PSYC334 Chapter 11

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Why does it make sense to view addiction as a mental disorder?

the symptoms reflect behaviors that involve the pathological need for a substance

unlike psychoactive substance abuse, psychoactive substance dependence usually involves

physiological symptoms such as tolerance and withdrawal

henry used to become intoxicated after 6 drinks. now he needs ten or twelve to get the same effect. this is an example of

tolerance

the occurrence of withdrawal symptoms

signals that the body has adjusted to the presence of the drug

which of the following is a consequence of organic impairment resultinf from long-term substance use, as opposed to being a consequence of drug toxicity

alcohol amnestic disorder

Judd has been drinking heavily for a number of years. When he is not drinking, he experiences profuse sweating and shakes. This indicates that Judd

has withdrawal symptoms when he abstains from alcohol

which of the following is a diagnosis found in the DSM-5

Alcohol Use Disorder

Which of the following statements about alcohol problems is accurate?

a. The lifetime prevalence for alcoholism in the United States is about 30 percent.
b. The average life span of an alcoholic is twelve years shorter than the average citizen.
c. Although alcohol impairs motor behavior, it does not lower performance on complex cognitive tasks.
d. Alcohol abuse is a "pure" disorder, with less than 5 percent of alcohol abusers having a coexisting mental disorder.

The average lifespan of an alcoholic is 12 years shorter than the average citizen

which of the following statements is true about alcohol use?

a. Alcoholism is extremely serious but rarely fatal.
b. Alcoholism is more common in women that in men.
c. Alcoholism increases the risk of suicide.
d. Alcoholism is strongly associated with accidental death, but not with violent acts.

alcoholism increases the risk of suicide

which mental disorder is most commonly comorbid with alcoholism?

Depression

Observed changes in drinking patterns suggest that in the future

the ratio of male to female problem drinkers will decrease

of the following who is most likely to be an alcoholic?

a. A woman with no criminal history
b. A woman with multiple children
c. A male with a personality disorder
d. A male with multiple children

a male with a personality disorder

Alchol’s effects on ____ explain its ability to impair judgement

glutamate

At low levels, alcohol’s effect on the brain is ____; at higher levels, alcohol’s effect os _____.

to activate the brain’s "pleasure centers"; depress brain functioning

Alcoholic blackouts

can occur with just moderate drinking

wat evidence is there that the legal definition of alcohol intoxication (a BAC of 0.08) should be changed?

Judgement becomes impaired long before this BAC is reached

The typical course of alcohol-related disorder

is varied but often progresses from early to late stage disorder

passing out from high BAC

may actually be a safety device

which of the following is a misconception about alcohol?

a. A person with a strong will cannot become an alcoholic.
b. Alcohol can interfere with sleep.
c. Mixing different types of alcohol does not make people more drunk than the same amount of a single type.
d. Drinking coffee does not counteract the effects of alcohol.

a person with a strong will cannot become an alcoholic

Which of the following best explains why women tend to not "hold their booze" as well as men

Women metabolize alcohol less quickly than men

Cirrhosis of the liver

is caused by overworking the liver trying to assimilate large amounts of alcohol

heavy drinking during pregnancy, especially the early part, often causes

agressiveness and withdrawal in the child

malnutriton

may occur in alcoholics because alcohol interferes with the body’s ability to use nutrients

bertha has been drinking to excess for many years, she is malnourished because

alcohol impairs the body’s ability to utilize nutrients

alcohol amnestic disorder may occur due to

low thiamine levels

alcohol withdrawal delirium

typically lasts 3 to 6 days

your text describes two commonly recognized psychotic reations to alcohol. they are

what used to be called delirium tremens and Korsakoff’s psychosis

Korsakoff’s psychosis is now known as

alcohol amnestic disorder

When John stopped drinking after his last week-long binge, he became very ill. he was disoriented, hallucinating, and paranoid. john seems to be experiencing

alchol withdrawal delirium

Betty was admitted to the hospital in a state of withdrawal from alchol. She was diagnosed with alchol withdrawal delirium (formerly known as delirium tremens). She most likely showed which of the following behaviors

