psyc Chapter 15

Total Word Count: 3263
   Send article as PDF   

T/F: The invincibility fable reflects adolescent egocentrism.

True

T/F: Adults are usually aware of the "sexting" that occurs between adolescents.

False

T/F: Parents and teachers are often unaware of cyberbullying among adolescents.

True

T/F: Andre, an adolescent, constantly thinks about himself and how others perceive him. This egocentrism is common at his age.

True

T/F: The United States has the best high school graduation rates of all developed nations.

False

T/F: Adolescents place a very high value on social warmth and friendships.

True

T/F: Adolescents from low-income households are less likely to use the Internet at home than those from higher-income households.

True

T/F: Madeleine invested significant amounts of time, money, and effort while a member of a specific club. She now thinks she must continue as a member in order not to waste all that she invested. Madeleine is experiencing a sunk cost fallacy.

True

T/F: Because the limbic system is activated by puberty but the prefrontal cortex matures more gradually over time, adolescents might be swayed by their intuition instead of by logic.

True

T/F: Adolescents’ belief that others are as intensely interested in them as they are in themselves is referred to as the invincibility fable.

False

T/F: Egocentrism leads adolescents to interpret everyone else’s behavior as if it were a judgment on them.

True

T/F: "This creature barks and wags its tail. Dogs bark and wag tails. Therefore, this must be a dog." This is an example of deductive reasoning.

False

T/F: Antisocial students (e.g., aggressive, drug-using) tend to be popular in middle school.

True

T/F: Some adolescents do not feel invincible; instead, they have exaggerated perceptions of risks.

True

T/F: Video games with violent content have not been associated with aggression in adolescents.

False

Research has shown that adolescents who drop out of high school may show early signs of high school dropout by _____.

A. preschool
B. elementary school
C. middle school
D. high school

C

Benjamin has heard repeatedly from his parents about the potential dangers of smoking and he agrees with his parents about the potential dangers. At a party Benjamin is offered a cigarette but declines it even though the person who offered the cigarette is one of the most popular students at school. In this situation, what type of thinking is most likely dominating Benjamin’s decision to decline the cigarette?

A. inductive reasoning
B. intuitive thought
C. concrete reasoning
D. analytic thought

D

Fifteen-year-old Richard wants to be allowed to drive the family car, even though he does not yet have a driver’s license. When his parents ask him why he thinks he should have driving privileges, he answers, "I know other kids who do it, and it’s just stupid that I have to wait another three months until I turn 16." This is an example of what kind of thinking?

A. reasoning
B. intuitive
C. logical
D. analytical

B

Which statement is TRUE?

A. Hypothetical thought is tied to the everyday world as the individual knows it.
B. Hypothetical thought is emotionally based.
C. Hypothetical thought involves imagined possibilities.
D. Hypothetical thought is an aspect of concrete operational thinking.

C

A strategy to increase student motivation in middle schools is to encourage a belief in _____.

A. students’ ability to master whatever they seek to learn
B. doing homework
C. the entity approach to learning
D. studying for tests

A

Who are considered to be "digital natives" in the United States?

A. infants
B. adolescents
C. adults between the ages of 35 and 55
D. adults over the age of 65

B

Spencer is the only one in his class who does not have high-speed Internet at home. Spencer most likely comes from a _____.

A. low-income family
B. middle-income family
C. upper-income family
D. highly educated family

A

Most U.S. high schools emphasize learning based on _____, which is developmentally appropriate.

A. formal thinking
B. memorization
C. practical cognition
D. international standards

A

Which of the following is TRUE about the best pedagogical style for adolescents?

A. Co-education and high-stakes testing produce the best results.
B. Co-education and practical skills-focused instruction produce the best results.
C. Single-sex education allows for higher academic achievement.
D. There is no best structure or pedagogy for every student.

D

Which factor is a good predictor of health for people around the world?

A. obtaining a master’s degree or a Ph.D.
B. completing secondary education
C. attending private instead of public schools
D. attending schools that follow Western academia

B

What group is likely to experience logic failures in thinking?

A. adolescents only
B. adults only
C. adolescents and adults
D. neither adolescents or adults

C

The power of the invincibility fable may be observed in _____.

A. a 17-year-old boy who drives cautiously
B. an 18-year-old girl who insists that her boyfriend use a condom
C. young military recruits who hope to be sent into combat
D. an adolescent who sings, thinking that the neighbors must be listening

C

Avery, who is 14 years old, is attending her first swim team practice. She is very sensitive to the facial expressions, body language, communication styles, and other social cues given by her new teammates. Avery’s sensitivity to these social cues is aided by her adolescent _____.

