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The motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease:

Can be treated using L-DOPA

______ refers to the study of the effects of drugs on the nervous system and behavior


_____ refers to the process by which drugs are absorbed, distributed within the body, metabolized, and then excreted from the body


The fastest way for a drug to reach a site of action in the brain is via the _____ administration route


The _______ route requires caution because this route is most likely to result in accidental overdose


The ______ route of drug administration is commonly used to treat small laboratory animals with a drug


Medicines are most commonly given to humans via the ______ route


Administration of a dug via _____ is used when oral consumption of a drug might produce nausea and vomiting.

A rectal suppository

Which term below refers to sniffing a drug so as to absorb the drug through the nasal mucosa?


The rate at which a drug reaches active sits in the brain is determines mostly by its degree of

Lipid solubility

The primary route of excretion of drugs from the body is via the


Which of the following is true of drug effects?

Drugs vary widely in their efectiveness

The effective does 50 (ED50) value for drug A is 2.0 mg/kg while its lethal dose 50 (LD50) value is 8 mg/kg. Which of the following is true of Drug A?

Drug A has a therapeutic index of 4.0

The ______ is a measure of the safety of a drug

Therapeutic index

_____ refers to the capacity of a drug molecule to bind to a receptor


Which of the following is true of the relation between drug affinity and drug effects

A drug with high affinity for a receptor will exert an effect at a low dose

Repeated administration of a constant drug dose typically produces ______, which is defined as a(n)________ effect of the drug


_____ refers to an increased behavioral effect of a drug with repeated administration


______ refers to a pleasurable drug feeling that is "easy to bear"


Withdrawal from heroin results in _____, which involves a feeling of anxious misery


Which of the following is a compensatory mechanism that would result in drug tolerance?

A reduced number of tissue drug receptors

A(n) ______ is an innocuous substance that has no specific physiological effect.


Drugs that block or inhibit postsynaptic receptor effects are termed


Drugs that facilitate postsynaptic receptor effects are termed


Injecting an animal with a dose of a chemical molecule that is a precursor for the synthesis of a synaptic neurotransmitter would be expected to

Increase the rate of the synthesis and release of that neurotransmitter

Blockage of _______ would be expected to decrease the levels of transmitters within the vesicles

Vesicular transporters

A drug that binds at a postsynaptic site different from that of the neurotransmitter and prevents the opening of ion channels would be termed a(n)

Indirect antagonist

Administration of a drug that binds at a postsynaptic site different from that of the neurotransmitter, and facilitates the opening of the ion channels would be termed a(n)

Indirect agonist

Administration of a drug that binds with a postsynaptic receptor, but does not open ion channels would be termed a(n)

Direct antagonist

Direct agonist is to direct antagonist as

Endogenous opioid is to naloxone

Stimulation of a presynaptic autoreceptor

Reduces the release of the neurotransmitter from the axon terminal

A drug that blocks a presynaptic autoreceptor

Increases the release of the neurotransmitter from the axon terminal

Administration of a drug that blocks acetylcholinesterase in the brain would be expected to

increase the amount if acetylcholine in the synapse

A general mechanism by which postsynaptic potentials are terminated involves

reuptake of the neurotransmitter molecule into the axon through a membrane transporter

The axons of most sensory neurons release the neurotansmitter


Which of the following is true of ACh?

Learning is facilitated by ACh activity in the basal forebrain

Which neurotransmitter acts to facilitate learning?


Match up the transmitter substance below with the appropriate behavioral role or action of that transmitter.

A.) Acetylcholine; facilitates of learning

B.) Dopamine; Suppress certain species-typical behaviors

C.) Norepinephrine; facilitates of learning

D.) Serotonin; increases vigilance

E.) GABA; generally activates voluntary movements


______ is the primary efferent neurotransmitter secreted by efferent axons of the CNS


Damage to which cholinergic system would be expected to impair leanring?

Basal forebrain ACh system

Which of the following neuron systems that use ACh has been related to the control of REM sleep?

dorsolateral pons ACh system

_______ is the enzyme that accepts an acetate ion from coenzyme A and transfers it to a choline molecule, thereby producing acetylcholine

Choline acetyltransferase

Which pair of drugs below are known to facilitate and inhibit (respectively) the release of ACh?

