PSYC FINAL EXAM

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Archaeologists have found skulls from as long ago as 3000 B.C. that bear evidence of an ancient surgical technique, in which holes were cut into the skulls of live individuals in an attempt to release demons from the possessed victim. This process is called __________.

trephining

Any pattern of behavior that causes people significant distress, causes harm to others, or harms their ability to function in daily life, is called ___________.

a psychological disorder

The psychodynamic model holds that abnormal behavior is the result of ______.

repressed thoughts, memories, and concerns

According to the behaviorists, disordered behavior is a result of _____________.

a set of learned responses

Which of the following culture-bound syndromes is found mostly in Western cultures?

anorexia nervosa

_______ is used to help psychological professionals diagnose psychological disorders.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)

The tendency of those studying psychopathology to start seeing themselves as suffering from the illnesses being discussed is known as _____________.

psychology student’s syndrome

An irrational, persistent fear of something is called a(n) ______.

phobia

An anxiety disorder that involves a fear of interacting with others or being in a social situation is called ______.

social anxiety disorder

An irrational fear of some object or specific situation is called ____________.

a specific phobia

Intruding thoughts that occur again and again are called _________. Repetitive, ritualistic behaviors are called ________.

obsessions; compulsions

A disorder resulting from exposure to a major stressor, with symptoms of anxiety, nightmares, poor sleep, reliving the event, and concentration problems, lasting for more than one month, is called _________.

post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

Ali, a war veteran, has had nightmares, flashbacks, and anxiety attacks for the past three years. Ali is most likely suffering from _______________.

post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

The psychodynamic model views anxiety as __________.

a danger signal that repressed conflicts are threatening to surface

The behavioral perspective views anxiety as __________.

a learned reaction

The term affect is used by psychologists to refer to ______.

emotion

Severe depression that comes on suddenly or seems to have no external cause is called ______.

major depressive disorder

A person who suffers from bipolar disorder alternates between periods of ________.

depression and manic episodes

Which neurotransmitters are most important in the development of mood disorders?

dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine

Jenny has an intense interest in food but eats sparingly and with disgust. She has an intense fear of becoming obese, and even though she looks emaciated, she still claims she "feels fat" and refuses to eat enough to maintain even a minimal normal body weight for her frame. She is most likely suffering from __________.

anorexia nervosa

An eating disorder characterized by eating binges followed by self-induced vomiting is called ________.

bulimia

In which disorder does a person seem to experience at least two or more distinct personalities existing in one body?

dissociative identity disorder

Ned seeks therapy after having recurrent episodes of feeling "detached from himself" for several months, but he has not lost his self-awareness or memory. He notes that he feels like a robot, disconnected from his movements and actions. He is most likely suffering from ______.

depersonalization/derealization disorder

A person who is suffering from disordered thinking, bizarre behavior, and hallucinations, and who is unable to distinguish between fantasy and reality, is likely suffering from _______.

schizophrenia

Which of the following is an accurate statement regarding schizophrenia?

It is a type of psychotic disorder.

False beliefs held by a person who refuses to accept evidence of their falseness are known as ______.

delusions

Shreen is diagnosed with schizophrenia. She believes that she is a powerful person who can save the world. Shreen is experiencing __________.

delusions of grandeur

False sensory perceptions that often take the form of hearing voices are called ______.

hallucinations

Kevin shows a pattern of instability in his relationships, self-image, and feelings. As such, he most likely has ________ personality disorder.

borderline

Marty is moody, manipulative, unstable, lacks a clear sense of identity, and often clings to others. He wants to have close relationships but is unable to do so because he is untrusting of others. Marty is suffering from ______ personality disorder.

borderline

Lulu sees a therapist once a week. During her therapy sessions, she discusses issues and events that have impacted her life. Her therapist helps her to understand how these events and issues have affected her. The type of therapy Lulu is seeking is called ______________.

psychotherapy

The kind of therapy that uses biological treatments such as medication, surgical methods, and electrical shock treatments to bring about changes in the person’s disordered behavior is called __________________.

biomedical therapy

Psychoanalysis was a therapy technique designed by ______.