A. hypothetical thinking
B. deductive thinking
C. inductive thinking
D. egocentrism

D

In recent years, the so-called digital divide has _____ among adolescents.

A. increased
B. decreased
C. remained steady
D. disappeared

B

Middle school typically includes grades _____.

A. 4 to 6
B. 5 to 7
C. 6 to 8
D. 7 to 9

C

T/F: Secondary school teachers typically assume that their pupils have mastered formal thinking instead of teaching them how to do it.

True

T/F: Video games with violent content have not been associated with aggression in adolescents.

False

T/F: Today, about 75 percent of adolescents spend time online.

False

T/F: Usually academic achievement increases and behavioral problems decrease during middle school.

False

T/F: In an experiment by Inhelder and Piaget that involved balancing a scale with weights, the age at which children were first able to use the trial-and-error method to achieve some understanding of balancing was approximately 10 years.

True

T/F: High school students can think abstractly, analytically, hypothetically, and logically as well as emotionally and intuitively.

True

T/F: As adolescents develop their capacity for hypothetical thinking, they become more capable of deductive reasoning.

True

T/F: Acute self-consciousness about physical appearance is much more prevalent between the ages of 16 and 20 than earlier or later.

False

T/F: Hypothetical thought involves reasoning only about propositions that reflect reality.

False

T/F: The belief in an imaginary audience makes adolescents self-conscious.

True

T/F: A dual-process model of thinking includes inductive and deductive thinking.

False

T/F: Intuitive thought is cognitively easier than analytic thought.

True

Fifteen-year-old Latrina has a 10 P.M. curfew. She asks her parents to extend her curfew to 11 P.M. on weekends. When her parents ask her why, Latrina replies, "I’ve never been late for my 10 P.M. curfew. You can trust me. Can we at least give it a try?" This is an example of what kind of thinking?

A. concrete operational
B. intuitive thought
C. emotional thought
D. analytical thought

D

Many adolescents feel that their own thoughts and experiences are far more extraordinary than those of other people. This is part of their _____.

A. personal fable
B. post-operational thought
C. moral reasoning
D. invincibility fable

A

Which statement is FALSE?

A. secondary education refers to schooling completed after high school graduation, such as college or vocational training.
B. No matter where they live, individuals who complete secondary education are healthier.
C. Every nation is increasing the number of students in secondary education.
D. As the age of puberty has decreased, some schools of secondary education now start with grade 5.

A

Jeremy is 7 years old and has been asked to balance a scale with weights that can be hooked to the arms of the scale. Jeremy will probably _____.

A. solve the problem through a trial-and-error strategy
B. put weights on both sides without considering distance from the center of the scale
C. understand the inverse relationship between distance and weight
D. put all the weights on one side of the scale

B

Which student is MOST likely to be admired during middle school?

A. Allie, who is a straight A student
B. Lloyd, who attends school regularly but fails most of his classes
C. Louisa, who uses marijuana and frequently finds herself in physical fights.
D. Chong, who is conscientious and friendly

C

Albert et al. (2013) ran a series of experiments in which adults and adolescents, alone or with peers, played a video game. In the game, taking risks could lead to crashes or gaining points. The experiments found that _____, unlike the _____, were much more likely to take risks and crash when they were _____.

A. adults; adolescents; alone
B. adolescents; adults; alone
C. adults; adolescents; with peers
D. adolescents; adults; with peers

D

Rachel and Matt are in their first year of middle school. Statistically, one would expect their academic achievement to _____.

A. improve
B. decline
C. remain the same as in elementary school
D. exhibit an erratic pattern of rising and falling

B

Juanita just solved this math problem: (35xy2)(6zy3). Her ability to do so places her in which of Piaget’s stages of cognitive development?

A. sensorimotor
B. preoperational
C. concrete operational
D. formal operational

D

During puberty, adolescents’ thoughts center on _____.

A. friends
B. society
C. family
D. themselves

D

One of the most prominent aspects of formal operational thought is the ability to _____.

A. reject adult thought and values
B. think in terms of possibilities
C. take another person’s point of view
D. use practical problem-solving skills

B

Thinking intensely about themselves and about what others think about them is called _____.