Black widow spider venom; botulinum toxin

Botox injections smooth the skin of the face by

Blocking the activity of muscles in the face

The muscle weakness associated with myasthenia gravis reflects

loss of ACh receptors on skeletal muscles

The primary means by which the postsynaptic action of acetylcholine is terminated is via

Enzymatic destruction by acetylcholinesterase

Nicotine receptors are found in _____ in the periphery and in ______ in the brain

Muscle fibers; Axoaxonic synapses

Which pair of drugs below are antagonists for the muscarinic and nicotinic (respectively) receptors?


_____ causes pupil dilation by blocking ______ receptors

Atropine; Muscarinic

________ is the synthesis precursor for dopamine


Which neurotransmitter activates voluntary movements and reinforces behavior?


Damage to which dopaminergic (DA) system would be expected to produced muscle tremors, limb rigidity, and difficulty in movement control?

Nigrostriatal DA system

Parkinson’s disese involves the degeneration of neurons within the _____ DA system


Which of the following would be expected to result from administration of reserpine?

The person would be expected to have lower blood pressure

Which of the following is true of dopamine receptors?

Dopamine receptors are metabotropic

A drug such as amphetamine, which causes the transporters for dopamine to run in reverse, would

Spill dopamine into the synaptic cleft

Drugs that inactivate monoamine oxidase would be expected to

Increase dopamine levels within neurons

Schizophrenia is treated with drugs that block a subtype of the _____ receptor


Two conditions associated with abnormal brain dopamine levels are

Schizophrenia and Parkinson’s disease

Deprenyl may delay the progression of symptoms in Parkinson’s disease because this drug

Inhibits monoamine oxidase-B

The final synthesis step for norepinephrine requires the presence of _______


Which of the pairs below are synonymous?

Epinephrine and adrenalin

Which neurotransmitter acts to promote vigilance?


The autoreceptor for norepinephrine in the brain is of the _______ adrenergic receptor subtype


Serotonin is synthesized from


drugs that block the reuptake of serotonin or that cause the release of serotonin are used therapeutically to treat


Many of the axons that use serotonin as a transmitter originate from the

Dorsal raphe nucleus

The drug _____ releases serotonin and has ben used to treat _____

Fluoxetine; depression

Which of the following neurochemical effects may contribute to the capacity of ecstacy (MDMA) to produce hallucinogenic effects in users?

MDMA blocks serotonin reuptake and causes serotonin transporters to run in reverse

Which of the following represents a problem for the hypothesis that amino acids can function as neurotransmitters?

Amino acids are localized within neurons

The significance attached to glutamate, GABA, and glycine is that these are

The most common neurotransmitters in the CNS

Which pair of transmitter substances is most involved in synaptic neurotransmission in the brain?

glutamate; GABA

The hallucinogenic drug PCP (phencyclidine)

is an indirect antagonist of the NMDA receptor

Which of the following is true of NMDA receptors?

Activation of the NMDA receptor allows sodium and calcium ions into the nerve cell

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is produced from

Glutamic acid

Withdrawal from _____ can result in seizures due to the loss of inhibitory action on _____ receptors

Alcohol; NMDA

Which of the following is true of GABA?

The inhibitory effects of GABA stabilize brain electrical activity

The GABA receptor is a(n) _______ receptor that conrols a ______ channel

Ionotropic; chloride

Match the drug with its correct action on GABA function

Picrotoxin; indirect antagonist of the GABAa receptor

Match the drug with its correct action onGABA function

Muscimol; direct agonist at the GABAz receptor

Which of the following is true of glycine?

The glycine receptor is ionotropic

Which of the following is an agonist at the glycine receptor?


A key difference between neuropeptides and monoamine neurotransmitters is that neuropeptides

Are not terminated by reuptake into axon terminals

The term "opioid" refers to ______, while the term "opiates" refers to _____

Endogenous chemicals; exogenous drugs

Which of the following is true of opioid systems and effects?

