PSYC2314-Unit 3 Quizzes

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Role transitions always
A.occur at the same age for individuals within a given cultural population.
B. involve family relationships.
C. lead to significant increases in stress.
D. involve the acquisition of new responsibilities

D. involve the acquisition of new responsibilities

In most non-Western developing cultures, ____ is the most important determinant of adult status.
A. completing college
B. marriage
C. getting a job
D.having a child

B. marriage

A rite of passage is best classified as a(n)
A. implicit stereotype
B. biological event.
C. reflective judgment.
D. ritual

D. ritual

The youngest age at which most colleges label an individual as a returning adult student is ____.
A. 25
B. 35
C. 45
D. 55

A. 25

Which of the following statements about returning students is false?
A. Returning students tend to be problem-solvers.
B. Returning students tend to need more direction from instructors.
C. Returning students tend to experience conflicts between school, work, and family.
D. Returning students often have life experience relevant to coursework.

B. Returning students tend to need more direction from instructors.

In what way is Cheyenne different from Ciara, her teenage daughter?
A. Cheyenne is more likely to have unprotected sex .
B. Cheyenne is less likely to speed while driving.
C. Ciara is more likely to comply with social norms.
D. Ciara is less likely to shoplift

B. Cheyenne is less likely to speed while driving.

Erikson would argue that 30-year-old Rollie is currently experiencing a crisis involving
A. trust versus mistrust.
B. identity versus role confusion.
C. autonomy versus shame and doubt.
D. intimacy versus isolation.

D. intimacy versus isolation.

Dr. Winslow is doing a health survey of 200 young adults. If this group is typical of young adults in the United States, ____ of them will say
they are in good to excellent health.
A. 188
B. 164
C. 132
D. 106

A. 188

Kofi was a 27-year-old male living in the United States, who just died. What was the most likely cause of Kofi’s death?
A. Cardiovascular disease
B. Homicide
C. Cancer
D. An accident

D. An accident

Smoking represents a major medical problem in the United States with about ____ people each year dying from smoking-related disorders.
A. 4,000
B. 40,000
C. 400,000
D. 4,000,000

C. 400,000

Gallo drinks exactly two glasses of wine per day. As a result, Gallo can expect to
A. end up in a treatment center for alcoholism.
B. be at risk for cardiovascular disease.
C. be labeled a binge drinker.
D. experience some health-related benefits from his actions.

D. experience some health-related benefits from his actions.

Jimmy goes to a party with his college buddies and has six beers in a row. Jimmy’s behavior would be best classified as
A. alcoholism.
B. light drinking.
C. binge drinking.
D. purge drinking

C. binge drinking.

Amanda is physically dependent on alcohol and experiences withdrawal symptoms when she doesn’t drink. Amanda’s experience with
alcohol would be best described as
A. an addiction.
B. a rite of passage.
C. binge drinking.
D. healthy behavior.

A. an addiction.

At a chemical level, alcohol addiction results in chemical changes that
A. cause the body to crave alcohol.
B. destroy all GABA receptors.
C. reduce levels of serotonin and dopamine within the brain.
D. increase cellular develop in the medulla oblongata

A. cause the body to crave alcohol.

Bernice is very interested in studying how the energy needs of the human body change through the life span. In other words, Bernice is
interested in studying
A. cholesterol.
B. metabolism.
C. lipoproteins.
D. addiction

B. metabolism.

_____ help keep your arteries clear.
A. Trans fats
B. Serotonin
C. High-density lipoproteins
D. Steroids

C. High-density lipoproteins

Who is at the greatest risk of a heart attack?
A. Forrest, who has high levels of LDLs and low levels of HDLs
B. Tucker, who has low level of LDLs and high levels of HDLs
C. Sawyer, who has low levels of both LDLs and HDLs
D. Gump, who has high levels of both LDLs and HDLs

A. Forrest, who has high levels of LDLs and low levels of HDLs

A doctor is most likely to recommend that you consume higher levels of ____ to increase your HDL level.
A. fiber
B. fat
C. Sodium
D. Yogurt

A. fiber

What is BMI?
A. A measure of cholesterol in the blood
B. A personality test
C. A device used to assess binge drinking
D. An index related to total body fat

D. An index related to total body fat

Socioeconomic status and _____ are the two most important social influences on health.
A. education
B. occupation
C. marital status
D. religious status

A. education

Intellectual multidirectionality is based on the premise that
A. no two people develop the same way intellectually.
B. there is more than one kind of intelligence.
C. most aspects of intelligence cannot be modified.
D. with age, some aspects of intelligence improve while others may decline.