a. Delusions of grandeur and an inability to get to sleep
b. Disorientation for time and place and vivid hallucinations
c. Severe memory deficit and the tendency to falsify reporting events (confabulation)
d. Prolonged sleep followed by convulsions and heart failure
Difficulty: 1

disorientation for time and place with vivid hallucinations

the central feature of alcohol amnestic disorder is

memory defect for recent events

concerning the causes of alcoholism,

there are probably several different patterns of causes associated with several different types of alcohol dependence

all drugs that people become dependent on

act on pleasure pathways of the brain

what is the role of mesocorticolimbic dopamine pathway (MCLP)?

it is the area of the brain that is activated by drugs and that produces euphoria

studies of the genetics of alcoholism

suggest that an inherited altered sensitivity to alcohol might create a vulnerability to alcohol use

James has two alcoholic parents. research suggests that his risk for alcoholism is

greater than if he had one alcoholic parent

men who are at high risk for becoming alcoholics

experience greater lessening of feelings of stress after alcohol consumption than nonalcoholic men

Which of the following men has an alcohol-risk personality?
a. Tim, who is shy, anxious, and withdrawn.
b. Brian, who is organized, detail-oriented, and ambitious.
c. Sean, who is impulsive, risk-taking, and poor at planning.
d. Art, who is frequently depressed and has a low level of self-esteem.

Sean

rates of alcoholism among asian populations are ____ than among european peoples. this may be related to

lower; a mutant enzyme that leads to hypersensitive reactions to alcohol

the alcohol flush reaction

results in the inability to metabolize alcohol

one limitation on the findings of genetic influences on alcoholism is that

there have not been enough studies on the majority of children of alcoholics (those who do not become alcoholics)

which of the following is a common personality characteristic of those who later abuse alcohol?

strong need for praise and admiration

which parenting skill or parental behavior is most associated with adolescent substance abuse

lack of monitoring the adolescent’s activities

persons at high risk for developing alcohol-related problems tend to be more ____ than those at low risk

impulsive

which statement about alcohol abuse disorders and other psychological disorders is accurate

the personality disorder most often associated with alcohol abuse is antisocial personality disorder

the individual with which of the following diagnoses is most likely to also abuse alcohol

Antisocial personality disorder

Rosa comes to you for treatment of her alcohol abuse. you suspect that she might have some other disorder as well. why is it important for you to evaluate her status?

the co-occurrence of another mental disorder has a very significant effect on treatment outcome

According to the tension-reduction explanation for alcoholism

all those who experience stress-reduction following alcohol consumption are at an increased risk for alcoholism

the tension-reduction model of alcoholism

does not explain why some excessive drinkers are able to maintain control over their drinking while others are not

the reciprocal influence model of alcohol use suggests that

expectancies of social benefit can influence adolescents to begin or to continue drinking

the reciprocal influence model is best described as a ____ explanation for teen drinking

cognitive

the reciprocal influence model suggests that

it may be possible to interrupt the cycle by changing expectancies about drinking

problematic drinking behavior commonly develops during

crisis periods in a marriage or other intimate personal relationship

a moderating variable is

something that influences the connection between two other variables

an example of a moderating influence would be

the effect of time on outcome expectancy about alcohol

bill is an alcoholic. his wife, marge, has a lot of ready excuses she uses to explain to his boss, their friends, and their children to explain his frequent absences. this is an example of

why treatment needs to include identifying factors that may encourage drinking

binge drinking in college

can lead to alcohol-related health and life problems

the incidence of alcoholism among Muslims and Mormons is low because

these religions prohibit alcohol consumption

which of the following countries has the highest per capita rate of alcohol consumption

France

into treatment?

overcoming denial

why might opiate antagonists be used in the treatment for alcoholism

to minimize cravings

what complicates the use of antabuse in the treatment of alcoholism?

exposure to all alcohol must be avoided

Randy has been dependent on alcohol for at least ten years. Drinking has ruined his marriage, his occupational standing, and his health. If a friend told Randy that he needed to enter treatment, and Randy responded the way most alcohol dependent people do, he would probably say