Naloxone is opioid receptor antagonist

Imagine that you are suffering from severe pain and that you have the opportunity to request a drug to alleviate the pain. Which of the following drugs should you ask for?

An opiate that produces analgesia at low doses

A person who is admitted to a hospital emergency room with an opiate overdose is likely to be treated with


Which of the following is characteristic of cannabinoid receptors?

Receptor activation by THC reduces nausea and vomitting

Caffeine produces excitatory effects via

blockade of adenosine receptors

A key stimulus for the release of adenosine from brain cells is

An energy/oxygen deficit in cells

Nitric oxide:

Stimulates blood vessels that produce penile erections

Treatment with a drug that inhibits MAO may slow down progression of Parkinson’s disease because

MAO may metabolize environmental chemicals into toxins that damage dopamine neurons

True or False? Injections for a rat are most commonly given via the intraperitoneal route


True or False? Physicians must use caution when prescribing a drug that has a large therapeutic index


True or False? A drug that releases a transmitter substance is called an antagonist for the synapse


True or False? The term "direct antagonist" is synonymous with "receptor blocker"


True or False? A drug that blocks or slows reuptake of a transmitter substance is termed an antagonist


True or False? Glutamate is the universal transmitter by which sensory organs transmit information to the brain


True or False? REM sleep is controlled by cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain


True or False? Learning is facilitated by ACh activity in the basal forebrain


True or False? Black widow spider venom releases ACh from neurons


True or False? Acetylcholine is inactivated by the enzyme acetylcholinesterase


True or False? Myasthenia gravis involves decreased release of ACh at the neuromuscular junction


True or False? The amino acid tyrosine is the precursor for the synthesis of norepinephrine


True or False? Amphetamine is used to treat Parkinson’s disease


True or False? Noradrenaergilc synapses in the CNS are of the metabotropic type


True or False? Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain


True or False? Benzodiazepines and alcohol increase the effectiveness of GABA receptors


True or False? Glycine is the primary inhibitory transmitter in the brain stem and spinal cord?


True or False? Neuropeptides are removed from the synapse by membrane transporters


True or False? THC interferes with concentration and memory and can distort our sense of time


True or False? Caffeine acts by blocking adenosine receptors


The standard drug treatment for angina pectoris involves ______ administration of _______

Sublingual; nitroglycerine

The key problem noted in Balint’s syndrome is

difficulty in visual perception

Which of the following is true of the experimental ablation technique?

The technique involves destroying brain tissue and then observing subsequent behavior

One of the oldest methods used in neuroscience to study brain function is

Experimental ablation

The key rationale for lesion studies is that

The change in behavior that follows a brain lesion can give important clues about a function of an ablated brain area

The key difference between function and behavior is that circuits within the brain perform

A function that contributes to a behavior

Which of the following represents a problem for interpreting the effects of a brain lesion on behavior

No one circuit is solely responsible for a behavior

A lesion technique that is selective for cell bodies in brain tissue involves

Overstimulation of glutamate receptors by kainic acid

Imagine that feeding behavior was eliminated when a radio-frequency lesion was used to damage the lateral hypothalamus of a rat, which suggested that cells within this region initiate feeding. If a subsequent study failed to observe a change in feeding after injection of kainic acid into the lateral hypothalamus, what conclusion would be appropriate?

The changes in eating noted in the first study may be due to damage to axon fibers that are passing through the lateral hypothalamus

Which of the following techniques created a brain lesion by overstimulating neurons to death?

Infusions of an excitatory amino acid into a brain region

Infusion of _____ into brain tissue overstimulates _______, therby ablating cell bodies

Kainic acid; glutamate receptors

A key advantage of ______ lesions is that they affect neural cell bodies and do not damage axons passing through the region


An experimenter wishes to determine the effect of a radio frequency lesion placed in the lateral hypothalamus on emotional behavior in the rat. In order to be able to attribute any changes in emotional behavior to the lesion, this experiment will require a(n)

Sham lesion control group

A temporary disruption of neural activity in a local brain region can be produced

Using an injection of muscimol into the region

A key advantage of a reversible brain lesion is that

Each animal can serve a its own control

The _____ is a device that holds an animal’s head fixed in space and that can be used to implant and electrode or cannula into brain