D. with age, some aspects of intelligence improve while others may decline.

Which is not a "primary mental ability?"
A. Number
B. Inductive reasoning
C. Spatial orientation
D. Fluid intelligence

D. Fluid intelligence

Which is not a factor identified by Schaie as a variable that helps reduce the risk of cognitive decline in old age?
A. Living in good housing
B. Having a flexible personality style
C. Being satisfied with life
D. Being single

D. Being single

Crystallized intelligence is
A. acquired across one’s life.
B. best exemplified by sensory integration.
C. not very useful in solving real-life tasks.
D. best assessed on timed, standardized IQ tests.

A. acquired across one’s life.

If you wanted to show that age decreases a certain type of intelligence, you should focus on testing participants’
A. general intelligence.
B. fluid intelligence.
C. crystallized intelligence.
D. primary intelligence.

B. fluid intelligence.

The theory that proposes that intelligence comes from a distributed and integrated network of neurons in the parietal and frontal lobes of the
brain is called
A. parieto-frontal integration theory.
B. parietal distribution theory.
C. lobe integration network theory.
D. neuron network distribution theory.

A. parieto-frontal integration theory.

Postformal adult thinkers differ from adolescent formal operational thinkers in that the adults are more likely to
A. use deductive logic.
B. consider situational circumstances.
C. be swayed by their own experience.
D. make quick decisions on complex problems.

B. consider situational circumstances.

Which constitutes the highest level of thinking in adulthood?
A. Conventional thought
B. Sensorimotor thought
C. Postformal thought
D. Hypothetical-deductive thought

C. Postformal thought

When Satoru ponders the question, "How can light be both a wave and a particle?" he is engaging in
A. a role transition.
B. a rite of passage.
C. reflective judgment.
D. multidirectionality.

C. reflective judgment.

Ralphie believes that following school rules is important because a teacher’s authority should not be questioned. Ralphie would probably be
closest to the _____ stage of reflective judgment.
A. initial
B. halfway
C. later
D. last

A. initial

Which of the following individuals is most likely to effectively integrate emotion into their thinking?
A. A female high school student
B. A male college student
C. A female in her mid 30s
D. A male in his mid 40s

D. A male in his mid 40s

Which of the following best describes the way middle-aged people think about a young couple that eloped over their parents’ objection?
A. They emphasize the role that the parents should play in the situation.
B. They focus on respecting the parents in this situation.
C. They emphasize the pragmatic factors, such as age, in this situation.
D. They focus on the importance of love in this situation.

C. They emphasize the pragmatic factors, such as age, in this situation.

A life-span construct represents a
A. unified sense of one’s past, present, and future.
B. multidimensional conceptualization of intelligence.
C. fear that when people act in negative ways expected by others, they are doing a disservice to all members of their sex.
D. personal timetable concerning when someone else should experience some event.

A. unified sense of one’s past, present, and future.

Harouna is thinking about graduating from graduate school and finding a job in which he can use his skills. This is an example of
A. an implicit stereotype.
B. a life story.
C. a scenario.
D. reflective judgment.

C. a scenario.

Which best reflects a "social clock?"
A. Donald, who wants to be a millionaire by age 30
B. Ivana, who has been married four times
C. Melania, who can accurately remember her adolescent "coming-out" party
D. Trump, who is presently going through puberty

A. Donald, who wants to be a millionaire by age 30

According to McAdams, a person’s life story is
A. set in a single direction and uninfluenced by culture.
B. set in a single direction and influenced by culture.
C. fashioned, refashioned, and uninfluenced by culture.
D. fashioned, refashioned, and influenced by culture.

D. fashioned, refashioned, and influenced by culture.

Gabriella often thinks of herself as a mother and dreams of herself as an actress, but is afraid she’ll end up suffering from alcoholism. These
are examples of
A. stereotype threats.
B. possible selves.
C. reflective judgments.
D. life-span constructs.

B. possible selves.

Kate thinks that no matter what she does, she will not be able to do well in her developmental psychology class. This perception is a sample
of Kate’s
A. rite of passage.
B. life story.
C. crystallized intelligence.
D. personal control beliefs.

D. personal control beliefs.

Merlin believes that he can get what he wants if he tries hard enough. This indicates that he has _____ sense of personal control.
A. no
B. a low
C. a moderate
D. a high

D. a high

Erikson saw young adulthood as involving the psychosocial conflict between generativity and stagnation.
A. True
B. False

B. False

Which characterizes most friendships?
A. They are based on choice and high reciprocity.
B. They are based on choice and low reciprocity.
C. They are based on no choice and high reciprocity.
D. They are based on no choice and low reciprocity.

A. They are based on choice and high reciprocity.

The initial stage in friendship development is called
A. buildup.
B. continuation.
C. acquaintanceship.
D. deterioration.

C. acquaintanceship.

Siegfried and Roy have been friends for many years. In the past few months, however, they seem to have less in common, and Roy has been
thinking more about hanging out with a potential new friend. Siegfried and Roy appear to be in the ____ stage of friendship development.
A. buildup
B. continuation
C. acquaintanceship
D. deterioration

D. deterioration

People tend to have the most acquaintances/friends during
A. young adulthood.
B. middle adulthood.
C. late adulthood.
D. latest adulthood.