"Who do you think you are attacking me? You are the one with the problem"

Adam and Beth are both being treated for alcohol dependence by being given medications. Adam’s medication makes him vomit if he drinks after taking it. Beth’s medication reduces her craving for alcohol. Most likely Adam is taking ________; Beth is taking ________.

antabuse;naltrexone

the first stage in the treatment of any form of substance dependence is

treating physical withdrawal symptoms

aversive conditioning for alcoholics

involves pairing alcohol with something unpleasant like electric shock

controlled drinking – teaching alcoholics to drink in moderation

is incorporated in Brief Motivational Intervention

"I am a person who has an affliction-I cannot drink like social drinkers. Spiritual change may help me in recovering from my addiction, but I will be an alcoholic for life." The person who said this would feel most comfortable in ________.

Alcoholics Anonymous

in contrast to some other treatment programs, AA

offers both group and one on one support

Which statement about project MATCH is accurate

it showed that matching a client’s personality to a form of treatment makes no difference

which type of treatment for alcoholism has been found to be most effective

inpatient, outpatient, and 12-step were all about equal

abstinence violation effect

the tendency of an abstainer to relapse completely after a minor transgression

what type of treatment focuses primarily on clients learning to recognize situations that are likely to trigger drinking

relapse prevention treatment

which of the following is a narcotic?

a. alcohol
b. codeine
c. Marijuanna
d. tobacco

Codeine

who has the highest self-reported quit rate among smokers

people who were hospitalized for cancer or lung problems

why are estimates of the prevalence of drug dependence likely to be inaccurate?

many people do not seek help

which of the following is both a stimulant and a hallucinogen?

Ecstasy

which of the following drugs is MDMA structurally similar to?

Methamphetamine and mescaline

Drug abuse and dependence are most common in what age group and in what type of community

Adolescence and young adulthood; college communities

Opium and heroin

were originally used by physicians as pain relievers

in 2005, which of the following accounted for 10% of all drug-related emergency room admissions

Heroin

Opium and its derivatives

cause withdrawal symptoms within approx. 8 hours of the last dose

which of the following makes treatment of dependence on heroin especially challenging

the likely involvement of the user in a drug-using subculture

The main reason addicts gave for using heroin was

pleasure

endorphins

are opium-like substances produced by the body

the use of methadone in the treatment of heroin dependence is comparable to

using a nicotine patch to aid in smoking cessation

Tina has been using cocaine for many months. She decides to stop. She can expect

to have depression, fatigue, distrubed sleep, and increased dreaming

"Crack" is a form of

cocaine

crack cocaine users

chronic users develop sexual dysfunctions and disinterest in sex

children of mothers who use crack are

at risk for being mistreated by their mothers

benzedrine is

an amphetamine

today physicians occasionally prescribe amphetamines for the treatment of

narcolepsy

amphetamine psychosis resembles

paranoid schizophrenia

which of the following has legitimate medical uses but is associated with both physiological and psychological dependence and lethal overdose

Barbiturates

which of the following is most likely to be used to produce sleep

Barbiturates

Impaired memory and concentration, sluggishness, lack of motor coordination, and brain damage are side effects associated with excessive use of

sedatives

which of the following people is most likely to be dependent on barbiturates

middle-aged and older persons who cannot get sleep without them

barbiturate withdrawal

is more dangerous and long-lasting than most drugs and can be minimized by administering another drug

the drug that can create a stat most like psychosis

LSD

an involuntary reoccurrence of perceptual distortions can occur weeks or months after taking a particular drug. The phenomenon is called ______; the drug is called _____.

flashback;LSD

Brendan has been using marijuana daily for more than six years. If he stops using the drug, we may expect

withdrawal-like symptoms such as nervousness and changes in sleeping and eating.

"Spice", "K2" and "Blaze" are all names for:

synthetic marijuanna

Substance abuse usually involves an excessive use of a substance, while __________ usually involves a marked physiological need for the substance.

Substance dependence

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