psyc Chapter 16

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T/F: In Indonesia, 38 percent of women smoke because cigarettes are closely tied to sexual allure.

False

T/F: Most adolescents try psychoactive drugs.

True

T/F: In much of the Middle East, alcohol is illegal and adolescents almost never drink.

True

T/F: Alcohol affects adolescents more than adults due to their brain immaturity.

True

T/F: Most adolescents engage in some law-breaking behaviors during adolescence.

True

T/F: Culture influences what kind of information adolescents share with their parents.

True

T/F: The process of rumination helps adolescents recover more quickly from the effects of difficult experiences.

False

T/F: The four areas of identity formation identified by Erikson include religious, political, familial, and physical identities.

False

T/F: Adults are more likely to commit suicide than are adolescents.

True

T/F: During adolescence, mother-son pairs tend to bicker more than mother-daughter pairs.

False

T/F: Only about one-fourth of adolescent lawbreakers are never caught.

False

T/F: Several suicides that occur within a group over a brief span of time are called crowd suicides.

False

T/F: Some psychologists and psychiatrists believe that gender-identity problems originate in society rather than in individuals.

True

T/F: Early other-sex interactions occur mostly in groups.

True

T/F: Sixteen-year-old Andrea quit school, lost her job as a waitress, and spends most of her time online in chat rooms. When her parents voiced their disapproval, she replied, "Leave me alone!" Andrea’s behavior shows role confusion.

True

A father says to his son, "I want you home by 10:00 pm." This best represents which aspect of family closeness?

A. control
B. support
C. communication
D. connectedness

A

According to Erikson, the ultimate adolescent psychosocial goal is identity __________.

A. diffusion
B. achievement
C. foreclosure
D. moratorium

B

Alex has decided to pursue a career in music, even though his parents want him to study medicine. Alex has decided not to share his future career plans with his parents. Alex is most likely from _____.

A. the United States
B. Chile
C. the Phillipines
D. Hong Kong

B

Technology may help adolescents who have diabetes to manage their condition in all of the following ways EXCEPT _____.

A. monitor their insulin via cell phone
B. talk to the doctor via Skype
C. talk with other young people with diabetics via Internet chat
D. exercise by playing video games

D

According to Erikson, what is one of the four aspects of identity?

A. physical
B. political
C. familial
D. economic

B

Psychosocial development during adolescence involves the search for a(n) _____.

A. soul mate
B. career
C. set of behaviors to please others
D. understanding of oneself

D

Restrictive and controlling parenting practices are associated with _____.

A. a well-behaved adolescent
B. adolescent depression
C. adolescent achievement
D. closeness with parents

B

_____ adolescents totally reject the religion in which they’ve grown up.

A. Few
B. About half of
C. About three-fourths of all
D. Almost all

A

Which statement is an example of a gender role?

A. A man should be the primary wage earner.
B. A baby is born with reproductive organs for both sexes.
C. A biological male decides to undergo an operation to become a woman.
D. A woman decides to try dating men and women.

A

According to Erikson, adolescents are in the stage of _____.

A. identity versus role confusion
B. intimacy versus isolation
C. independence versus neediness
D. integration versus separation

A

Drug use before the age of 18 ___________.

A. is rare because it is illegal
B. is statistically lower than drug use at age 15
C. is the best predictor or later drug abuse
D. usually only involves experimentation with alcohol

C

The two most common drugs used by adolescents are ___________.

A. inhalants and alcohol
B. tobacco and alcohol
C. marijuana and alcohol
D. prescription drugs and tobacco

B

Parents’ awareness of where their adolescents are, what they are doing, and with whom they are doing it is referred to as ___________.

A. parental monitoring
B. generational stake
C. overcontrolling
D. connectedness

A

Lydia finds that she often thinks about killing herself. This is called _________.

A. parasuicide
B. self-destructive behavior
C. deliberate suicide
D. suicide ideation

D

Which are two of the aspects of family closeness during adolescence?

A. communication and autonomy
B. support and connectedness
C. connectedness and authority
D. openness and control

B

T/F: Gender identity refers primarily to a person’s self-definition as a male or a female.

True

T/F: Adolescent romantic relationship partners, especially in early adolescence, are often selected based on social connections and status with peer groups.

True

T/F: Links between adolescents and relatives are especially common among immigrant groups.

True

T/F: The rate of clinical depression is higher for adolescent boys than it is for adolescent girls.

False

T/F: Part-time employment during the adolescent years is associated with problems if the adolescent works too many hours.

True

T/F: The rate of clinical depression in girls triples during the adolescent years.

False

T/F: Identity achievement involves a denial of past experiences and childhood identifications.

False

T/F: According to Erikson, the ultimate goal of the identity crisis is identity achievement.

True

Sandra is in her bedroom with her mother. Sandra’s mother exclaims, "You need to get these clothes off the floor right now!" Sandra replies, "It’s my room and I will leave things where I want." Sandra’s mother responds, "I am your mother and you will do what I say." This is an example of _____.