A. young adulthood.

Sanford’s friendships tend to be based on self-disclosure and intimacy. This exemplifies the ____ component of friendship.
A. contextual
B. sociability
C. shared
D. affective

D. affective

The fact that Bert’s friend Ernie keeps him amused by telling funny stories best illustrates the _____ dimension of friendship.
A. shared
B. affective
C. sociability
D. communal

C. sociability

Calliope is a typical woman who works in an office and likes to play handball. Who is most likely to be her friend?
A. Athena, who also likes to play handball
B. Hera, who works in the same office
C. Aphrodite, who is someone in whom Calliope can confide
D. Venus, who likes to party

C. Aphrodite, who is someone in whom Calliope can confide

Hansel (a male) and Gretel (a female) are best friends. If their cross-gender friendship is typical of most, Hansel’s biggest misperception
concerning Gretel would likely be
A. overperceiving Gretel’s level of sexual interest in him.
B. overperceiving Gretel’s need for emotional intimacy in the friendship.
C. underperceiving Gretel’s intelligence.
D. underperceiving Gretel’s jealousy.

A. overperceiving Gretel’s level of sexual interest in him.

Which is not one of the three components of love, according to Sternberg?
A. Intimacy
B. Sociability
C. Commitment
D. Passion

B. Sociability

Juliet wants Romeo physically, and she wants him badly! Juliet is most likely experiencing
A. intimacy.
B. passion.
C. commitment.
D. companionate love.

B. passion.

When discussing his new girlfriend, Mickey says, "I can tell her everything about myself." Mickey clearly feels ____ toward his girlfriend.
A. commitment
B. passion
C. infatuation
D. intimacy

D. intimacy

Toni and Tim have just gotten married. Which component of love is most likely to be stronger 20 years from now than it is today?
A. Commitment
B. Passion
C. Intimacy
D. Infatuation

A. Commitment

The "intimacy" component of love is most similar to the ____ theme of adult friendships.
A. sociability
B. shared or communal nature
C. passion
D. affective

D. affective

According to Kahlil Gibran, author of The Prophet, the two sides of love are
A. passion and intimacy.
B. fear and friendship.
C. ecstasy and pain.
D. sex and caring.

C. ecstasy and pain.

The assortative mating theory proposes that initial mate selection is based primarily on
A. similarity.
B. instincts.
C. random factors.
D. love.

A. similarity.

Kalminjn and Flap (2001) found that ____ tended to promote strong homogamy in relationships.
A. meeting other members of one’s family
B. living in the same neighborhood
C. meeting in school
D. seeking a mate with different characteristics than yourself

C. meeting in school

Surveys indicate that nearly ________ couples in the United States meet online.
A. 1 in every 5
B. 1 in every 10
C. 1 in every 15
D. 1 in every 20

A. 1 in every 5

Arnold is a highly educated, intelligent young man with a less than pleasing disposition. As such, he is most likely to be viewed as an
excellent potential mate
A. in every culture in the world.
B. nowhere in the world.
C. in some cultures but not in other cultures.
D. only in the United States.

C. in some cultures but not in other cultures.

Research on the biology of physical attraction suggests that neurochemicals related to ____ underlie the feeling of exhilaration that often is
experienced when you fall in love.
A. barbiturates
B. hallucinogens
C. amphetamines
D. narcotics

C. amphetamines

A relationship in which one individual becomes violent or aggressive toward the other is classified as a(n) ____ relationship.
A. abusive
B. consummate
C. reciprocal
D. homogenous

A. abusive

The defining belief among individuals experiencing "battered woman’s syndrome" is that
A. the abuse is tied to a sense of personal high self-esteem.
B. the abuse is not harmful to them.
C. the abuser is acting out of unconditional love.
D. they are powerless to get away from the abuse.

D. they are powerless to get away from the abuse.

O’Leary (1993) presents a continuum of aggressive behavior in abusive relationships anchored by ____ on one end and ____ on the other
end.
A. physical aggression; verbal aggression
B. severe aggression; murder
C. verbal aggression; murder
D. physical aggression; murder

C. verbal aggression; murder

Which statement is true?
A. Women are not as violent as men in heterosexual relationships but are more violent in homosexual relationships.
B. Men are not as violent as women in heterosexual relationships but are more violent in homosexual relationships.
C. Women are not as violent as men in either heterosexual relationships or homosexual relationships.
D. Men are not as violent as women in either heterosexual relationships or homosexual relationships.

C. Women are not as violent as men in either heterosexual relationships or homosexual relationships.

For most people, the decision to remain permanently single is
A. made in the teenage years.
B. due to the untimely death of their "one true love."
C. driven by economic factors.
D. the result of gradual circumstances, not a lifestyle choice.