Stereotaxic apparatus

_____ is a skull landmark which also serves as a reference point for the stereotaxic surgery


The three numbers listed on a page of a stereotaxic atlas describe

The location of a brain structure in three planes relative to bregma

In surgery that uses the stereotaxic instrument

The head holder is designed to fix the skull in rigid position

Stereotaxically guided lesions in humans have been used to treat

Parkinson’s disease

After death _____ enzymes have the effect of ______ brain tissue

Autolytic; dissolving

______ is the histological procedure in which a brain is placed in a formalin solution to halt autolysis and decomposition


Formalin is useful in histology because it

Halts the enzyme process that breaks down brain tissues after death

Which of the following does not belong with the other four?

A.) Producing a lesion within the brain

B.) Visual examination of a stained section

C.) Cutting the brain

D.) Staining the brain

E.) Fixation of the brain

A.) Producing a lesion within the brain

A ______ is an instrument used to slice the brain into thin pieces that can be preserved on a glass slide


A thin slice of brain tissue created by a microtome is often referred to as a brain


The fine details of neuron structure in a brain section can be revealed by

Immersing the tissue in a stain that dyes neuron components

The RNA, DNA, and associated proteins in cell bodies that are dyed by certain stains are collectively referred to as

Nissl Substance

Dyes such as cresyl violet are useful for staining

Cell bodies

The most commonly used stain for identifying nuclear masses in brain sections is

Cresyl violet

Which of the following is a problem for the use of a microscope in the examination of brain tissue?

A light microscope cannot resolve fine synaptic details such as synaptic vesicles

Which of the following is true of the use of microscopes in histology

A scanning electron miscroscope shows three-dimensional

Which of the following techniques would be used to trace efferent axons from a brain region to other brain regions?

An anterograde labeling method

The most commonly used method for tracing efferent axons connections involves the infusion of ______ into a brain region


A common use of PHA-L, a lectin found within kidney beans, is to

Localize the target of neural efferents

Which of the following is true of the anterograde labeling procedure?

The target molecule is transported from the axon terminals back to the soma and dendrites

Immunocytochemistry techniques take advantage of the specific affinity of antibiotics for

A peptide or protein molecule

Which labeling method uses chemicals that are taken up by dendrites or cell bodies and subsequently transported through axons toward terminal buttons?


______ are produced by white blood cells to destroy invading microorganisms in the body


Which labeling method identifies the inputs to a brain region

A retrograde labeling method

Which chemical is used to trace afferent axons


Efferent is to afferent as

PHA-L is to fluorogold

The pseudorabies virus is useful

for the tracing of serial synaptic connections

Study of the function of the living human brain is difficult because

Researchers have to wait for the natural death of a brain-damaged human to verify to location of the brain damage

The first technique used to visualize a living human brain was that of

Computerized tomography

The ______ technique uses X-rays to generate an image of the living human brain

Computerized tomography scanning

Light microscope images are to electron microscope images as

CT scans are to MRI scans

Which of the following is true of MRI scans?

MRI Scans show greater spatial resolution than do CT scans

Which technique uses a radio-frequency wave to excite hydrogen atoms in the brain to generate an image of the living human brain?

Magnetic resonance imaging

The _____ procedure allows for the labeling of ______ in the living human brain

Diffusion tensor imaging; bundles of axons

Which of the following is true of acute recording studies of rat brain electrical activity?

Such studies are done under anesthesia

Single-unit recordings

Indicate that serotonergic neuron activity is silent during REM sleep

A(n) ______ might be used to record the electrical activity of a single nerve cell in an animal brain


The source of the electrical potentials recorded from the scalp of a subject is

The summated activity of nerve cell action potentials and postsynaptic potentials

Macroelectrodes implanted into human brains are most commonly used

to located spiking brain tissue in epileptic patients

The firing rates of _____ neurons and of ______ neurons fall to zero during REM sleep

noradrenergic; serotonergic

A(n) ______ involves a motor that drives long paper sheets under a set of ink pens..


The _______ is a device that takes advantage of the changing magnetic fields produced by the electrical activity of the brain to produce a record of neural activity in the awake brain


EEG recordings are useful for

the diagnosis of epilepsy

Which technique takes advantage of the requirement of glucose for more fuel?