Sigmund Freud

_______________ formed a large part of Freud’s psychoanalytic method

Dream interpretation

Omar is currently undergoing psychoanalysis. His therapist asks him to keep a journal by his bed and write down his dreams immediately upon awakening. Omar brings his journal to therapy and discusses his dreams with his therapist. Omar’s therapist is attempting to do which of the following?

uncover repressed material

According to Sigmund Freud, when you awaken in the morning and remember a dream, you recall the dream’s ___________.

manifest content

In interpreting a dream, a psychoanalyst would attempt to discover the dream’s __________.

latent content

As Celine begins to reveal more and more of her innermost thoughts and feelings to her psychodynamic therapist, she begins to feel good about him, as well as accepted by him. She develops a sense of trust, particularly because he does not criticize her. What process is occurring?

transference

Which of the following is a key component of Rogers’s person-centered therapy?

unconditional positive regard

Carl Rogers’s person-centered approach is considered ________ because the client actually does all the real work, with the therapist merely acting as a sounding board.

nondirective

Gestalt therapy is considered ________ because the therapist leads the client through a number of planned exercises as well as confronts the client’s statements

directive

Your friend tells you that his therapist is a Gestalt therapist. You ask him to describe what might happen in one of his therapy sessions. Which of the following is his most likely answer?

"During the session, I sometimes talk to an empty chair."

The basic goal of systematic desensitization is to ________.

relax individuals in the presence of a feared object or situation

The form of behavioral therapy in which an undesirable behavior is paired with an unpleasant stimulus to reduce the frequency of the behavior is called _______.

aversion therapy

The use of objects that can be traded for food, candy, treats, or special privileges, with the purpose of reinforcing behavior, is called ________.

token economy

The behavior of chronically schizophrenic individuals living in psychiatric institutions has been successfully modified through the use of ______.

token economy

Therapy that depends on identifying and changing distorted thinking and unrealistic beliefs is ______ therapy.

cognitive

A therapist challenges what she sees as her client’s irrational and self-defeating thoughts. Her goal is to help her client change these thoughts into more rational, helpful, positive thoughts. In addition, she wants to help her client develop strategies that can be used to cope with future problems. She is probably a ______________ therapist.

cognitive-behavioral

Which of the following is a basic goal of cognitive-behavioral therapy?

to help clients change irrational thoughts to rational thoughts

In which form of therapy does the therapist take a directive role, challenging clients when they make "my way or nothing" statements?

rational emotive behavior therapy

The most important aspect of successful psychotherapy is the __________ between client and therapist.

therapeutic alliance

n general, antipsychotic drugs work by ______.

blocking dopamine receptors in the brain

Gary takes antipsychotic drugs to control the symptoms of schizophrenia. After taking the drug for some time, he begins exhibiting repetitive, involuntary jerks and movements of his face, lips, and legs. Gary is showing signs of _________.

tardive dyskinesia

Bob has been under a physician’s care for bipolar disorder. Bob’s doctor is most likely to prescribe which of the following to treat Bob’s disorder?

lithium

A treatment for severe depression in which an electric shock is delivered to the patient, resulting in a seizure of the body and the release of a flood of neurotransmitters in the brain, is called ____________.

electroconvulsive therapy

Prefrontal lobotomy is one form of ______.

psychosurgery

______ are specifically trained to use biomedical therapies.

Psychiatrists

Medication, electroconvulsive shock therapy, and psychosurgery are all types of ______.

biomedical therapy

The ______ model of mental illness explains that disorders such as anxiety, depression, and schizophrenia are caused by chemical imbalances, genetic problems, brain damage or dysfunction, or some combination of those causes.

biological

Which model of abnormality holds that physical, mental, and cultural factors are intertwined and that they must all be considered when dealing with psychology disorders?

the biopsychosocial model

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