Psyc Unit 4 Cards

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When children are told that certain classmates have learning disabilities, they may behave in ways that inhibit the success of those students in the classroom. This best illustrates the dangers of

self- fulfilling prophecies

According to the social-cognitive perspective, women are more vulnerable to depression than men because they are more likely to
A.
experience cyclical variations in hormone levels.
B.
have unrealistically optimistic goals in life.
C.
experience low levels of norepinephrine.
D.
feel overwhelmed by all they have to do.

d

Internal, stable, and global explanations of one’s own failures are indicative of

pessimism

Of those who commit suicide, about ________ have tried to kill themselves before and ________ discussed suicide beforehand.

1/3, most

Cecil is preoccupied with thoughts of jumping out the window of his tenth-floor apartment. To reduce his anxiety, he frequently counts his heartbeats aloud. Cecil would most likely be diagnosed as experiencing

OCD

Among women, the stresses and demoralization of poverty are especially likely to precipitate

depression

Fears can be blunted by giving people ________ as they recall a traumatic experience.
A.
glutamate
B.
propranolol
C.
norepinephrine
D.
dopamine

b

Women are at greater risk of depression than men partially because women are more likely to ________ in response to stressful circumstances.

overthink

Anxiety about being in places or situations from which escape might be difficult is indicative of

agoraphobia

Clinicians diagnose the presence of a personality disorder using ________ of the DSM-IV-TR.

axis II

The heritability of bipolar disorder has been estimated to be ________ than the heritability of major depressive disorder and ________ than the heritability of generalized anxiety disorder.

greater, greater

The incidence of OCD is greatest among

A. middle-aged adults.
B. older retired persons.
C. teens and young adults.
D. preadolescent children.

C

Obsessive thoughts typically ________ anxiety and compulsive behaviors typically ________ anxiety.

inc, dec

Compulsive hand washing often increases in frequency because it relieves feelings of anxiety. This best illustrates the impact of ________ on compulsive behaviors.
A. stimulus generalization
B. observational learning
C. reinforcement
D. dissociation

reinforcement

To break the vicious cycle of depression, the social-cognitive perspective suggests that people should be encouraged to explain their failures in terms that are both
A. external and temporary.
B. internal and stable.
C. external and global.
D. internal and global.

external and temporary

Sadie is so fearful of being overwhelmed by anxiety that she rarely steps outside her apartment. The thought of going shopping and getting lost in a crowd terrifies her, so she has her groceries delivered. Because of her fear, she earns her living as a freelance writer, working at home. Sadie’s behavior is most characteristic of

agoraphobia

Rates of non-suicidal self-injury in the United States are highest among

adolescent females

Gender differences in depression are least noticeable among
A. old adults.
B. preadolescent children.
C. teen children.
D. young adults.

preadolescent children

Research regarding depression indicates that

A. depression is typically unrelated to stressful life events.
B. with each new generation, depression is increasing in its prevalence.
C. depression is unlikely to be overcome without professional help.
D. depression is associated with abnormally high levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin.

B with each new generation, depression is increasing in its prevalence

A traumatic experience may trigger a lasting phobia in a child with a sensitive, high-strung temperament. The same experience, however, may have no long-term impact on a child with a more relaxed temperament. This best illustrates the role of ________ in the development of phobias.

A. explanatory style
B. mood disorders
C. genetic predispositions
D. the anterior cingulated cortex

C. genetic predispositions

psychological disorder

patterns of thoughts, feelings or actions that are deviant (outside cultural/contextual norms), distressful (impacts social, academic, occupational functioning), and dysfunctional (harmful)

generalized anxiety disorder

persistent, uncontrollable tenseness & apprehension (inability to identify/avoid cause of certain feelings) (very sensitive autonomic system)

panic disorder

minutes-long episodes of intense dread which may include feelings of terror, chest pains, choking, and other frightening sensations

phobia

marked by persistent/irrational fear of an object/situation that disrupts behavior

agoraphbia

fear/avoidance of situation in which escape might be difficult or help unavailable when panic strikes

OCD

persistence of unwanted thoughts (obsessions) and urges to engage in senseless rituals(compulsions) that cause distress

PTSD

4 or more weeks of following symptoms: haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, sleep problems

fear conditioning

neutral stimuli paired with aversive stimuli

Deep-brain stimulation has been reported to provide relief from
A.
depression.
B.
schizophrenia.
C.
dissociative disorders.
D.
phobias.

depression

Edith, a 45-year-old journalist, alternates between extreme sadness and lethargy and extreme euphoria and overactivity. The drug most likely to prove beneficial to her is
A.
lithium.
B.
Thorazine.
C.
Zoloft.
D.
Xanax.

lithium

Chlorpromazine is an antipsychotic drug that reduces paranoia and hallucinations by
A.
reducing involuntary muscle movements.
B.
elevating arousal and mood.
C.
dampening responsiveness to irrelevant stimuli.
D.
decreasing the availability of norepinephrine.

c

Systematic desensitization is a form of ________, which is a type of ________.
A.
counterconditioning; behavior therapy
B.
transference; interpersonal psychotherapy
C.
stress inoculation training; biomedical therapy
D.
free association; cognitive therapy

a

An important component of psychoanalysis is
A.
spontaneous recovery.
B.
active listening.
C.
systematic desensitization.
D.
dream analysis.

dream analysis

Psychodynamic therapy has been found to be especially successful in the treatment of

depression

Systematic desensitization involves
A.
associating a pleasant relaxed state with anxiety-arousing stimuli.
B.
associating unwanted behaviors with unpleasant experiences.
C.
replacing a positive response to a harmful stimulus with a negative response.
D.
depriving a client access to an addictive drug.