D. the result of gradual circumstances, not a lifestyle choice.

Ken and Barbie are sexually active singles who are discussing the idea of moving in together. They are definitely contemplating
A. forming an extended family.
B. homogamy.
C. cohabitation.
D. assortative mating.

C. cohabitation.

The primary difference between limited and premarital cohabitation involves
A. intention to marry.
B. the duration of the cohabitation.
C. the degree of sexual involvement.
D. tax benefits.

A. intention to marry.

Each of these women has just married for the first time. Who is most likely to get divorced?
A. Lucy, who is 17
B. Lacy, who is 23
C. Lanny, who is 29
D. Laurie, who is 35

A. Lucy, who is 17

Homogamy is ____ with marital satisfaction.
A. unrelated
B. positively related
C. inversely related
D. negatively related

B. positively related

According to exchange theory, the key factor in determining whether an exchange will increase marital satisfaction is the
A. length of time the individuals have been married.
B. age of the participants.
C. potential monetary cost of the exchange.
D. perceived equity of the exchange.

D. perceived equity of the exchange.

Which best describes the typical pattern of marital satisfaction from honeymoon through retirement?
A. High to low to high
B. High to medium to low
C. Medium to high to low
D. Low to medium to high

A. High to low to high

According to the vulnerability-stress-adaptation model of marriage, marital quality
A. is a dynamic process resulting from a couple’s ability to handle stress.
B. declines when couples are "too" alike.
C. is predicted by the age of the couple at marriage.
D. means there is one strong member of a couple and one weak member.

A. is a dynamic process resulting from a couple’s ability to handle stress.

Which statement concerning children and marital satisfaction is true?
A. Couples with children show a decline in marital satisfaction while those without children show an increase.
C. Couples who are child-free due to infertility tend to have high levels of marital satisfaction.
C. African-American couples tend to show little increased conflict due to the birth of a child.
D. The birth of a child is usually viewed as a positive event even though it is associated with a decrease in marital
satisfaction.

D. The birth of a child is usually viewed as a positive event even though it is associated with a decrease in marital satisfaction.

The "empty nest" is most likely to occur for parents in
A. adolescence.
B. young adulthood.
C. middle age.
D. old age.

C. middle age.

Troy and Helen are both 55 and have been married for 20 years. However, they have grown apart and essentially live as housemates. Troy
and Helen are best classified as
A. emotionally divorced.
B. empty nested.
C. being in part-time cohabitation.
D. being in a substitute marriage.

A. emotionally divorced.

According to research presented in your text, what can be done to keep a marriage happy for a long time?
A. Be up front about what bothers you about your spouse
B. Do not intrude on your spouse’s private life
C. Be forgiving
D. Confide in friends

C. Be forgiving

Which constitutes an "extended family?"
A. Two parents and one child
B. Two parents and six children
C. Two parents, one child, and one grandfather
D. Two cohabitating (but not married) adults

C. Two parents, one child, and one grandfather

It is estimated that it will cost middle-income parents about ____ to raise a child born in 2007 from birth through high school.
A. $80,000
B. $180,000
C. $280,000
D. $800,000

C. $280,000

The average age at which a woman gives birth to her first child has changed because of _____ and women postponing having children for
career purposes.
A. an increase in teen birthrate
B. a decrease in teen birthrate
C. an increase in the age of menopause
D. a decrease in the age of menopause

B. a decrease in teen birthrate

Ashley is 35 years old and just had her first baby. She is less likely to ____ than younger mothers.
A. spend time with the baby
B. be anxious about being a parent
C. be sensitive to her baby’s needs
D. be affectionate toward her baby

B. be anxious about being a parent

Thirty-six-year-old Alexander and 25-year-old Jonathan are typical first-time fathers. We would expect that
A. Alexander will spend more time with his child than Jonathan.
B. Alexander and Jonathan will spend about the same amount of time with their children.
C. Jonathan will spend more time with his child than Alexander.
D. Jonathan will spend more time with his child if his child is male and Alexander’s is female.

A. Alexander will spend more time with his child than Jonathan.

Which statement best describes familism?
A. Go forth and multiply as often as possible
B. Violence aimed at specific members of the family
C. Family needs are more important than individual needs
D. The intentional desire to remain childless

C. Family needs are more important than individual needs

The opposite of familism is
A. homogamy.
B. individuality.
C. nuclear.
D. adoption.

B. individuality.

Studies of the parenting of multiracial children in the United States and New Zealand found that
A. a parent from a racial minority group played the largest role in guiding the child’s development of his or her ethnic
identity.
B. moms played the largest role in guiding the child’s development of ethnic minority identity, even when that child was not
of that ethnic group.
C. dads played the largest role in guiding the child’s development of ethnic minority identity, even when that child was not
of that ethnic group.
D. parents of these children tend to see their children through "ethnic blinders" and do not typically attempt to instill their
children with a sense of ethnic identity.