A. bickering
B. open communication
C. parental monitoring
D. family bonds

A

Without any thoughtful consideration, Sean took on an identity that is the opposite of what his parents want for him. Sean has adopted a(n) _____.

A. negative identity
B. positive identity
C. non-identity
D. over identity

A

A recent study of teens in New York City found the teens MOST at risk for sexual violence and STIs had _____.

A. exclusively same-sex partners
B. exclusively opposite-sex partners
C. gender-identity disorder
D. both same-sex and opposite-sex partners

D

Identity diffusion is typically characterized by _________.

A. no focus on or concern about the future
B. foreclosure
C. following one’s heart
D. commitment to a cause

A

Erin uses drugs, cuts herself, and engages in risky sexual behaviors. Erin likely has _____.

A. low self-esteem
B. high self-esteem
C. a normal teenage phase
D. found ways to avoid depression

A

Many longitudinal studies have shown that _____ anger during adolescence is normal and that most adolescents express their anger in _____ ways.

A. increased; acceptable
B. decreased; acceptable
C. increased; illegal
D. decreased; illegal

A

Enrique believes that males should always be the ones to ask females out on dates. He thinks that if a man accepts an invitation for a date from a girl it makes him a wimp. This is an example of Enrique’s _____.

A. sex
B. gender identity
C. sexual orientation
D. gender

B

Alisha took an overdose of prescription pills, but before she lost consciousness she called her mom for help. Alisha was rushed to the hospital for medical attention. Alisha’s behavior is defined as _____.

A. parasuicide
B. self-destructive behavior
C. deliberate suicide
D. suicide ideation

A

Several researchers have compared parent-child relationships in Hong Kong, the United States, and Australia and have found that in all three places, parent-child communication and encouragement benefit adolescents, reducing the risk for all of the following EXCEPT _____.

A. depression
B. low self-esteem
C. suicide
D. obesity

D

With respect to suicide, what is more common in adolescent boys than in adolescent girls?

A. serious consideration of suicide
B. parasuicide
C. completed suicide
D. cluster suicide

C

T/F: Parent-adolescent interventions can influence adolescents differently depending on their DNA.

True

T/F: Genetic vulnerability is a contributing cause of depression during adolescence.

True

T/F: Relationships with parents are the prototype for peer relationships.

True

T/F: The rate of clinical depression is higher for adolescent boys than it is for adolescent girls.

False

T/F: Hermione accepts her parents’ religious faith without question. She is happy and enjoys participating in religious events with them. Hermione’s behavior shows identity moratorium.

False

Identity diffusion refers to the identity status in which adolescents _____.

A. pause during their identity formation to explore alternatives
B. form their identity prematurely
C. do not commit to goals and fail to take on any role
D. understand who they are as connected to everything they have learned

C

When applied to the discussion of drug abuse, the term "generational forgetting" means that _____.

A. adults turn a blind eye to youthful experimentation
B. youth seek to get high and forget their age
C. adolescents gather with others of their cohort to experiment with drugs
D. the new generation ignores what adults have learned about the hazards of drugs

D

One study found that the short allele of the serotonin transporter promoter gene (5-HTTLPR) contributes to increased rates of depression in all girls, but only in boys who _____.

A. ruminate
B. are suicidal
C. come from high-socioeconomic status communities
D. come from low-socioeconomic status communities

D

Approximately 1 in _____ adolescent girls is affected by clinical depression.

A. 2
B. 5
C. 10
D. 100

B

One reason that the teenage pregnancy rate in most European nations is less than half of that in the United States may be because _____.

A. of the European sex-education curriculum
B. European adolescents live at home longer
C. American parents are too permissive
D. European teens reach puberty later

A

Ty started to behave aggressively at age 5, and by age 8 was caught shoplifting several times. Ty is now age 25 and has committed armed robbery. Ty would be considered to be a(n) _____.

A. hostile offender
B. dual offender
C. life-course-persistent offender
D. adolescence-limited offender

C

Angel’s parents wanted him to be part of the family business—and Angel planned to do so. Then, at age 21, he decided to leave the business to study to be a lawyer. Angel resisted _____.

A. identity foreclosure
B. forced conversion
C. role repudiation
D. negative identity

A

Parental monitoring is most likely to be effective and healthy when it is _____.

A. rigid and controlling
B. part of a warm, supportive relationship
C. relaxed and permissive
D. part of authoritarian parenting

B

Abbie is aware of where her son is whenever he goes out, and she requires him to call if there is any change in plans. This is an example of _____.

A. generational stake
B. foreclosure for her son
C. parental monitoring
D. negative control

C

In the United States, one way for some to legitimatize an identity moratorium is to _____.

A. go to college
B. get married
C. have a baby
D. smoke marijuana

A

T/F: In the twenty-first century most adolescents affiliate strongly with one political party over another.

False

T/F: In most European nations alcohol is widely used by adolescents and even children.

True

T/F: Four aspects of family closeness are communication, support, connectedness, and control.

True

T/F: Parental monitoring, even if restrictive and controlling, does not usually cause detrimental effects.

False

T/F: Advertisements and curricula that rely on scare tactics can actually increase drug use by making it seem exciting.