A. hypotheticalism
B. deductive thinking
C. inductive thinking
D. egocentrism

D

One type of high school class that is assessed by externally scored exams that may satisfy college requirements is _____.

A. IB (International Baccalaureate)
B. PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment)
C. TIMSS (Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study)
D. PIRLS (Progress in International Reading Literacy Study)

A

"If-then" propositions require _____.

A. concrete thought
B. operational thought
C. postformal thought
D. hypothetical thought

D

T/F: All high school students who take Advanced Placement classes will be well prepared for college.

False

T/F: The United States has the best high school graduation rates of all developed nations.

False

A study (Gentile, 2011) of almost 2,000 older children and adolescents in the United States found that these individuals played an average of _____ hours of video games each day.

A. 2
B. 4
C. 6
D. 8

A

Many developmentalists find middle schools to be "developmentally regressive," which means _____.

A. teachers do not allow students to be independent
B. learning goes backward
C. the curriculum is not high-quality
D. students do not desire autonomy

B

The nations with the best PISA results do NOT _____.

A. focus on memorization of math formulas
B. have a culture that strongly values education
C. show respect for the teaching profession
D. place the best teachers with the students who need them most

A

A thought that arises through a "feeling" that the thought is right is referred to as a(n) _____ thought.

A. intuitive
B. factual
C. experimental
D. logical

A

What is an example of the sunk cost fallacy?

A. walking out of a movie theater when the movie is only half over because the movie is poor quality
B. stopping painting a bedroom because the color is too bright
C. reading a book to the end even though the reader was bored by chapter 3
D. sleeping in on the weekend to catch up on sleep

C

Today, the most notable digital divide is based on _____.

A. age
B. gender
C. socioeconomic status (SES)
D. religion

A

Kristy and her friends come up with several options of things to do on Friday night, and ultimately decide to go to a new movie because it received positive reviews. In making this decision Kristy and her friends are using what type of thought?

A. deductive reasoning
B. intuitive thought
C. concrete reasoning
D. analytic thought

B

When Piaget and Inhelder asked children of different ages to balance a scale using several different weights, they found that _____.

A. by age 4, children tended to use logical deduction
B. by age 7, children used spatial relationships
C. by age 10, trial-and-error strategies based on logic are used to balance the scale
D. by age 13 or 14, logic is used to understand a reciprocal relationship

D

Blair has heard repeatedly from her parents about the potential dangers of drinking alcohol, yet at a party she gladly accepts a beer from a classmate. Blair thinks that this classmate is one of the most popular students at school. In this situation, what type of thinking is most likely dominating Blair’s decision to accept the beer?

A. inductive reasoning
B. intuitive thought
C. concrete reasoning
D. analytic thought

B

T/F: Analytic thought and intuitive thought both develop during adolescence, although analytic thought often overrides intuitive thought when many adolescents are together.

False

T/F: Mastery motivation among adolescents can be enhanced by encouraging a belief in the incremental approach to intelligence.

True

T/F: Middle schools are designed to foster strong teacher-student relationships.

False

T/F: Today’s adults are considered to be "digital natives."

False

T/F: Students who are capable of passing their classes as measured on IQ tests drop out of high school almost as often as those who are less capable.

True

During puberty, young people center on themselves, in part because brain maturation heightens _____.

A. self-esteem
B. self-consciousness
C. self-concept
D. self-identity

B

Marsha says, "There is no way I am going to school today with this bruise on my cheek. Everybody is going to laugh at me." Marsha is demonstrating _____.

A. a volatile mismatch
B. an implicit judgment
C. the imaginary audience
D. the invincibility fable

C

The notion that two networks exist within the human brain, one for emotional and one for analytical processing of stimuli, is called _____.

A. dual-thinking model
B. dual-process model
C. dual-reasoning model
D. emotional-analytic model

B

Adolescent egocentrism begins __________, and may increase again at the start of __________.

A. in preschool; puberty
B. in middle childhood; college
C. at puberty; college
D. at puberty; adulthood

C

Formal, logical, hypothetical-deductive thinking described by Piaget is referred to as _____.

A. deductive reasoning
B. intuitive thought
C. concrete reasoning
D. analytic thought

C

All Christians believe in the Bible, and Josiah is a Christian; therefore Josiah believes in the Bible. This is an example of _____.