B. moms played the largest role in guiding the child’s development of ethnic minority identity, even when that child was not of that ethnic group.

In the United States, the out-of-wedlock birthrate
A. is highest in African Americans.
B. is highest in Latinos.
C. is highest in European Americans.
D. does not vary by ethnicity.

A. is highest in African Americans.

Lisa and Phil are more likely to end up divorced if they are
A. both European Americans.
B. both Hispanic Americans.
C. both African Americans.
D. from different ethnic backgrounds.

D. from different ethnic backgrounds.

Jillian and Nick often express negative emotions toward each other, which means they are most likely to experience
A. early divorce.
B. later divorce.
C. marital satisfaction.
D. infidelity.

A. early divorce.

The main purpose of the Collaborative Divorce Project is to
A. assist same-sex marriage partners when they "divorce."
B. encourage legislators to consider all divorces and being "no fault."
C. address custody issues involving younger children.
D. ensure that more couples stay married.

C. address custody issues involving younger children.

According to Lips-Wiersma (2003), which is not one of the four common meanings people derive from work?
A. Developing self
B. Economic independence
C. Union with others
D. Serving others

B. Economic independence

Holland categorizes occupations using the dimensions of
A. interpersonal settings and lifestyle.
B. lifestyle and income.
C. income and education level.
D. education level and interpersonal settings.

A. interpersonal settings and lifestyle.

Super’s theory of occupational development places individuals along a continuum of
A. job satisfaction.
B. occupational priorities.
C. comparable worth.
D. vocational maturity.

D. vocational maturity.

Which developmental task would most likely characterize Dave, who is in his mid-teens?
A. Implementation
B. Stabilization
C. Consolidation
D. Crystallization

D. Crystallization

Though Jenny has not decided on a career, she has taken a number of temporary jobs in hopes of finding something she really likes. Jenny
is most likely in Super’s ____ phase of developmental tasks.
A. Deceleration
B. Stabilization
C. implementation
D. maintenance

C. implementation

The selection of a specific occupational marks the beginning of the ____ stage of occupational development.
A. maintenance
B. implementation
C. stabilization
D. decline

C. stabilization

Since being promoted to an executive position a few years ago, Alison continued to find ways to work her way up the corporate ladder.
Alison is most likely in Super’s ____ phase of developmental tasks.
A. retirement
B. consolidation
C. specification
D. implementation

B. consolidation

Kurt always had visions of a very extravagant, luxurious, happy life as a rock star. When he finally became a rock star, he found it to be
lonelier and far less satisfying than he had imagined. Kurt is experiencing
A. the glass ceiling.
B. occupational priorities.
C. a dream.
D. reality shock.

D. reality shock.

When Debra started her new job, she met Rosalind, an experienced worker who took Debra "under her wing." Rosalind gave Debra many
pointers and was always there when Debra had a question about what to do or why she needed to do it. Rosalind served as a ____ for
Debra.
A. mentor
B. career plateau
C. realistic type
D. conventional type

A. mentor

Mutt and Jeff both work at the glue factory. Recently, Mutt, who is a more experienced worker, has begun to establish a protégé-mentor
relationship with Jeff. As this process has just begun, it is best characterized as being in the ____ phase.
A. initiation
B. separation
C. redefinition
D. cultivation

A. initiation

Bonnie and Clyde had a mentor-protégé relationship that lasted years. They now no longer view this as a mentor-protégé relationship but one
of equal-status colleagues. This suggests that their relationship is in the _____ phase.
A. initiation
B. separation
C. redefinition
D. cultivation

C. redefinition

How are mentoring and generativity related?
A. Mentoring is one avenue for achieving generativity.
B. Generativity causes mentoring.
C. Individuals who mentor are less likely to express generativity.
D. Mentoring is done by the employee, and generativity is done by the employer

A. Mentoring is one avenue for achieving generativity.

Job satisfaction in individuals with a good fit between themselves and their occupation tends to
A. increase with age.
B. remain stable across time.
C. decrease with age.
D. follow no clear pattern.

A. increase with age.

Which statement about the development of job satisfaction is true?
A. Blue-collar workers’ level of job satisfaction rises quicker than that of white-collar workers.
B. Increases in job satisfaction are best predicted solely by a worker’s age.
C. Job satisfaction may be cyclical regardless of age.
D. When older workers begin to make work less of a focus in their lives, it takes more to keep them satisfied with work.

C. Job satisfaction may be cyclical regardless of age.

Edsel is an autoworker on an assembly line. When asked to comment on his job, Edsel says, "First, I am a nothing to this company.
Second, my ‘do-nothing’ job serves no purpose in the production of automobiles." Edsel is best described as
A. burned out.
B. generative.
C. having poor occupational priorities.
D. alienated.

