swimmer located 30 yards from the ocean shoreline. He continued walking along the beach, however, because he figured that one of the many swimmers in the vicinity would provide help if it was needed. His reaction best illustrates the dynamics involved in
a. the fundamental attribution error.
b. group polarization.
c. the bystander effect.
d. the mere exposure effect.

c

Max fails to recycle his glass, metal, and plastic garbage because he thinks it’s personally inconvenient and likely to have minimal impact on the city’s already overflowing landfills. His reaction best illustrates the dynamics of
a. the mere exposure effect.
b. the fundamental attribution error.
c. a social trap.
d. social facilitation.

c

The hostilities between two racial subgroups of a riverfront community were dramatically reduced when the threat of their river flooding its banks required that they work together to save their town. This best illustrates the impact of
a. groupthink.
b. superordinate goals.
c. deindividuation.
d. the bystander effect.

b

The fundamental attribution error involves
a. becoming more extreme in one’s individual opinions following group discussion.
b. performing a complex task more poorly when in the presence of others.
c. underestimating situational constraints on another’s behavior.
d. losing self-restraint in group situations that foster anonymity.

c

Professor Stewart wrote a very positive letter of recommendation for a student despite having doubts about her competence. Which theory best explains why he subsequently began to develop more favorable attitudes about the student’s abilities?
a. cognitive dissonance theory
b. scapegoat theory
c. two-factor theory
d. equity theory

a

Research participants who worked alongside someone who rubbed his or her face or shook his or her foot were observed to do the same thing themselves. This best illustrated
a. the mere exposure effect.
b. the chameleon effect.
c. social loafing.
d. the bystander effect.

b

Using the Asch procedure, conformity to group judgments would be LEAST likely when
a. participants announce their own answers only after the other group members have done so.
b. participants are not observed by other group members when giving their answers.
c. it is very difficult to make correct judgments.
d. judgments are made in a group that has more than three people.

b

In a study of social loafing, blindfolded students were asked to pull on a rope as hard as they could. The students tugged hardest when they thought
a. three others were pulling with them.
b. three others were pulling against them.
c. no others were pulling with them.
d. no one was monitoring how hard they pulled.

c

Although Frieda is typically very reserved, as part of a huge rock concert crowd she lost her inhibitions and behaved in a very sexually provocative way. Frieda’s unusual behavior is best understood in terms of
a. the bystander effect.
b. social facilitation.
c. deindividuation.
d. the mere exposure effect.

c

Groupthink is fueled by a desire for
a. self-disclosure.
b. harmony.
c. minority influence.
d. cognitive dissonance.

b

Evidence that people exhibit heightened levels of prejudice when they are economically frustrated offers support for
a. cognitive dissonance theory.
b. social exchange theory.
c. the scapegoat theory.
d. attribution theory.

c

Shortly after Alex learned that he had failed to make the high school football team, he vandalized the team’s locker room and broke several classroom windows. His behavior is best explained in terms of
a. group polarization.
b. the mere exposure effect.
c. social loafing.
d. the frustration-aggression principle.

d

People’s physical attractiveness is a good predictor of their
a. happiness.
b. academic competence.
c. frequency of dating.
d. altruism.

c

Although Natalie receives somewhat greater rewards from her marriage than does her husband, both are satisfied with the relationship because they each benefit in proportion to what they put into it. This best illustrates the significance of
a. equity.
b. deindividuation.
c. social facilitation.
d. the mere exposure effect.

a

When Hutu militia began to slaughter the Tutsi in 1994, missionary Carl Wilkens risked his own life to save the lives of others. His actions best illustrated
a. social facilitation.
b. the mere exposure effect.
c. the reciprocity norm.
d. altruism.

d

After Mrs. Chanski and her children had helped themselves to free samples of the cookies being promoted in the grocery store, she felt obligated to buy some, even though they seemed unreasonably expensive. Her reaction best illustrates the significance of
a. social facilitation.
b. the reciprocity norm.
c. the bystander effect.
d. the just-world phenomenon.

b

Although the leaders of two enemy nations admit to a buildup of their own military forces, each sees the other country’s actions as unreasonable and motivated by evil intentions. This situation best illustrates
a. deindividuation.
b. the mere exposure effect.
c. the just-world phenomenon.
d. mirror-image perceptions.

d

Initiating one or more small conciliatory acts is a central feature of
a. the just-world phenomenon.
b. social facilitation.
c. the mere exposure effect.
d. GRIT.

d

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