A. deductive reasoning
B. theoretical reasoning
C. concrete reasoning
D. formal reasoning

A

Justine is 14 years old. Her parents are frequently annoyed because Justine tends to ask critical questions such as, "Why can’t I have wine with dinner? You do," or "I don’t understand why I’ll be able to vote when I’m 18, but I have to wait until I’m 21 to buy alcohol!" This demonstrates Justine’s _____.

A. inductive reasoning
B. perceptual thinking
C. hypothetical thinking
D. deductive reasoning

B

Thinking or drawing conclusions based on past personal experience, emotions, or a hunch is referred to as _____.

A. deductive reasoning
B. intuitive thought
C. concrete reasoning
D. analytic thought

B

Three different girls tell Brian that Titanic is their all-time favorite movie. He concludes that all girls love that movie. Brian has just used _____.

A. hypothetical reasoning
B. inductive reasoning
C. deductive reasoning
D. adolescent egocentrism

B

Jamal and his classmates are taking a test today that will determine if they graduate from high school. Jamal and his classmates are taking a(n) _____ test.

A. Advanced Placement
B. International Baccalaureate
C. high-stakes
D. college entrance

C

Piaget called the reasoning that characterizes adolescence _____.

A. formal operational thought
B. invincibility thinking
C. metacognition
D. concrete operational thinking

A

T/F: Secondary education traditionally consists of grades 7 through 12.

True

The school years after elementary or grade school and before college or university are referred to as _____.

A. primary education
B. secondary education
C. tertiary education
D. quaternary education

B

When adolescents fantasize about how others will react to their new hairstyle, they are creating a(n) _____.

A. personal fable
B. abstract audience
C. personal identity
D. imaginary audience

D

Richie just spent $1,000 fixing his car even though the mechanic told him the car will continue to need expensive repairs that may total more than the vehicle is worth. Richie is likely experiencing the _____.

A. personal fable
B. sunk cost fallacy
C. base rate neglect
D. invincibility fable

B

As the United States moves increasingly toward high-stakes testing, _____.

A. other nations are following suit
B. other nations are moving away from it
C. some nations are following suit and others are moving away from it
D. other nations are following suit only if they have high-performing students

C

Deductive reasoning is also referred to as _____ reasoning.

A. top-down
B. theoretical
C. concrete
D. bottom-up

A

Spreading insults and rumors by means of e-mails, text messages, or Web postings is called _____.

A. spamming
B. cyberbullying
C. electronic harassment
D. hacking

B

Klaczynski’s studies of younger and older adolescents’ analytical thinking indicated that _____.

A. younger adolescents were rarely logical, whereas older adolescents were nearly always logical
B. individuals who were analytical on some problems were analytical on all problems
C. most adolescents do not think as analytically as their capabilities allow
D. younger adolescents tended to dismiss research that was contrary to their own beliefs

C

In a national sample of 10- to 17-year-olds, almost _____ percent say that a photo of themselves with few or no clothes has been sent electronically (Mitchel et al., 2012).

A. 1
B. 3
C. 5
D. 7

B

In Inhelder and Piaget’s balance experiment, a child who systematically tests the idea that the relationship between weight and distance is reciprocal is probably age _____.

A. 4
B. 7
C. 10
D. 14

D

The term imaginary audience refers to adolescents’ _____.

A. ability to understand how others perceive them
B. belief that everyone is watching their behavior and appearance
C. constant posing and posturing before mirrors
D. belief that others are spying on them

B

A longitudinal study (Harden & Tucker-Drob, 2011) that traced the development of sensation-seeking, which can lead to intuitive thinking, from early adolescence to the mid-20s found that increases in sensation-seeking were notable from ages _____.

A. 12 to 14
B. 15 to 17
C. 18 to 20
D. 21 to 23

A

An adolescent is told that a person riding the bus is reading the New York Times. The adolescent is asked if the person is more likely to have no college degree or if the person is more likely to have a Ph.D. The adolescent responds that the person is more likely to have a Ph.D. The correct answer, however, is that the person is more likely to have no college degree. The adolescent has experienced _____.

A. hypothetical thinking
B. sunk cost fallacy
C. base rate neglect
D. concrete operational thinking

C

An approach to understanding intelligence that holds that intelligence can be directly increased by effort is referred to as the _____ approach.

A. entity
B. incremental
C. dual-process
D. intrinsic-extrinsic

B

According to the results of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), the countries with the highest math test scores are _____.

A. Greece, Iceland, and China
B. Japan, the United States, and Finland
C. Austria, Italy, and South Korea
D. China, Singapore, and South Korea

D

Scroll to Top