D. alienated.

Which manager’s strategy for preventing alienation in company workers will probably work best?
A. Judith’s, who wants to cut salaries to increase the likelihood that workers will continue because they like their job, not
because they make money
B. Michael’s, who wants to help alleviate job stress by making sure workers know nothing of the day-to-day operations of
the company
C. Colleen’s, who wants to include workers in the company’s decision-making process
D. Dennis’s, who wants to fire workers at random so that no one will ever know if they are going to have a job tomorrow or
not

C. Colleen’s, who wants to include workers in the company’s decision-making process

Occupational burnout comes from excessive
A. feelings of exploitation.
B.disconnection from coworkers.
C. underutilization.
D. belief that one’s job really doesn’t matter to the company.

A. feelings of exploitation.

As the owner of a business worried about employee burnout, you should attempt to
A. reduce interoffice communication.
B. reassure workers that what they do at an individual level does not really impact the overall business.
C. provide regular feedback to workers about their performance.
D. add more bureaucratic paperwork.

C. provide regular feedback to workers about their performance.

Devin was born in 1950. As such, he is best classified as part of the _____ generation.
A. lost
B. baby-boomer
C. generation X
D. millennial

B. baby-boomer

Gen-X women
A. seldom start their own business.
B. often negotiate on more than just salaries.
C. reject the idea of home-based businesses.
D. tend to be unconcerned about childcare issues.

B. often negotiate on more than just salaries.

Which tends to be considered a feminine-valued characteristic?
A. Independence
B. Interdependence
C. Self-sufficiency
D. Competitiveness

B. Interdependence

A key reason for women leaving the workforce is that they feel
A. employers demand too much collaboration.
B. that employment is a masculine trait.
C. technologically inept.
D. disconnected from the workplace.

D. disconnected from the workplace.

As he has a same-ethnicity mentor, Chappell is likely to receive ____ than his friend Dave who has a mentor from another ethnic group.
A. more direct financial assistance
B. more psychosocial support
C. less clear career advice
D. less push to move up the corporate ladder

B. more psychosocial support

The textbook defines gender discrimination as something that
A. involves the denial of a job.
B. only affects women.
C. is very uncommon.
D. is found only in ethnic minority populations

A. involves the denial of a job.

A "glass ceiling" is best described as a(n)
A. barrier preventing advancement in a company.
B. sex-based form of rapid advancement in a company.
C. example of the use of the reasonable woman standard.
D. method for encouraging mentoring of ethnic minority workers.

A. barrier preventing advancement in a company.

Pay equity specifically involves equal pay for
A. all jobs.
B. equivalent jobs.
C. all ethnic groups.
D. both sexes.

B. equivalent jobs.

Which statement about sexual harassment is true?
A. The incidence of harassment has been reliably identified
B. Harassment has little negative psychological impact
C. It does not occur in males
D. It can have negative consequences even when the degree of harassment is low

D. It can have negative consequences even when the degree of harassment is low

The Oncale v. Sundowner Offshore Services Supreme Court case (1998) ruled that men could be victims of sexual harassment and also
established a precedent barring
A. teacher-student harassment.
B. same-sex harassment.
C. age discrimination.
D. workplace romance for those in government jobs.

B. same-sex harassment.

Which best exemplifies career plateauing?
A. Taking on a new job in order to increase one’s salary
B. Signing up for a college course that may help you get a promotion
C. Experiencing a career dream
D. A longtime employee decides not to seek a promotion

D. A longtime employee decides not to seek a promotion

Which statement is true?
A. Caring for an older parent is less stressful than caring for a child
B. Caring for a child is less stressful than caring for an older parent
C. Caring for a child or an older parent are both stressful
D. Neither caring for a child nor caring for an older parent leads to stress

C. Caring for a child or an older parent are both stressful

Gail is a work supervisor who is very supportive of her workers’ needs in regard to childcare and other family issues. Because of this, it is
likely that Gail’s workers will
A. report more job satisfaction.
B. report more job-family conflict.
C. experience greater burn out.
D. be more likely to alter their "reasonable person" standard.

A. report more job satisfaction.

The 1993 Family Medical Leave Act gave people the right to
A. unpaid time off to care for dependents.
B. sue for gender discrimination.
C. paid daycare for infants under the age of 18 months.
D. sue for sexual harassment.

A. unpaid time off to care for dependents.

A Swedish study showed that most fathers who took parental leave when their child was born
A. never returned to work.
B. were more likely to continue their involvement in childcare.
C. increased their work involvement.
D. took primary responsibility for their child’s care.