True

Several of Jamel’s friends agree to gather Thursday evening and study for their physics exam, and they invite him to come along. Jamel’s friends are _____.

A. selecting destructive behaviors
B. facilitating constructive behaviors
C. providing deviancy training
D. being monitored by parents

B

Healthy communication and support from parents make _____ peer relationships more likely.

A. constructive
B. destructive
C. opposite sex
D. romantic

A

Nicholi’s parents are restrictive and controlling. Compared with his peers whose parents engage in less psychological control, Nicholi is more likely to be _____.

A. academically successful
B. closer with his parents
C. depressed
D. happy

C

Most drug use begins ___________.

A. as social use
B. as hidden, individual use
C. with heavy, illegal drugs
D. with the onset of puberty

A

Heavy drinking impairs memory and self-control by _____.

A. damaging the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex
B. damaging heart and lungs
C. increasing blood pressure
D. causing strokes in the brain

A

Which adolescent’s sexual behavior is likely to be most strongly influenced by peers?

A. Hannah, who has a warm relationship with her parents
B. Darrel, who has a warm relationship with his parents
C. Trista, who has parents who forbid sexual behavior
D. Tom, who has parents who forbid sexual behavior

D

T/F: Internet connections may encourage descriptive behavior among adolescents.

True

T/F: Contrary to adult fears, many adolescent romances do not include sexual intercourse.

True

T/F: Familism refers to parents’ ongoing awareness of their children’s activities and friendships.

False

Inhalants, which are used more by younger adolescents to get high, include _____.

A. marijuana
B. cocaine
C. tobacco
D. aerosols

D

Following Erikson’s lead, _____ distinguished four specific ways young people cope with the identity crisis.

A. Baumrind
B. Freud
C. Marcia
D. Skinner

C

The term for a pause in identity formation, when alternatives are explored before final choices are made, is known as _____.

A. identity diffusion
B. role confusion
C. negative identity
D. moratorium

D

Harold readily adopted his parent’s political beliefs without question. Happy and secure, he enjoys participating in political events with his parents. His identity status reflects _____.

A. diffusion
B. achievement
C. foreclosure
D. moratorium

C

An intervention study designed to improve family communication and cohesion between parents and their sons (Brody et al., 2009) revealed that the sons’ DNA was important to the outcome. Which of the following was a finding from the study?

A. The intervention had an impact on boys with a long allele of the 5-HTTLPR gene.
B. The intervention had an impact on boys with a short allele of the 5-HTTLPR gene.
C. The control experience had an impact on boys with a long allele of the 5-HTTLPR gene.
D. The control experience had an impact on boys with a short allele of the 5-HTTLPR gene.

B

Parasuicide refers to _____.

A. a suicide attempt that does not end in death
B. helping someone else to commit suicide
C. several people in a group committing suicide
D. the serious consideration of suicide

A

In general, as children experience puberty, their self-esteem _____.

A. rises
B. declines
C. rises then declines
D. remains stable

B

Eva is about to become an adolescent mother. Based on recent research, she and her child will better handle the situation if her parents _____.

A. assume care for Eva and her child
B. adopt Eva’s child and raise the child as their own
C. encourage Eva to move out of the house to raise her baby alone
D. are supportive, but do not assume complete care for her child

D

T/F: Moratorium is an identity status that is considered to be a more mature response to identity exploration than foreclosure.

True

T/F: The completed suicide rate is higher for males than for females.

True

T/F: Peers are more helpful than harmful.

True

T/F: Alcohol is widely enjoyed in North America and is only infrequently abused.

False

T/F: Abstinence-only sex education programs that were federal policy until 2009 in the United States had little to no impact on reducing adolescent sexual activity.

True

An example of a behavior that demonstrates identity foreclosure is _____.

A. dropping out of high school
B. choosing a different career path than what parents wanted
C. being eager to vote
D. working in the family business because it is expected

D

In the United States, parent-child conflict is most common when children are in _____.

A. late childhood
B. early adolescence
C. late adolescence
D. emerging adulthood

B

Suicidal ideation is most common around age _____.

A. 9
B. 12
C. 15
D. 18

C

An individual who commits crimes during adolescence but stops by the age of 21 is considered a(n) _____.

A. repeat offender
B. career criminal
C. life-course-persistent offender
D. adolescence-limited offender

D

Suicidal ideation refers to _____.

A. a deliberate act of self-destruction that does not end in death
B. thinking about suicide
C. the belief that suicide is an effective way of getting back at one’s parents or peers
D. feelings of sadness or hopelessness

B

Today, vocational identity often takes _____ to establish, and most work demands very specific skills that cannot be learned except on the job.

A. days
B. months
C. years
D. decades

C

According to the text, which is NOT a possible reason for the decrease in juvenile criminal behavior?

A. fewer school dropouts
B. lenient drug laws
C. smaller families
D. less lead poisoning

B

An adolescence-limited offender refers to someone who _____.

A. attacks only other adolescents
B. stops committing crimes by age 21
C. is never arrested
D. is a juvenile delinquent

B

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