a

A token economy is to operant conditioning as ________ is to classical conditioning.
A.
free association
B.
drug therapy
C.
electroconvulsive therapy
D.
systematic desensitization

d

The therapeutic alliance refers to
A.
the transference of feelings from earlier relationships to client-therapist interactions.
B.
a bond of trust and mutual understanding between a therapist and client.
C.
a form of therapy conducted with groups rather than individuals.
D.
a program developed by the American Psychological Association to advance evidence-based practice.

b

There is little or no scientific support for the therapeutic effectiveness of
A. aversive conditioning.
B. systematic desensitization.
C. rebirthing therapies.
D. cognitive-behavioral therapy.

c

Therapist Jonathan Shedler helped a patient to become aware of his adversarial stance in his relationships and to recognize that this adversarial stance had roots in the attacks he once experienced from his alcohol-dependent father. The therapist’s efforts best illustrate
A. systematic desensitization.
B. unconditional positive regard.
C. stress inoculation training.
D. psychodynamic therapy.

d

Rational-emotive behavior therapies are most likely to

vigorously challenge clients’ self-defeating ways of thinking.

Tardive dyskinesia is often associated with long-term use of drugs that occupy certain ________ receptor sites.
A.
serotonin
B.
norepinephrine
C.
dopamine
D.
acetylcholine

dopamine

Stress inoculation training focuses on helping people to
A.
establish empathic, caring relationships with others.
B.
associate unwanted behaviors with unpleasant experiences.
C.
associate a pleasant relaxed state with anxiety-arousing stimuli.
D.
replace negative self-talk with more positive comments.

d

Xanax and Ativan are ________ drugs.
A.
antidepressant
B.
mood-stabilizing
C.
antianxiety
D.
antipsychotic

antianxiety

Compared with placebos, antidepressant drugs provide ________ benefits to patients with severe symptoms of depression and ________ benefits to patients with mild symptoms of depression.
A.
substantial; substantial
B.
minimal; substantial
C.
substantial; minimal
D.
minimal; minimal

c

Adelle’s feelings of unhappiness, low self-esteem, and hopelessness have become so extreme that she has attempted suicide. Which of the following treatments is likely to provide her with the quickest relief from her misery?

Answers:
A. cognitive therapy
B. drug therapy
C. systematic desensitization
D. electroconvulsive therapy

d

psychoanalysis

FREUD patients free associations, dreams, resistances, transferences, and therapists interpretation of them would draw out repressed feelings

rational-emotive behavior therapy

vigorously challenges people illogical, self defeating attitudes and assumptions

antipsychotic drugs

dampened responsiveness to irrelevant stimuli

antidepressant drugs

lift people from depression and some anxiety- alter availability of various neurotransmitters

antianxiety drugs

depress central n.s. activity

Dr. Byrne is a clinical psychologist who often uses operant conditioning techniques to treat her clients. She also encourages them to modify their thought patterns, and on occasion she interprets their transference behaviors. Dr. Byrne’s therapeutic approach would best be described as

A. psychoanalytic.
B. biomedical.
C. eclectic.
D. behavioral.

eclectic

Dr. Miller prescribes drugs for the treatment of chronic depression, and she encourages rest and relaxation training for clients suffering from excessive anxiety. It is most likely that Dr. Miller is a
A. psychiatrist.
B. cognitive therapist.
C. client-centered therapist.
D. clinical social worker.

psychiatrist

Psychological research on the principles of learning has most directly influenced the development of

A. cognitive therapy.
B. humanistic therapy.
C. psychodynamic therapy.
D. behavior therapy.

D. behavior therapy

Luke suffers from acrophobia, a fear of high places. Luke’s therapist suggests that his reaction to heights is a generalization of the fear triggered by a childhood playground accident in which he fell off a jungle gym. The therapist’s suggestion reflects a ________ perspective.

Answers:
A. psychoanalytic
B. humanistic
C. biological
D. learning

learning

Psychological disorders that researchers believe are learned, such as phobias, are most likely to be treated with
A. meta-analysis.
B. psychoanalysis.
C. psychotherapy.
D. aversive conditioning

c psychotherapy

DSM-IV-TR focuses on clinicians’ reports of observable behavior in order to

A. facilitate the reliability of diagnoses.
B. shorten the time it takes to make a diagnosis.
C. reduce the need for medical terminology in psychological assessments.
D. avoid invading clients’ psychological privacy.v

A. facilitate the reliability of diagnoses

Transference refers to a client’s

expression toward a therapist of feelings linked with earlier life relationships.

Who developed the surgical procedure known as lobotomy?

A. Sigmund Freud
B. John Watson
C. Egas Moniz
D. Aaron Beck

Moniz

Most self-help and support groups focus on ______ illnesses.

A. terminal
B. stigmatized
C. childhood
D. stress-induced

stigmatized

Which form of therapy has been criticized for offering interpretations that cannot be proven or disproven?

A. psychoanalysis
B. systematic desensitization
C. cognitive-behavioral therapy
D. client-centered therapy

psychoanalysis

Jonathan is afraid to ask a girl for a date, so his therapist instructs him to relax and simply imagine he is reaching for his cell phone and then calling a potential date. The therapist’s technique best illustrates the process of

A. free association.
B. systematic desensitization.
C. cognitive therapy.
D. interpersonal therapy.

systematic desensitization

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