B. were more likely to continue their involvement in childcare.

A movie producer is looking for someone to play the role of a domestic servant. She wants to cast someone who has significant experience
with all kinds of housework in their everyday life. Based on this criterion, who is least likely to get the role?
A. Julie, a European-American female
B. Jed, a European-American male
C. Matt, an African-American male
D. Alonzo, a Hispanic-American male

B. Jed, a European-American male

Which couple is likely to be experiencing the most inter-role conflict?
A. Willy and Tina, who do not have any children
B. Shaun and Joanna, who have two preschool-age children
C. Karen and Jim, whose children are now in college
D. Michelle and Kenny, who are both retired

B. Shaun and Joanna, who have two preschool-age children

To qualify as "leisure," an activity must
A. involve physical exertion.
B. be discretionary.
C. involve some monetary payment
D. be creative.

B. be discretionary.

Research has found that
A. the positive impacts of a vacation can be eliminated by the workload created by the vacation.
B. participation in leisure activities tend to weaken family attachments.
C. there is a negative correlation between frequency of leisure activities and social acceptance.
D. the more extreme leisure activity a spouse chooses, the less likelihood of it creating family conflict.

A. the positive impacts of a vacation can be eliminated by the workload created by the vacation.

Osteoporosis is best thought of as involving a loss of bone
A. brittleness.
B. porousness.
C. hormones.
D. mass.

D. mass.

Misha often experiences severe swelling and joint pain in her fingers and wrists each morning. This pattern of symptoms is most likely due to
A. rheumatoid arthritis.
B. osteoarthritis.
C. the climacteric.
D. osteoporosis.

A. rheumatoid arthritis.

The defining element of "the climacteric" involves the loss of
A. the natural ability to produce children.
B. cancer-fighting agents.
C. emotional stability.
D. blood flow through the circulatory system.

A. the natural ability to produce children.

Which are hormonal-related symptoms of menopause?
A. Poor respiration and hot flashes
B. Hot flashes and vaginal dryness
C. Vaginal dryness and joint stiffness
D. Joint stiffness and poor respiration

B. Hot flashes and vaginal dryness

Tom has always wanted to be a father but has not yet found an acceptable partner. He is now 35 years old, healthy, and beginning to be
concerned about how much longer he will remain fertile. When he asks his doctor about this, his doctor tells him that he will probably be
capable of fathering a child
A. until he is about 45 years old.
B. until he is about 65 years old.
C. until he is about 85 years old.
D. for the rest of his life.

D. for the rest of his life.

Some males experience an age-related decline in ____ resulting in menopause-like symptoms.
A. testosterone
B. dopamine
C. estrogen
D. progestin

A. testosterone

As a typical middle-aged male, Rasheed will most likely experience
A. a brief increase in sperm production.
B. a shorter resolution phase.
C. a prostate gland that becomes enlarged.
D. more perceived demand to ejaculate.

C. a prostate gland that becomes enlarged.

The stress and coping paradigm focuses on the interactive relationship between
A. person and environment.
B. mind and body.
C. hormones and neurotransmitters.
D. family and work.

A. person and environment.

Heather is experiencing a great deal of stress. She has tried relaxation training, thinking about life events in a different way, and even talking
to her friends. All of these strategies are best classified as attempts at
A. repression.
B. coping.
C. stagnation.
D. appraisal

B. coping.

Stress has been shown to decrease
A. angina.
B. cholesterol levels.
C. risk for irritable bowel syndrome.
D. estrogen levels.

D. estrogen levels.

Type A is to Type B as
A. set is to subset.
B. hassle is to appraisal.
C. intense is to calm.
D. introversion is to extroversion.

C. intense is to calm.

If there were a phrase that would describe Stacy, it would be "laid back." She rarely gets frustrated or angry, could care less about "climbing
the corporate ladder," and is satisfied taking "life as it comes." Stacy is best described as exhibiting
A. neuroticism.
B. Type B behavior.
C. stagnation.
D. Type A behavior.

B. Type B behavior.

Research on Type A and Type B personalities provides support for the notion that
A. psychological factors can be related to physical health.
B. neurotransmitters are important determinants of behavior.
C. sociocultural factors such as television can make life more stressful.
D. elderly individuals are just as prone to stress as younger people.

A. psychological factors can be related to physical health.

Which statement is true?
A. Low levels of self-esteem predict low levels of stress
B. High levels of self-esteem predict low levels of stress
C. High levels of self-esteem predict high levels of stress
D. Stress and self-esteem are unrelated concepts

B. High levels of self-esteem predict low levels of stress

Exercise
A. is not related to physical health.
B. can significantly slow the aging process.
C. is beneficial to health but does not affect the aging process.
D. should be avoided by people over 50 years old.

B. can significantly slow the aging process.

____ intelligence is defined as involving the skills and knowledge necessary for adapting to one’s physical and social environment.
A. Fluid
B. Traditional
C. Practical
D. Unexercised

C. Practical

In most people, practical intelligence
A. begins to decline appreciably in young adulthood.
B. begins to decline appreciably in middle age.
C. begins to decline appreciably in old age.
D. never declines.