2-DG autoradiography

The metabolic activity of a specific region of the living rat rain can be revealed by

Measurement of Fos protein concentration

Which technique uses photographic emulsions to record the activity of discrete cells in the brain?

2-DG autoradiography

Measurements of the relative activity of immediate early genes is useful in that

The presence of an early gene product in the cell nucleus is a marker of neuron activation

_____ is an immediate early gene product that is increased during neural ______

Fos; activation

Which of he following is true of the fMRI technique?

fMRI scans have a better spatial resolution than do PET scans

The primary disadvantage of the PET scan technique relates to

The opening cost of the scanner

A key advantage of the fMRI technique is that the method can

record the neural activity of particular brain regions

The _____ is an example of a functional imaging technique

fMRI scan

A major advantage of the PET scan method is that

PET scans can localize any radioactive substance

Which of the following procedures can be used to activate neurons?

Chemical stimulation using glutamate

A major advantage of chemical stimulation using glutamate infusion is that

It activates cell bodies but not axons

Kainic acid is neurotoxin as well as an activator of neurons because

At high doses it overexcites and then kills neurons

Which of the following is true of the interaction of magnetic fields and brain function?

A.) Neuronal activity results in magnetic field changes

B.) Sensors can detect magnetic fields in the brain

C.) Magnetic fields can be used to inactivate neuronal activity

D.) The effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation are similar to those of direct electrical stimulation of exposed brain tissue

E.) All of the above are correct


The _____ technique takes advantage of the fact that a particular _____ can open voltage-gated ion channels

Optogenetic; light

A transmitter such as acetylcholine can be localized in the brain by

Detecting the enzyme that produces acetylcholine

A drug that inhibits _____ would be expected to _______

Acetylcholinesterase; produce hallucianations

Peptides or proteins can be localized in brain using


Which of the following methods can be used to detect a certain class of receptors in the brain?


A key advantage of the microdialysis technique is that

It offers the ability to sample transmitter substances in a living, conscious organism

Damage to dopanine neurons in the human brain can be detected using

PET scans of radioactive L-DOPA concentrations in the basal ganglia

Twins that share a particular trait are said to be ______ for the trait


Which of the following have identical genotypes?

Monozygotic twins

Which of the following is strong evidence for a genetic contribution to a behavior?

Monozygotic twins have a higher concordance rate than do dizygotic twins

Which of the following is strong evidence for an environmental contribution to a behavior

Adopted children resemble their adopted families with regard to a trait

Targeted mutations involve

Manipulating genes to impair the production of a protein

A(n) _______ refers to one of several forms of a gene


True or False? Ablation is the oldest neuroscience procedure


True or False? Circuits within the brain perform behavior, not functions


True or False? Interpretation of lesion studies is complicated because brain regions are often interconnected


True or False? Lesions produced by kainic acid spare fibers of passage


True or False? Fixatives such as formalin are used to stop autolysis in brain tissue


True or False? Cresyl violet is a stain used to identify axon terminals in the brain


True or False? A scanning electron microscope shows better resolution than does an electron microscope


True or False? PHA-L (phaseolus vulgaris leukoagglutinin) is a flurescent dye


True or False? Fluorogold is used in the retrograde tracing procedure


True or False? MRI scans provide more detailed pictures than those obtained by CT scanner


True or False? Autoradiography and 2-DG injections are used to measure the relative metabolic activity of different brain regions


True or False? An increased number of neurons that stain for Fos would be taken to mean that the brain region containing these cells has undergone neuron activation


True or False? Large doses of excitotoxic chemicals kill neurons by stimulating them to death, whereas lower doses stimulate neuron without killing them


True or False? Activation is to inhibition as glutamate is to transcranial magnetic stimulation


True or False? Acetylcholine can be localized in brain using immunocytochemical method


True or False? Microdialysis is used to measure the brain’s secretions


True or False? Fraternal twins have identical genotypes


True or False? Identical twins share 100 percent of their genes whereas fraternal twins share, on average, about 50 percent of their genes


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