C. begins to decline appreciably in old age.

When confronted with a problem in his relationships with his wife, Frank scoffs it off, saying "Ahhh, that’s not really an issue… it will work
itself out." This is probably best classified as
A. a cognitive analysis.
B. avoidant thinking.
C. passive-dependent behavior.
D. problem-focused action.

B. avoidant thinking.

McGuyver is trapped in a room with seemingly no way out. While contemplating his escape, he thinks about how part of the bed in the room
could be used to make a helicopter. This practical thought is best classified as
A. problem-focused action.
B. a cognitive analysis.
C. avoidant thinking.
D. denial.

B. a cognitive analysis.

_____ occurs when the processes of thinking become connected to the products of thinking.
A. Agreeableness
B. Encapsulation
C. Generativity
D. Openness

B. Encapsulation

Which statement between adult learners and their younger counterparts is true?
A. Adults are more willing to learn about abstract problems.
B. Adults tend to be more motivated by internal factors.
C. Younger learners tend to have a larger variety of experiences on which they can build.
D. Younger learners have a higher need to know why they should learn something.

B. Adults tend to be more motivated by internal factors.

Costa and McCrae’s model of personality, which includes dimensions like conscientiousness, neuroticis0m, and openness to experience, is
commonly referred to as the ____model.
A. humanistic
B. centrality
C. five-factor
D. psychodynamic

C. five-factor

If Barney is accurately described as being very even-tempered and unemotional, he would likely score very low on a test of
A. openness to new experience.
B. agreeableness.
C. encapsulation.
D. neuroticism.

D. neuroticism.

Ruth is determined to become president of the corporation. She works more than 10 hours per day, is meticulous in her work, and sticks
with the most difficult projects until they are completed. Ruth would most likely score highly on a scale that measured
A. conscientiousness
B. agreeableness.
C. extroversion.
D. openness to experience.

A. conscientiousness

Research suggests that during middle age,
A. personality as reported by both self-report and by a spouse changes dramatically.
B. personality as reported by self-report changes dramatically and by a spouse remains stable.
C. personality as reported by a spouse changes dramatically and by self-report remains stable.
D. personality as reported by both self-report and by a spouse remains stable.

D. personality as reported by both self-report and by a spouse remains stable.

Which statement would be the most legitimate criticism of the study of the Big Five conducted by Srivastava and colleagues (2003)?
A. The sample was not large enough.
B. The use of Internet sites provides a non-representative sample.
C. They drew cause-and-effect conclusions based on correlational data.
D. You cannot generalize on the basis of case study data.

B. The use of Internet sites provides a non-representative sample.

An individual characterizing what Erikson called "stagnation" is unable to
A. make meaningful appraisals concerning hassles.
B. form a superego.
C. contribute to a society’s continuation.
D. think in an encapsulated manner.

C. contribute to a society’s continuation.

Which statement is true in middle age?
A. Both generative concern and generative action relate to life satisfaction
B. Generative concern relates to life satisfaction but generative action does not
C. Generative action relates to life satisfaction but generative concern does not
D. Neither generative concern nor generative action relate to life satisfaction

B. Generative concern relates to life satisfaction but generative action does not

The greatest personality resource that enables an individual to avoid a midlife crisis is called
A. encapsulation.
B. Type A behavior.
C. introversion.
D. ego resilience.

D. ego resilience.

Kay always does her best to make sure her children, parents, in-laws, and siblings get together for holidays, anniversaries, and birthdays.
Kay would best be described as
A. Type A.
B. a cultural conservator.
C. a kinkeeper.
D. encapsulated.

C. a kinkeeper.

Nina feels like she is being pulled apart from two different directions. On the one hand, she has her two daughters to take care of, and on the
other hand, she now has to also take care of her ailing mother and father. Which term best describes the situation in which Nina finds
herself?
A. Practical intelligence
B. High neuroticism
C. Cultural conservator
D. Sandwich generation

D. Sandwich generation

Having a positive experience of an empty nest is most strongly influenced by
A. how well parents believe they did in their job as parents.
B. how quickly children move back into the house.
C. how much emotional support parents provide for their children.
D. how much financial help parents provide to their children.

A. how well parents believe they did in their job as parents.

Filial obligation is based on a sense of
A. independence.
B. openness to experience.
C. stagnation.
D. responsibility.

D. responsibility.

Which group is most likely to perceive grandparenthood as a central role?
A. African Americans
B. European Americans
C. Latino Americans
D. Native Americans

C. Latino Americans

Which statement concerning custodial care of grandchildren by grandparents is true?
A. Almost 20 million U.S. grandparents have grandchildren living with them
B. In the U.S., grandparents automatically are granted legal guardianship of their grandchildren
C. Rates of behavioral problems in children raised by grandparents is high
D. The most common reason for a grandparent raising a grandchild involves the death of both parents

C. Rates of behavioral problems in children raised by grandparents is high

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